Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications oliver-florey

Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

An mTORC1-to-CDK1 Switch Maintains Autophagy Suppression during Mitosis.
Odle RI, Walker SA, Oxley D, Kidger AM, Balmanno K, Gilley R, Okkenhaug H, Florey O, Ktistakis NT, Cook SJ

Since nuclear envelope breakdown occurs during mitosis in metazoan cells, it has been proposed that macroautophagy must be inhibited to maintain genome integrity. However, repression of macroautophagy during mitosis remains controversial and mechanistic detail limited to the suggestion that CDK1 phosphorylates VPS34. Here, we show that initiation of macroautophagy, measured by the translocation of the ULK complex to autophagic puncta, is repressed during mitosis, even when mTORC1 is inhibited. Indeed, mTORC1 is inactive during mitosis, reflecting its failure to localize to lysosomes due to CDK1-dependent RAPTOR phosphorylation. While mTORC1 normally represses autophagy via phosphorylation of ULK1, ATG13, ATG14, and TFEB, we show that the mitotic phosphorylation of these autophagy regulators, including at known repressive sites, is dependent on CDK1 but independent of mTOR. Thus, CDK1 substitutes for inhibited mTORC1 as the master regulator of macroautophagy during mitosis, uncoupling autophagy regulation from nutrient status to ensure repression of macroautophagy during mitosis.

+ View Abstract

Molecular cell, , 1097-4164, , 2019

PMID: 31733992

Macropinocytosis and autophagy crosstalk in nutrient scavenging.
Florey O, Overholtzer M

Adaptive strategies used by cells to scavenge and recycle essential nutrients are important for survival in nutrient-depleted environments such as cancer tissues. Autophagy and macropinocytosis are two major mechanisms that promote nutrient recycling and scavenging, which share considerable, yet poorly understood, cross-regulation. Here we review recent findings that connect these starvation response mechanisms and discuss the implications of their crosstalk. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Macropinocytosis'.

+ View Abstract

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 374, 1471-2970, 20180154, 2019

PMID: 30967004

Open Access

Entosis Controls a Developmental Cell Clearance in C. elegans.
Lee Y, Hamann JC, Pellegrino M, Durgan J, Domart MC, Collinson LM, Haynes CM, Florey O, Overholtzer M

Metazoan cell death mechanisms are diverse and include numerous non-apoptotic programs. One program called entosis involves the invasion of live cells into their neighbors and is known to occur in cancers. Here, we identify a developmental function for entosis: to clear the male-specific linker cell in C. elegans. The linker cell leads migration to shape the gonad and is removed to facilitate fusion of the gonad to the cloaca. We find that the linker cell is cleared in a manner involving cell-cell adhesions and cell-autonomous control of uptake through linker cell actin. Linker cell entosis generates a lobe structure that is deposited at the site of gonad-to-cloaca fusion and is removed during mating. Inhibition of lobe scission inhibits linker cell death, demonstrating that the linker cell invades its host while alive. Our findings demonstrate a developmental function for entosis: to eliminate a migrating cell and facilitate gonad-to-cloaca fusion, which is required for fertility.

+ View Abstract

Cell reports, 26, 2211-1247, 3212-3220.e4, 2019

PMID: 30893595

Open Access

Imaging Noncanonical Autophagy and LC3-Associated Phagocytosis in Cultured Cells.
Jacquin E, Fletcher K, Florey O

Monitoring of ATG8 proteins by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy are the most common methods to monitor the autophagy pathway. However, it has recently been shown that ATG8 proteins can be lipidated to non-autophagosome, single-membrane compartments through a noncanonical autophagy pathway. This is commonly found to occur during macro-endocytic processes such as phagocytosis, where it has been termed LC3-associated phagocytosis, and upon lysosomotropic drug treatment. Therefore, care is required when interpreting data based on ATG8 in order to conclude whether a signal relates to the canonical or noncanonical pathway. Here we provide methods to monitor noncanonical autophagy through fluorescence microscopy.

+ View Abstract

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1880, 1940-6029, 295-303, 2019

PMID: 30610705

Macropinocytosis and autophagy crosstalk in nutrient scavenging
Florey O, Overholtzer M

Adaptive strategies used by cells to scavenge and recycle essential nutrients are important for survival in nutrient-depleted environments such as cancer tissues. Autophagy and macropinocytosis are two major mechanisms that promote nutrient recycling and scavenging, which share considerable, yet poorly understood, cross-regulation. Here we review recent findings that connect these starvation response mechanisms and discuss the implications of their crosstalk. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Macropinocytosis’.

+ View Abstract

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 374, 1765, , 2018

PMID: 30478386
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0154

Open Access

The double life of autophagy proteins.
Florey O

Nature microbiology, 3, 2058-5276, 1334-1335, 2018

PMID: 30478385

Alpha-synuclein fibrils recruit TBK1 and OPTN to lysosomal damage sites and induce autophagy in microglial cells.
Bussi C, Peralta Ramos JM, Arroyo DS, Gallea JI, Ronchi P, Kolovou A, Wang JM, Florey O, Celej MS, Schwab Y, Ktistakis NT, Iribarren P

Autophagic dysfunction and protein aggregation have been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders, but the exact mechanisms and causal connections are not clear and most work was done in neurons and not in microglial cells. Here we report that exogenous fibrillar but not monomeric alpha-synuclein (AS) induces autophagy in microglial cells. We extensively studied the dynamics of this response by both live-cell imaging and correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) and found that it correlates with lysosomal damage and is characterised by the recruitment of the selective autophagy-associated proteins TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and Optineurin (OPTN) to ubiquitinated lysosomes. In addition, we observed that LC3 recruitment to damaged lysosomes was dependent on TBK1 activity. In these fibrillar AS-treated cells, autophagy inhibition impairs mitochondrial function and leads to microglial cell death. Our results suggest that microglial autophagy is induced in response to lysosomal damage caused by persistent accumulation of AS fibrils. Importantly, triggering of the autophagic response appears to be an attempt at lysosomal quality control and not for engulfment of fibrillar AS.

+ View Abstract

Journal of cell science, , 1477-9137, , 2018

PMID: 30404831

Open Access

The ATG5-binding and coiled coil domains of ATG16L1 maintain autophagy and tissue homeostasis in mice independently of the WD domain required for LC3-associated phagocytosis.
Rai S, Arasteh M, Jefferson M, Pearson T, Wang Y, Zhang W, Bicsak B, Divekar D, Powell PP, Nauman R, Beraza N, Carding SR, Florey O, Mayer U, Wileman T

Macroautophagy/autophagy delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes for degradation, and plays important roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis by reducing tissue damage. The translocation of LC3 to the limiting membrane of the phagophore, the precursor to the autophagosome, during autophagy provides a binding site for autophagy cargoes, and facilitates fusion with lysosomes. An autophagy-related pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) targets LC3 to phagosome and endosome membranes during uptake of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and targets LC3 to swollen endosomes containing particulate material or apoptotic cells. We have investigated the roles played by autophagy and LAP in vivo by exploiting the observation that the WD domain of ATG16L1 is required for LAP, but not autophagy. Mice lacking the linker and WD domains, activate autophagy, but are deficient in LAP. The LAP mice survive postnatal starvation, grow at the same rate as littermate controls, and are fertile. The liver, kidney, brain and muscle of these mice maintain levels of autophagy cargoes such as LC3 and SQSTM1/p62 similar to littermate controls, and prevent accumulation of SQSTM1 inclusions and tissue damage associated with loss of autophagy. The results suggest that autophagy maintains tissue homeostasis in mice independently of LC3-associated phagocytosis. Further deletion of glutamate E230 in the coiled-coil domain required for WIPI2 binding produced mice with defective autophagy that survived neonatal starvation. Analysis of brain lysates suggested that interactions between WIPI2 and ATG16L1 were less critical for autophagy in the brain, which may allow a low level of autophagy to overcome neonatal lethality. Abbreviations: CCD: coiled-coil domain; CYBB/NOX2: cytochrome b-245: beta polypeptide; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase: soluble; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; NOD: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; RUBCN/Rubicon: RUN domain and cysteine-rich domain containing Beclin 1-interacting protein; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TLR: toll-like receptor; TMEM: transmembrane protein; TRIM: tripartite motif-containing protein; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated gene; WD: tryptophan-aspartic acid; WIPI: WD 40 repeat domain: phosphoinositide interacting.

+ View Abstract

Autophagy, , 1554-8635, 1-14, 2018

PMID: 30403914

The WD40 domain of ATG16L1 is required for its non-canonical role in lipidation of LC3 at single membranes.
Fletcher K, Ulferts R, Jacquin E, Veith T, Gammoh N, Arasteh JM, Mayer U, Carding SR, Wileman T, Beale R, Florey O

A hallmark of macroautophagy is the covalent lipidation of LC3 and insertion into the double-membrane phagophore, which is driven by the ATG16L1/ATG5-ATG12 complex. In contrast, non-canonical autophagy is a pathway through which LC3 is lipidated and inserted into single membranes, particularly endolysosomal vacuoles during cell engulfment events such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. Factors controlling the targeting of ATG16L1 to phagophores are dispensable for non-canonical autophagy, for which the mechanism of ATG16L1 recruitment is unknown. Here we show that the WD repeat-containing C-terminal domain (WD40 CTD) of ATG16L1 is essential for LC3 recruitment to endolysosomal membranes during non-canonical autophagy, but dispensable for canonical autophagy. Using this strategy to inhibit non-canonical autophagy specifically, we show a reduction of MHC class II antigen presentation in dendritic cells from mice lacking the WD40 CTD Further, we demonstrate activation of non-canonical autophagy dependent on the WD40 CTD during influenza A virus infection. This suggests dependence on WD40 CTD distinguishes between macroautophagy and non-canonical use of autophagy machinery.

+ View Abstract

The EMBO journal, , 1460-2075, , 2018

PMID: 29317426

Open Access

Mitosis can drive cell cannibalism through entosis.
Durgan J, Tseng YY, Hamann JC, Domart MC, Collinson L, Hall A, Overholtzer M, Florey O

Entosis is a form of epithelial cell cannibalism that is prevalent in human cancer, typically triggered by loss of matrix adhesion. Here, we report an alternative mechanism for entosis in human epithelial cells, driven by mitosis. Mitotic entosis is regulated by Cdc42, which controls mitotic morphology. Cdc42 depletion enhances mitotic deadhesion and rounding, and these biophysical changes, which depend on RhoA activation and are phenocopied by Rap1 inhibition, permit subsequent entosis. Mitotic entosis occurs constitutively in some human cancer cell lines and mitotic index correlates with cell cannibalism in primary human breast tumours. Adherent, wild-type cells can act efficiently as entotic hosts, suggesting that normal epithelia may engulf and kill aberrantly dividing neighbours. Finally, we report that Paclitaxel/taxol promotes mitotic rounding and subsequent entosis, revealing an unconventional activity of this drug. Together, our data uncover an intriguing link between cell division and cannibalism, of significance to both cancer and chemotherapy.

+ View Abstract

eLife, 6, 2050-084X, , 2017

PMID: 28693721

Open Access

Pharmacological modulators of autophagy activate a parallel noncanonical pathway driving unconventional LC3 lipidation.
Jacquin E, Leclerc-Mercier S, Judon C, Blanchard E, Fraitag S, Florey O

The modulation of canonical macroautophagy/autophagy for therapeutic benefit is an emerging strategy of medical and pharmaceutical interest. Many drugs act to inhibit autophagic flux by targeting lysosome function, while others were developed to activate the pathway. Here, we report the surprising finding that many therapeutically relevant autophagy modulators with lysosomotropic and ionophore properties, classified as inhibitors of canonical autophagy, are also capable of activating a parallel noncanonical autophagy pathway that drives MAP1LC3/LC3 lipidation on endolysosomal membranes. Further, we provide the first evidence supporting drug-induced noncanonical autophagy in vivo using the local anesthetic lidocaine and human skin biopsies. In addition, we find that several published inducers of autophagy and mitophagy are also potent activators of noncanonical autophagy. Together, our data raise important issues regarding the interpretation of LC3 lipidation data and the use of autophagy modulators, and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the functional consequences of noncanonical autophagy.

+ View Abstract

Autophagy, , 1554-8635, 1-14, 2017

PMID: 28296541

Open Access

PIKfyve Regulates Vacuole Maturation and Nutrient Recovery following Engulfment.
Krishna S, Palm W, Lee Y, Yang W, Bandyopadhyay U, Xu H, Florey O, Thompson CB, Overholtzer M

The scavenging of extracellular macromolecules by engulfment can sustain cell growth in a nutrient-depleted environment. Engulfed macromolecules are contained within vacuoles that are targeted for lysosome fusion to initiate degradation and nutrient export. We have shown that vacuoles containing engulfed material undergo mTORC1-dependent fission that redistributes degraded cargo back into the endosomal network. Here we identify the lipid kinase PIKfyve as a regulator of an alternative pathway that distributes engulfed contents in support of intracellular macromolecular synthesis during macropinocytosis, entosis, and phagocytosis. We find that PIKfyve regulates vacuole size in part through its downstream effector, the cationic transporter TRPML1. Furthermore, PIKfyve promotes recovery of nutrients from vacuoles, suggesting a potential link between PIKfyve activity and lysosomal nutrient export. During nutrient depletion, PIKfyve activity protects Ras-mutant cells from starvation-induced cell death and supports their proliferation. These data identify PIKfyve as a critical regulator of vacuole maturation and nutrient recovery during engulfment.

+ View Abstract

Developmental cell, 38, 1878-1551, 536-47, 2016

PMID: 27623384

3D correlative light and electron microscopy of cultured cells using serial blockface scanning electron microscopy.
Russell MR, Lerner TR, Burden JJ, Nkwe DO, Pelchen-Matthews A, Domart MC, Durgan J, Weston A, Jones ML, Peddie CJ, Carzaniga R, Florey O, Marsh M, Gutierrez MG, Collinson LM

The processes of life take place in multiple dimensions, but imaging these processes in even three dimensions is challenging. Here we describe a workflow for 3D correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) of cell monolayers using fluorescence microscopy to identify and follow biological events, combined with serial blockface scanning electron microscopy to analyse the underlying ultrastructure. The workflow encompasses all steps from cell culture to sample processing, imaging strategy and 3D image processing/analysis. We demonstrate successful application of the workflow to three studies, each aiming to better understand complex and dynamic biological processes, including bacterial and viral infections of cultured cells and formation of entotic cell-in-cell structures commonly observed in tumours. Our workflow revealed new insight into the replicative niche of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and the composition of the entotic vacuole. The broad application of this 3D CLEM technique will make it a useful addition to the correlative imaging toolbox for biomedical research.

+ View Abstract

Journal of cell science, , 1477-9137, , 2016

PMID: 27445312

Open Access

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition).
Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, Adachi H, Adams CM, Adams PD, Adeli K, Adhihetty PJ, Adler SG, Agam G, Agarwal R, Aghi MK, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguilar PV, Aguirre-Ghiso J, Airoldi EM, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akporiaye ET, Al-Rubeai M, Albaiceta GM, Albanese C, Albani D, Albert ML, Aldudo J, Algül H, Alirezaei M, Alloza I, Almasan A, Almonte-Beceril M, Alnemri ES, Alonso C, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Alvarez S, Alvarez-Erviti L, Alves S, Amadoro G, Amano A, Amantini C, Ambrosio S, Amelio I, Amer AO, Amessou M, Amon A, An Z, Anania FA, Andersen SU, Andley UP, Andreadi CK, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anel A, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Antonioli M, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Aquila S, Aquilano K, Araki K, Arama E, Aranda A, Araya J, Arcaro A, Arias E, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong JL, Arnould T, Arsov I, Asanuma K, Askanas V, Asselin E, Atarashi R, Atherton SS, Atkin JD, Attardi LD, Auberger P, Auburger G, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Avantaggiati ML, Avrahami L, Awale S, Azad N, Bachetti T, Backer JM, Bae DH, Bae JS, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek SH, Baghdiguian S, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Balaji KN, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Balzan R, Banerjee R, Bánhegyi G, Bao H, Barbeau B, Barrachina MD, Barreiro E, Bartel B, Bartolomé A, Bassham DC, Bassi MT, Bast RC, Basu A, Batista MT, Batoko H, Battino M, Bauckman K, Baumgarner BL, Bayer KU, Beale R, Beaulieu JF, Beck GR, Becker C, Beckham JD, Bédard PA, Bednarski PJ, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Behrens GM, Behrns KE, Bejarano E, Belaid A, Belleudi F, Bénard G, Berchem G, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Berkhout B, Berliocchi L, Bernard A, Bernard M, Bernassola F, Bertolotti A, Bess AS, Besteiro S, Bettuzzi S, Bhalla S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhutia SK, Biagosch C, Bianchi MW, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Billes V, Bincoletto C, Bingol B, Bird SW, Bitoun M, Bjedov I, Blackstone C, Blanc L, Blanco GA, Blomhoff HK, Boada-Romero E, Böckler S, Boes M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boise LH, Bolino A, Boman A, Bonaldo P, Bordi M, Bosch J, Botana LM, Botti J, Bou G, Bouché M, Bouchecareilh M, Boucher MJ, Boulton ME, Bouret SG, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady N, Braga VM, Brancolini C, Braus GH, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brennan LA, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bringer MA, Brini M, Brito GC, Brodin B, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brown K, Broxmeyer HE, Bruhat A, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Buch S, Buchan AM, Budak H, Bulavin DV, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Bumbasirevic V, Burelle Y, Burke RE, Burmeister M, Bütikofer P, Caberlotto L, Cadwell K, Cahova M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calatayud S, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell GR, Campbell M, Campello S, Candau R, Caniggia I, Cantoni L, Cao L, Caplan AB, Caraglia M, Cardinali C, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carleton LA, Carlin CR, Carloni S, Carlsson SR, Carmona-Gutierrez D, Carneiro LA, Carnevali O, Carra S, Carrier A, Carroll B, Casas C, Casas J, Cassinelli G, Castets P, Castro-Obregon S, Cavallini G, Ceccherini I, Cecconi F, Cederbaum AI, Ceña V, Cenci S, Cerella C, Cervia D, Cetrullo S, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chagin AS, Chai CY, Chakrabarti G, Chamilos G, Chan EY, Chan MT, Chandra D, Chandra P, Chang CP, Chang RC, Chang TY, Chatham JC, Chatterjee S, Chauhan S, Che Y, Cheetham ME, Cheluvappa R, Chen CJ, Chen G, Chen GC, Chen G, Chen H, Chen JW, Chen JK, Chen M, Chen M, Chen P, Chen Q, Chen Q, Chen SD, Chen S, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen WJ, Chen WQ, Chen W, Chen X, Chen YH, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen YQ, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng H, Cheong H, Cherry S, Chesney J, Cheung CH, Chevet E, Chi HC, Chi SG, Chiacchiera F, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiariello M, Chieppa M, Chin LS, Chiong M, Chiu GN, Cho DH, Cho SG, Cho WC, Cho YY, Cho YS, Choi AM, Choi EJ, Choi EK, Choi J, Choi ME, Choi SI, Chou TF, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chow KC, Chowdhury K, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chun T, Chung H, Chung T, Chung YL, Chwae YJ, Cianfanelli V, Ciarcia R, Ciechomska IA, Ciriolo MR, Cirone M, Claerhout S, Clague MJ, Clària J, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Clementi E, Cleyrat C, Cnop M, Coccia EM, Cocco T, Codogno P, Coers J, Cohen EE, Colecchia D, Coletto L, Coll NS, Colucci-Guyon E, Comincini S, Condello M, Cook KL, Coombs GH, Cooper CD, Cooper JM, Coppens I, Corasaniti MT, Corazzari M, Corbalan R, Corcelle-Termeau E, Cordero MD, Corral-Ramos C, Corti O, Cossarizza A, Costelli P, Costes S, Cotman SL, Coto-Montes A, Cottet S, Couve E, Covey LR, Cowart LA, Cox JS, Coxon FP, Coyne CB, Cragg MS, Craven RJ, Crepaldi T, Crespo JL, Criollo A, Crippa V, Cruz MT, Cuervo AM, Cuezva JM, Cui T, Cutillas PR, Czaja MJ, Czyzyk-Krzeska MF, Dagda RK, Dahmen U, Dai C, Dai W, Dai Y, Dalby KN, Dalla Valle L, Dalmasso G, D'Amelio M, Damme M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Dargemont C, Darley-Usmar VM, Dasarathy S, Dasgupta B, Dash S, Dass CR, Davey HM, Davids LM, Dávila D, Davis RJ, Dawson TM, Dawson VL, Daza P, de Belleroche J, de Figueiredo P, de Figueiredo RC, de la Fuente J, De Martino L, De Matteis A, De Meyer GR, De Milito A, De Santi M, de Souza W, De Tata V, De Zio D, Debnath J, Dechant R, Decuypere JP, Deegan S, Dehay B, Del Bello B, Del Re DP, Delage-Mourroux R, Delbridge LM, Deldicque L, Delorme-Axford E, Deng Y, Dengjel J, Denizot M, Dent P, Der CJ, Deretic V, Derrien B, Deutsch E, Devarenne TP, Devenish RJ, Di Bartolomeo S, Di Daniele N, Di Domenico F, Di Nardo A, Di Paola S, Di Pietro A, Di Renzo L, DiAntonio A, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dickey CA, Dickson RC, Diederich M, Digard P, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding C, Ding WX, Ding Z, Dini L, Distler JH, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dmytruk K, Dobson RC, Doetsch V, Dokladny K, Dokudovskaya S, Donadelli M, Dong XC, Dong X, Dong Z, Donohue TM, Doran KS, D'Orazi G, Dorn GW, Dosenko V, Dridi S, Drucker L, Du J, Du LL, Du L, du Toit A, Dua P, Duan L, Duann P, Dubey VK, Duchen MR, Duchosal MA, Duez H, Dugail I, Dumit VI, Duncan MC, Dunlop EA, Dunn WA, Dupont N, Dupuis L, Durán RV, Durcan TM, Duvezin-Caubet S, Duvvuri U, Eapen V, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Echard A, Eckhart L, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Eichinger L, Eisenberg T, Eisenberg-Lerner A, Eissa NT, El-Deiry WS, El-Khoury V, Elazar Z, Eldar-Finkelman H, Elliott CJ, Emanuele E, Emmenegger U, Engedal N, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Enserink JM, Erdmann R, Erenpreisa J, Eri R, Eriksen JL, Erman A, Escalante R, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Esteban-Martínez L, Evans TJ, Fabri M, Fabrias G, Fabrizi C, Facchiano A, Færgeman NJ, Faggioni A, Fairlie WD, Fan C, Fan D, Fan J, Fang S, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Faure M, Favier FB, Fearnhead H, Federici M, Fei E, Felizardo TC, Feng H, Feng Y, Feng Y, Ferguson TA, Fernández ÁF, Fernandez-Barrena MG, Fernandez-Checa JC, Fernández-López A, Fernandez-Zapico ME, Feron O, Ferraro E, Ferreira-Halder CV, Fesus L, Feuer R, Fiesel FC, Filippi-Chiela EC, Filomeni G, Fimia GM, Fingert JH, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Fiorito F, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Flamigni F, Florey O, Florio S, Floto RA, Folini M, Follo C, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fraldi A, Franco R, Francois A, François A, Frankel LB, Fraser ID, Frey N, Freyssenet DG, Frezza C, Friedman SL, Frigo DE, Fu D, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujitani Y, Fujiwara Y, Fujiya M, Fukuda M, Fulda S, Fusco C, Gabryel B, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galadari S, Galili G, Galindo I, Galindo MF, Galliciotti G, Galluzzi L, Galluzzi L, Galy V, Gammoh N, Gandy S, Ganesan AK, Ganesan S, Ganley IG, Gannagé M, Gao FB, Gao F, Gao JX, García Nannig L, García Véscovi E, Garcia-Macía M, Garcia-Ruiz C, Garg AD, Garg PK, Gargini R, Gassen NC, Gatica D, Gatti E, Gavard J, Gavathiotis E, Ge L, Ge P, Ge S, Gean PW, Gelmetti V, Genazzani AA, Geng J, Genschik P, Gerner L, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, Ghigo E, Ghosh D, Giammarioli AM, Giampieri F, Giampietri C, Giatromanolaki A, Gibbings DJ, Gibellini L, Gibson SB, Ginet V, Giordano A, Giorgini F, Giovannetti E, Girardin SE, Gispert S, Giuliano S, Gladson CL, Glavic A, Gleave M, Godefroy N, Gogal RM, Gokulan K, Goldman GH, Goletti D, Goligorsky MS, Gomes AV, Gomes LC, Gomez H, Gomez-Manzano C, Gómez-Sánchez R, Gonçalves DA, Goncu E, Gong Q, Gongora C, Gonzalez CB, Gonzalez-Alegre P, Gonzalez-Cabo P, González-Polo RA, Goping IS, Gorbea C, Gorbunov NV, Goring DR, Gorman AM, Gorski SM, Goruppi S, Goto-Yamada S, Gotor C, Gottlieb RA, Gozes I, Gozuacik D, Graba Y, Graef M, Granato GE, Grant GD, Grant S, Gravina GL, Green DR, Greenhough A, Greenwood MT, Grimaldi B, Gros F, Grose C, Groulx JF, Gruber F, Grumati P, Grune T, Guan JL, Guan KL, Guerra B, Guillen C, Gulshan K, Gunst J, Guo C, Guo L, Guo M, Guo W, Guo XG, Gust AA, Gustafsson ÅB, Gutierrez E, Gutierrez MG, Gwak HS, Haas A, Haber JE, Hadano S, Hagedorn M, Hahn DR, Halayko AJ, Hamacher-Brady A, Hamada K, Hamai A, Hamann A, Hamasaki M, Hamer I, Hamid Q, Hammond EM, Han F, Han W, Handa JT, Hanover JA, Hansen M, Harada M, Harhaji-Trajkovic L, Harper JW, Harrath AH, Harris AL, Harris J, Hasler U, Hasselblatt P, Hasui K, Hawley RG, Hawley TS, He C, He CY, He F, He G, He RR, He XH, He YW, He YY, Heath JK, Hébert MJ, Heinzen RA, Helgason GV, Hensel M, Henske EP, Her C, Herman PK, Hernández A, Hernandez C, Hernández-Tiedra S, Hetz C, Hiesinger PR, Higaki K, Hilfiker S, Hill BG, Hill JA, Hill WD, Hino K, Hofius D, Hofman P, Höglinger GU, Höhfeld J, Holz MK, Hong Y, Hood DA, Hoozemans JJ, Hoppe T, Hsu C, Hsu CY, Hsu LC, Hu D, Hu G, Hu HM, Hu H, Hu MC, Hu YC, Hu ZW, Hua F, Hua Y, Huang C, Huang HL, Huang KH, Huang KY, Huang S, Huang S, Huang WP, Huang YR, Huang Y, Huang Y, Huber TB, Huebbe P, Huh WK, Hulmi JJ, Hur GM, Hurley JH, Husak Z, Hussain SN, Hussain S, Hwang JJ, Hwang S, Hwang TI, Ichihara A, Imai Y, Imbriano C, Inomata M, Into T, Iovane V, Iovanna JL, Iozzo RV, Ip NY, Irazoqui JE, Iribarren P, Isaka Y, Isakovic AJ, Ischiropoulos H, Isenberg JS, Ishaq M, Ishida H, Ishii I, Ishmael JE, Isidoro C, Isobe KI, Isono E, Issazadeh-Navikas S, Itahana K, Itakura E, Ivanov AI, Iyer AK, Izquierdo JM, Izumi Y, Izzo V, Jäättelä M, Jaber N, Jackson DJ, Jackson WT, Jacob TG, Jacques TS, Jagannath C, Jain A, Jana NR, Jang BK, Jani A, Janji B, Jannig PR, Jansson PJ, Jean S, Jendrach M, Jeon JH, Jessen N, Jeung EB, Jia K, Jia L, Jiang H, Jiang H, Jiang L, Jiang T, Jiang X, Jiang X, Jiang X, Jiang Y, Jiang Y, Jiménez A, Jin C, Jin H, Jin L, Jin M, Jin S, Jinwal UK, Jo EK, Johansen T, Johnson DE, Johnson GV, Johnson JD, Jonasch E, Jones C, Joosten LA, Jordan J, Joseph AM, Joseph B, Joubert AM, Ju D, Ju J, Juan HF, Juenemann K, Juhász G, Jung HS, Jung JU, Jung YK, Jungbluth H, Justice MJ, Jutten B, Kaakoush NO, Kaarniranta K, Kaasik A, Kabuta T, Kaeffer B, Kågedal K, Kahana A, Kajimura S, Kakhlon O, Kalia M, Kalvakolanu DV, Kamada Y, Kambas K, Kaminskyy VO, Kampinga HH, Kandouz M, Kang C, Kang R, Kang TC, Kanki T, Kanneganti TD, Kanno H, Kanthasamy AG, Kantorow M, Kaparakis-Liaskos M, Kapuy O, Karantza V, Karim MR, Karmakar P, Kaser A, Kaushik S, Kawula T, Kaynar AM, Ke PY, Ke ZJ, Kehrl JH, Keller KE, Kemper JK, Kenworthy AK, Kepp O, Kern A, Kesari S, Kessel D, Ketteler R, Kettelhut ID, Khambu B, Khan MM, Khandelwal VK, Khare S, Kiang JG, Kiger AA, Kihara A, Kim AL, Kim CH, Kim DR, Kim DH, Kim EK, Kim HY, Kim HR, Kim JS, Kim JH, Kim JC, Kim JH, Kim KW, Kim MD, Kim MM, Kim PK, Kim SW, Kim SY, Kim YS, Kim Y, Kimchi A, Kimmelman AC, Kimura T, King JS, Kirkegaard K, Kirkin V, Kirshenbaum LA, Kishi S, Kitajima Y, Kitamoto K, Kitaoka Y, Kitazato K, Kley RA, Klimecki WT, Klinkenberg M, Klucken J, Knævelsrud H, Knecht E, Knuppertz L, Ko JL, Kobayashi S, Koch JC, Koechlin-Ramonatxo C, Koenig U, Koh YH, Köhler K, Kohlwein SD, Koike M, Komatsu M, Kominami E, Kong D, Kong HJ, Konstantakou EG, Kopp BT, Korcsmaros T, Korhonen L, Korolchuk VI, Koshkina NV, Kou Y, Koukourakis MI, Koumenis C, Kovács AL, Kovács T, Kovacs WJ, Koya D, Kraft C, Krainc D, Kramer H, Kravic-Stevovic T, Krek W, Kretz-Remy C, Krick R, Krishnamurthy M, Kriston-Vizi J, Kroemer G, Kruer MC, Kruger R, Ktistakis NT, Kuchitsu K, Kuhn C, Kumar AP, Kumar A, Kumar A, Kumar D, Kumar D, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kundu M, Kung HJ, Kuno A, Kuo SH, Kuret J, Kurz T, Kwok T, Kwon TK, Kwon YT, Kyrmizi I, La Spada AR, Lafont F, Lahm T, Lakkaraju A, Lam T, Lamark T, Lancel S, Landowski TH, Lane DJ, Lane JD, Lanzi C, Lapaquette P, Lapierre LR, Laporte J, Laukkarinen J, Laurie GW, Lavandero S, Lavie L, LaVoie MJ, Law BY, Law HK, Law KB, Layfield R, Lazo PA, Le Cam L, Le Roch KG, Le Stunff H, Leardkamolkarn V, Lecuit M, Lee BH, Lee CH, Lee EF, Lee GM, Lee HJ, Lee H, Lee JK, Lee J, Lee JH, Lee JH, Lee M, Lee MS, Lee PJ, Lee SW, Lee SJ, Lee SJ, Lee SY, Lee SH, Lee SS, Lee SJ, Lee S, Lee YR, Lee YJ, Lee YH, Leeuwenburgh C, Lefort S, Legouis R, Lei J, Lei QY, Leib DA, Leibowitz G, Lekli I, Lemaire SD, Lemasters JJ, Lemberg MK, Lemoine A, Leng S, Lenz G, Lenzi P, Lerman LO, Lettieri Barbato D, Leu JI, Leung HY, Levine B, Lewis PA, Lezoualc'h F, Li C, Li F, Li FJ, Li J, Li K, Li L, Li M, Li M, Li Q, Li R, Li S, Li W, Li W, Li X, Li Y, Lian J, Liang C, Liang Q, Liao Y, Liberal J, Liberski PP, Lie P, Lieberman AP, Lim HJ, Lim KL, Lim K, Lima RT, Lin CS, Lin CF, Lin F, Lin F, Lin FC, Lin K, Lin KH, Lin PH, Lin T, Lin WW, Lin YS, Lin Y, Linden R, Lindholm D, Lindqvist LM, Lingor P, Linkermann A, Liotta LA, Lipinski MM, Lira VA, Lisanti MP, Liton PB, Liu B, Liu C, Liu CF, Liu F, Liu HJ, Liu J, Liu JJ, Liu JL, Liu K, Liu L, Liu L, Liu Q, Liu RY, Liu S, Liu S, Liu W, Liu XD, Liu X, Liu XH, Liu X, Liu X, Liu X, Liu Y, Liu Y, Liu Z, Liu Z, Liuzzi JP, Lizard G, Ljujic M, Lodhi IJ, Logue SE, Lokeshwar BL, Long YC, Lonial S, Loos B, López-Otín C, López-Vicario C, Lorente M, Lorenzi PL, Lõrincz P, Los M, Lotze MT, Lovat PE, Lu B, Lu B, Lu J, Lu Q, Lu SM, Lu S, Lu Y, Luciano F, Luckhart S, Lucocq JM, Ludovico P, Lugea A, Lukacs NW, Lum JJ, Lund AH, Luo H, Luo J, Luo S, Luparello C, Lyons T, Ma J, Ma Y, Ma Y, Ma Z, Machado J, Machado-Santelli GM, Macian F, MacIntosh GC, MacKeigan JP, Macleod KF, MacMicking JD, MacMillan-Crow LA, Madeo F, Madesh M, Madrigal-Matute J, Maeda A, Maeda T, Maegawa G, Maellaro E, Maes H, Magariños M, Maiese K, Maiti TK, Maiuri L, Maiuri MC, Maki CG, Malli R, Malorni W, Maloyan A, Mami-Chouaib F, Man N, Mancias JD, Mandelkow EM, Mandell MA, Manfredi AA, Manié SN, Manzoni C, Mao K, Mao Z, Mao ZW, Marambaud P, Marconi AM, Marelja Z, Marfe G, Margeta M, Margittai E, Mari M, Mariani FV, Marin C, Marinelli S, Mariño G, Markovic I, Marquez R, Martelli AM, Martens S, Martin KR, Martin SJ, Martin S, Martin-Acebes MA, Martín-Sanz P, Martinand-Mari C, Martinet W, Martinez J, Martinez-Lopez N, Martinez-Outschoorn U, Martínez-Velázquez M, Martinez-Vicente M, Martins WK, Mashima H, Mastrianni JA, Matarese G, Matarrese P, Mateo R, Matoba S, Matsumoto N, Matsushita T, Matsuura A, Matsuzawa T, Mattson MP, Matus S, Maugeri N, Mauvezin C, Mayer A, Maysinger D, Mazzolini GD, McBrayer MK, McCall K, McCormick C, McInerney GM, McIver SC, McKenna S, McMahon JJ, McNeish IA, Mechta-Grigoriou F, Medema JP, Medina DL, Megyeri K, Mehrpour M, Mehta JL, Mei Y, Meier UC, Meijer AJ, Meléndez A, Melino G, Melino S, de Melo EJ, Mena MA, Meneghini MD, Menendez JA, Menezes R, Meng L, Meng LH, Meng S, Menghini R, Menko AS, Menna-Barreto RF, Menon MB, Meraz-Ríos MA, Merla G, Merlini L, Merlot AM, Meryk A, Meschini S, Meyer JN, Mi MT, Miao CY, Micale L, Michaeli S, Michiels C, Migliaccio AR, Mihailidou AS, Mijaljica D, Mikoshiba K, Milan E, Miller-Fleming L, Mills GB, Mills IG, Minakaki G, Minassian BA, Ming XF, Minibayeva F, Minina EA, Mintern JD, Minucci S, Miranda-Vizuete A, Mitchell CH, Miyamoto S, Miyazawa K, Mizushima N, Mnich K, Mograbi B, Mohseni S, Moita LF, Molinari M, Molinari M, Møller AB, Mollereau B, Mollinedo F, Mongillo M, Monick MM, Montagnaro S, Montell C, Moore DJ, Moore MN, Mora-Rodriguez R, Moreira PI, Morel E, Morelli MB, Moreno S, Morgan MJ, Moris A, Moriyasu Y, Morrison JL, Morrison LA, Morselli E, Moscat J, Moseley PL, Mostowy S, Motori E, Mottet D, Mottram JC, Moussa CE, Mpakou VE, Mukhtar H, Mulcahy Levy JM, Muller S, Muñoz-Moreno R, Muñoz-Pinedo C, Münz C, Murphy ME, Murray JT, Murthy A, Mysorekar IU, Nabi IR, Nabissi M, Nader GA, Nagahara Y, Nagai Y, Nagata K, Nagelkerke A, Nagy P, Naidu SR, Nair S, Nakano H, Nakatogawa H, Nanjundan M, Napolitano G, Naqvi NI, Nardacci R, Narendra DP, Narita M, Nascimbeni AC, Natarajan R, Navegantes LC, Nawrocki ST, Nazarko TY, Nazarko VY, Neill T, Neri LM, Netea MG, Netea-Maier RT, Neves BM, Ney PA, Nezis IP, Nguyen HT, Nguyen HP, Nicot AS, Nilsen H, Nilsson P, Nishimura M, Nishino I, Niso-Santano M, Niu H, Nixon RA, Njar VC, Noda T, Noegel AA, Nolte EM, Norberg E, Norga KK, Noureini SK, Notomi S, Notterpek L, Nowikovsky K, Nukina N, Nürnberger T, O'Donnell VB, O'Donovan T, O'Dwyer PJ, Oehme I, Oeste CL, Ogawa M, Ogretmen B, Ogura Y, Oh YJ, Ohmuraya M, Ohshima T, Ojha R, Okamoto K, Okazaki T, Oliver FJ, Ollinger K, Olsson S, Orban DP, Ordonez P, Orhon I, Orosz L, O'Rourke EJ, Orozco H, Ortega AL, Ortona E, Osellame LD, Oshima J, Oshima S, Osiewacz HD, Otomo T, Otsu K, Ou JJ, Outeiro TF, Ouyang DY, Ouyang H, Overholtzer M, Ozbun MA, Ozdinler PH, Ozpolat B, Pacelli C, Paganetti P, Page G, Pages G, Pagnini U, Pajak B, Pak SC, Pakos-Zebrucka K, Pakpour N, Palková Z, Palladino F, Pallauf K, Pallet N, Palmieri M, Paludan SR, Palumbo C, Palumbo S, Pampliega O, Pan H, Pan W, Panaretakis T, Pandey A, Pantazopoulou A, Papackova Z, Papademetrio DL, Papassideri I, Papini A, Parajuli N, Pardo J, Parekh VV, Parenti G, Park JI, Park J, Park OK, Parker R, Parlato R, Parys JB, Parzych KR, Pasquet JM, Pasquier B, Pasumarthi KB, Patschan D, Patterson C, Pattingre S, Pattison S, Pause A, Pavenstädt H, Pavone F, Pedrozo Z, Peña FJ, Peñalva MA, Pende M, Peng J, Penna F, Penninger JM, Pensalfini A, Pepe S, Pereira GJ, Pereira PC, Pérez-de la Cruz V, Pérez-Pérez ME, Pérez-Rodríguez D, Pérez-Sala D, Perier C, Perl A, Perlmutter DH, Perrotta I, Pervaiz S, Pesonen M, Pessin JE, Peters GJ, Petersen M, Petrache I, Petrof BJ, Petrovski G, Phang JM, Piacentini M, Pierdominici M, Pierre P, Pierrefite-Carle V, Pietrocola F, Pimentel-Muiños FX, Pinar M, Pineda B, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Pinti M, Pinton P, Piperdi B, Piret JM, Platanias LC, Platta HW, Plowey ED, Pöggeler S, Poirot M, Polčic P, Poletti A, Poon AH, Popelka H, Popova B, Poprawa I, Poulose SM, Poulton J, Powers SK, Powers T, Pozuelo-Rubio M, Prak K, Prange R, Prescott M, Priault M, Prince S, Proia RL, Proikas-Cezanne T, Prokisch H, Promponas VJ, Przyklenk K, Puertollano R, Pugazhenthi S, Puglielli L, Pujol A, Puyal J, Pyeon D, Qi X, Qian WB, Qin ZH, Qiu Y, Qu Z, Quadrilatero J, Quinn F, Raben N, Rabinowich H, Radogna F, Ragusa MJ, Rahmani M, Raina K, Ramanadham S, Ramesh R, Rami A, Randall-Demllo S, Randow F, Rao H, Rao VA, Rasmussen BB, Rasse TM, Ratovitski EA, Rautou PE, Ray SK, Razani B, Reed BH, Reggiori F, Rehm M, Reichert AS, Rein T, Reiner DJ, Reits E, Ren J, Ren X, Renna M, Reusch JE, Revuelta JL, Reyes L, Rezaie AR, Richards RI, Richardson DR, Richetta C, Riehle MA, Rihn BH, Rikihisa Y, Riley BE, Rimbach G, Rippo MR, Ritis K, Rizzi F, Rizzo E, Roach PJ, Robbins J, Roberge M, Roca G, Roccheri MC, Rocha S, Rodrigues CM, Rodríguez CI, de Cordoba SR, Rodriguez-Muela N, Roelofs J, Rogov VV, Rohn TT, Rohrer B, Romanelli D, Romani L, Romano PS, Roncero MI, Rosa JL, Rosello A, Rosen KV, Rosenstiel P, Rost-Roszkowska M, Roth KA, Roué G, Rouis M, Rouschop KM, Ruan DT, Ruano D, Rubinsztein DC, Rucker EB, Rudich A, Rudolf E, Rudolf R, Ruegg MA, Ruiz-Roldan C, Ruparelia AA, Rusmini P, Russ DW, Russo GL, Russo G, Russo R, Rusten TE, Ryabovol V, Ryan KM, Ryter SW, Sabatini DM, Sacher M, Sachse C, Sack MN, Sadoshima J, Saftig P, Sagi-Eisenberg R, Sahni S, Saikumar P, Saito T, Saitoh T, Sakakura K, Sakoh-Nakatogawa M, Sakuraba Y, Salazar-Roa M, Salomoni P, Saluja AK, Salvaterra PM, Salvioli R, Samali A, Sanchez AM, Sánchez-Alcázar JA, Sanchez-Prieto R, Sandri M, Sanjuan MA, Santaguida S, Santambrogio L, Santoni G, Dos Santos CN, Saran S, Sardiello M, Sargent G, Sarkar P, Sarkar S, Sarrias MR, Sarwal MM, Sasakawa C, Sasaki M, Sass M, Sato K, Sato M, Satriano J, Savaraj N, Saveljeva S, Schaefer L, Schaible UE, Scharl M, Schatzl HM, Schekman R, Scheper W, Schiavi A, Schipper HM, Schmeisser H, Schmidt J, Schmitz I, Schneider BE, Schneider EM, Schneider JL, Schon EA, Schönenberger MJ, Schönthal AH, Schorderet DF, Schröder B, Schuck S, Schulze RJ, Schwarten M, Schwarz TL, Sciarretta S, Scotto K, Scovassi AI, Screaton RA, Screen M, Seca H, Sedej S, Segatori L, Segev N, Seglen PO, Seguí-Simarro JM, Segura-Aguilar J, Seki E, Sell C, Selliez I, Semenkovich CF, Semenza GL, Sen U, Serra AL, Serrano-Puebla A, Sesaki H, Setoguchi T, Settembre C, Shacka JJ, Shajahan-Haq AN, Shapiro IM, Sharma S, She H, Shen CJ, Shen CC, Shen HM, Shen S, Shen W, Sheng R, Sheng X, Sheng ZH, Shepherd TG, Shi J, Shi Q, Shi Q, Shi Y, Shibutani S, Shibuya K, Shidoji Y, Shieh JJ, Shih CM, Shimada Y, Shimizu S, Shin DW, Shinohara ML, Shintani M, Shintani T, Shioi T, Shirabe K, Shiri-Sverdlov R, Shirihai O, Shore GC, Shu CW, Shukla D, Sibirny AA, Sica V, Sigurdson CJ, Sigurdsson EM, Sijwali PS, Sikorska B, Silveira WA, Silvente-Poirot S, Silverman GA, Simak J, Simmet T, Simon AK, Simon HU, Simone C, Simons M, Simonsen A, Singh R, Singh SV, Singh SK, Sinha D, Sinha S, Sinicrope FA, Sirko A, Sirohi K, Sishi BJ, Sittler A, Siu PM, Sivridis E, Skwarska A, Slack R, Slaninová I, Slavov N, Smaili SS, Smalley KS, Smith DR, Soenen SJ, Soleimanpour SA, Solhaug A, Somasundaram K, Son JH, Sonawane A, Song C, Song F, Song HK, Song JX, Song W, Soo KY, Sood AK, Soong TW, Soontornniyomkij V, Sorice M, Sotgia F, Soto-Pantoja DR, Sotthibundhu A, Sousa MJ, Spaink HP, Span PN, Spang A, Sparks JD, Speck PG, Spector SA, Spies CD, Springer W, Clair DS, Stacchiotti A, Staels B, Stang MT, Starczynowski DT, Starokadomskyy P, Steegborn C, Steele JW, Stefanis L, Steffan J, Stellrecht CM, Stenmark H, Stepkowski TM, Stern ST, Stevens C, Stockwell BR, Stoka V, Storchova Z, Stork B, Stratoulias V, Stravopodis DJ, Strnad P, Strohecker AM, Ström AL, Stromhaug P, Stulik J, Su YX, Su Z, Subauste CS, Subramaniam S, Sue CM, Suh SW, Sui X, Sukseree S, Sulzer D, Sun FL, Sun J, Sun J, Sun SY, Sun Y, Sun Y, Sun Y, Sundaramoorthy V, Sung J, Suzuki H, Suzuki K, Suzuki N, Suzuki T, Suzuki YJ, Swanson MS, Swanton C, Swärd K, Swarup G, Sweeney ST, Sylvester PW, Szatmari Z, Szegezdi E, Szlosarek PW, Taegtmeyer H, Tafani M, Taillebourg E, Tait SW, Takacs-Vellai K, Takahashi Y, Takáts S, Takemura G, Takigawa N, Talbot NJ, Tamagno E, Tamburini J, Tan CP, Tan L, Tan ML, Tan M, Tan YJ, Tanaka K, Tanaka M, Tang D, Tang D, Tang G, Tanida I, Tanji K, Tannous BA, Tapia JA, Tasset-Cuevas I, Tatar M, Tavassoly I, Tavernarakis N, Taylor A, Taylor GS, Taylor GA, Taylor JP, Taylor MJ, Tchetina EV, Tee AR, Teixeira-Clerc F, Telang S, Tencomnao T, Teng BB, Teng RJ, Terro F, Tettamanti G, Theiss AL, Theron AE, Thomas KJ, Thomé MP, Thomes PG, Thorburn A, Thorner J, Thum T, Thumm M, Thurston TL, Tian L, Till A, Ting JP, Titorenko VI, Toker L, Toldo S, Tooze SA, Topisirovic I, Torgersen ML, Torosantucci L, Torriglia A, Torrisi MR, Tournier C, Towns R, Trajkovic V, Travassos LH, Triola G, Tripathi DN, Trisciuoglio D, Troncoso R, Trougakos IP, Truttmann AC, Tsai KJ, Tschan MP, Tseng YH, Tsukuba T, Tsung A, Tsvetkov AS, Tu S, Tuan HY, Tucci M, Tumbarello DA, Turk B, Turk V, Turner RF, Tveita AA, Tyagi SC, Ubukata M, Uchiyama Y, Udelnow A, Ueno T, Umekawa M, Umemiya-Shirafuji R, Underwood BR, Ungermann C, Ureshino RP, Ushioda R, Uversky VN, Uzcátegui NL, Vaccari T, Vaccaro MI, Váchová L, Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg H, Valdor R, Valente EM, Vallette F, Valverde AM, Van den Berghe G, Van Den Bosch L, van den Brink GR, van der Goot FG, van der Klei IJ, van der Laan LJ, van Doorn WG, van Egmond M, van Golen KL, Van Kaer L, van Lookeren Campagne M, Vandenabeele P, Vandenberghe W, Vanhorebeek I, Varela-Nieto I, Vasconcelos MH, Vasko R, Vavvas DG, Vega-Naredo I, Velasco G, Velentzas AD, Velentzas PD, Vellai T, Vellenga E, Vendelbo MH, Venkatachalam K, Ventura N, Ventura S, Veras PS, Verdier M, Vertessy BG, Viale A, Vidal M, Vieira H, Vierstra RD, Vigneswaran N, Vij N, Vila M, Villar M, Villar VH, Villarroya J, Vindis C, Viola G, Viscomi MT, Vitale G, Vogl DT, Voitsekhovskaja OV, von Haefen C, von Schwarzenberg K, Voth DE, Vouret-Craviari V, Vuori K, Vyas JM, Waeber C, Walker CL, Walker MJ, Walter J, Wan L, Wan X, Wang B, Wang C, Wang CY, Wang C, Wang C, Wang C, Wang D, Wang F, Wang F, Wang G, Wang HJ, Wang H, Wang HG, Wang H, Wang HD, Wang J, Wang J, Wang M, Wang MQ, Wang PY, Wang P, Wang RC, Wang S, Wang TF, Wang X, Wang XJ, Wang XW, Wang X, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang YJ, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang YT, Wang Y, Wang ZN, Wappner P, Ward C, Ward DM, Warnes G, Watada H, Watanabe Y, Watase K, Weaver TE, Weekes CD, Wei J, Weide T, Weihl CC, Weindl G, Weis SN, Wen L, Wen X, Wen Y, Westermann B, Weyand CM, White AR, White E, Whitton JL, Whitworth AJ, Wiels J, Wild F, Wildenberg ME, Wileman T, Wilkinson DS, Wilkinson S, Willbold D, Williams C, Williams K, Williamson PR, Winklhofer KF, Witkin SS, Wohlgemuth SE, Wollert T, Wolvetang EJ, Wong E, Wong GW, Wong RW, Wong VK, Woodcock EA, Wright KL, Wu C, Wu D, Wu GS, Wu J, Wu J, Wu M, Wu M, Wu S, Wu WK, Wu Y, Wu Z, Xavier CP, Xavier RJ, Xia GX, Xia T, Xia W, Xia Y, Xiao H, Xiao J, Xiao S, Xiao W, Xie CM, Xie Z, Xie Z, Xilouri M, Xiong Y, Xu C, Xu C, Xu F, Xu H, Xu H, Xu J, Xu J, Xu J, Xu L, Xu X, Xu Y, Xu Y, Xu ZX, Xu Z, Xue Y, Yamada T, Yamamoto A, Yamanaka K, Yamashina S, Yamashiro S, Yan B, Yan B, Yan X, Yan Z, Yanagi Y, Yang DS, Yang JM, Yang L, Yang M, Yang PM, Yang P, Yang Q, Yang W, Yang WY, Yang X, Yang Y, Yang Y, Yang Z, Yang Z, Yao MC, Yao PJ, Yao X, Yao Z, Yao Z, Yasui LS, Ye M, Yedvobnick B, Yeganeh B, Yeh ES, Yeyati PL, Yi F, Yi L, Yin XM, Yip CK, Yoo YM, Yoo YH, Yoon SY, Yoshida KI, Yoshimori T, Young KH, Yu H, Yu JJ, Yu JT, Yu J, Yu L, Yu WH, Yu XF, Yu Z, Yuan J, Yuan ZM, Yue BY, Yue J, Yue Z, Zacks DN, Zacksenhaus E, Zaffaroni N, Zaglia T, Zakeri Z, Zecchini V, Zeng J, Zeng M, Zeng Q, Zervos AS, Zhang DD, Zhang F, Zhang G, Zhang GC, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang J, Zhang J, Zhang J, Zhang J, Zhang JP, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang MY, Zhang X, Zhang XD, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhao M, Zhao WL, Zhao X, Zhao YG, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Zhao YX, Zhao Z, Zhao ZJ, Zheng D, Zheng XL, Zheng X, Zhivotovsky B, Zhong Q, Zhou GZ, Zhou G, Zhou H, Zhou SF, Zhou XJ, Zhu H, Zhu H, Zhu WG, Zhu W, Zhu XF, Zhu Y, Zhuang SM, Zhuang X, Ziparo E, Zois CE, Zoladek T, Zong WX, Zorzano A, Zughaier SM

Autophagy, 12, 1554-8635, 1-222, 2016

PMID: 26799652

V-ATPase and osmotic imbalances activate endolysosomal LC3 lipidation.
Florey O, Gammoh N, Kim SE, Jiang X, Overholtzer M

Recently a noncanonical activity of autophagy proteins has been discovered that targets lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) onto macroendocytic vacuoles, including macropinosomes, phagosomes, and entotic vacuoles. While this pathway is distinct from canonical autophagy, the mechanism of how these nonautophagic membranes are targeted for LC3 lipidation remains unclear. Here we present evidence that this pathway requires activity of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and is induced by osmotic imbalances within endolysosomal compartments. LC3 lipidation by this mechanism is induced by treatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, and through exposure to the Heliobacter pylori pore-forming toxin VacA. These data add novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of noncanonical LC3 lipidation and its associated processes, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and demonstrate that the widely and therapeutically used drug chloroquine, which is conventionally used to inhibit autophagy flux, is an inducer of LC3 lipidation.

+ View Abstract

Autophagy, , 1554-8635, 0, 2014

PMID: 25484071

SOS1 and Ras regulate epithelial tight junction formation in the human airway through EMP1.
Durgan J, Tao G, Walters MS, Florey O, Schmidt A, Arbelaez V, Rosen N, Crystal RG, Hall A

The human airway is lined with respiratory epithelial cells, which create a critical barrier through the formation of apical tight junctions. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, an RNAi screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) was performed in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We report that SOS1, acting through the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway, is essential for tight junction formation. Global microarray analysis identifies epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1), an integral tetraspan membrane protein, as a major transcriptional target. EMP1 is indispensable for tight junction formation and function in 16HBE cells and in a human airway basal progenitor-like cell line (BCi-NS1.1). Furthermore, EMP1 is significantly downregulated in human lung cancers. Together, these data identify important roles for SOS1/Ras and EMP1 in tight junction assembly during airway morphogenesis.

+ View Abstract

EMBO reports, 16, 1469-3178, 87-96, 2015

PMID: 25394671

Competition between human cells by entosis.
Sun Q, Luo T, Ren Y, Florey O, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Robinson DN, Overholtzer M

Human carcinomas are comprised of complex mixtures of tumor cells that are known to compete indirectly for nutrients and growth factors. Whether tumor cells could also compete directly, for example by elimination of rivals, is not known. Here we show that human cells can directly compete by a mechanism of engulfment called entosis. By entosis, cells are engulfed, or cannibalized while alive, and subsequently undergo cell death. We find that the identity of engulfing ("winner") and engulfed ("loser") cells is dictated by mechanical deformability controlled by RhoA and actomyosin, where tumor cells with high deformability preferentially engulf and outcompete neighboring cells with low deformability in heterogeneous populations. We further find that activated Kras and Rac signaling impart winner status to cells by downregulating contractile myosin, allowing for the internalization of neighboring cells that eventually undergo cell death. Finally, we compute the energy landscape of cell-in-cell formation, demonstrating that a mechanical differential between winner and loser cells is required for entosis to proceed. These data define a mechanism of competition in mammalian cells that occurs in human tumors.

+ View Abstract

Cell research, 24, 1748-7838, 1299-310, 2014

PMID: 25342560

Competition between human cells by entosis.
Sun Q, Luo T, Ren Y, Florey O, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Robinson DN, Overholtzer M

Human carcinomas are comprised of complex mixtures of tumor cells that are known to compete indirectly for nutrients and growth factors. Whether tumor cells could also compete directly, for example by elimination of rivals, is not known. Here we show that human cells can directly compete by a mechanism of engulfment called entosis. By entosis, cells are engulfed, or cannibalized while alive, and subsequently undergo cell death. We find that the identity of engulfing ("winner") and engulfed ("loser") cells is dictated by mechanical deformability controlled by RhoA and actomyosin, where tumor cells with high deformability preferentially engulf and outcompete neighboring cells with low deformability in heterogeneous populations. We further find that activated Kras and Rac signaling impart winner status to cells by downregulating contractile myosin, allowing for the internalization of neighboring cells that eventually undergo cell death. Finally, we compute the energy landscape of cell-in-cell formation, demonstrating that a mechanical differential between winner and loser cells is required for entosis to proceed. These data define a mechanism of competition in mammalian cells that occurs in human tumors.

+ View Abstract

Cell research, 24, 1748-7838, 1299-310, 2014

PMID: 25342560

TLR signals induce phagosomal MHC-I delivery from the endosomal recycling compartment to allow cross-presentation.
Nair-Gupta P, Baccarini A, Tung N, Seyffer F, Florey O, Huang Y, Banerjee M, Overholtzer M, Roche PA, Tampé R, Brown BD, Amsen D, Whiteheart SW, Blander JM

Adaptation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway for MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation in dendritic cells enables cross-presentation of peptides derived from phagocytosed microbes, infected cells, or tumor cells to CD8 T cells. How these peptides intersect with MHC-I molecules remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MHC-I selectively accumulate within phagosomes carrying microbial components, which engage Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Although cross-presentation requires Sec22b-mediated phagosomal recruitment of the peptide loading complex from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), this step is independent of TLR signaling and does not deliver MHC-I. Instead, MHC-I are recruited from an endosomal recycling compartment (ERC), which is marked by Rab11a, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP8/endobrevin and holds large reserves of MHC-I. While Rab11a activity stocks ERC stores with MHC-I, MyD88-dependent TLR signals drive IκB-kinase (IKK)2-mediated phosphorylation of phagosome-associated SNAP23. Phospho-SNAP23 stabilizes SNARE complexes orchestrating ERC-phagosome fusion, enrichment of phagosomes with ERC-derived MHC-I, and subsequent cross-presentation during infection.

+ View Abstract

Cell, 158, 1097-4172, 506-21, 2014

PMID: 25083866

Interaction between FIP200 and ATG16L1 distinguishes ULK1 complex-dependent and -independent autophagy.
N Gammoh, O Florey, M Overholtzer, X Jiang

Autophagy is a finely orchestrated cellular catabolic process that requires multiple autophagy-related gene products (ATG proteins). The ULK1 complex functions to integrate upstream signals to downstream ATG proteins through an unknown mechanism. Here we have identified an interaction between mammalian FIP200 and ATG16L1, essential components of the ULK1 and ATG5 complexes, respectively. Further analyses show this is a direct interaction mediated by a short domain of ATG16L1 that we term the FIP200-binding domain (FBD). The FBD is not required for ATG16L1 self-dimerization or interaction with ATG5. Notably, an FBD-deleted ATG16L1 mutant is defective in mediating amino acid starvation-induced autophagy, which requires the ULK1 complex. However, this mutant retains its function in supporting glucose deprivation-induced autophagy, a ULK1 complex-independent process. This study therefore identifies a previously uncharacterized interaction between the ULK1 and ATG5 complexes that can distinguish ULK1-dependent and -independent autophagy processes.

+ View Abstract

Nature structural & molecular biology, 20, 2, 144-9, 2013

PMID: 23262492
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.2475

Open Access

Autophagy proteins in macroendocytic engulfment.
O Florey, M Overholtzer

Eukaryotic cells must constantly degrade both intracellular and extracellular material to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis. Two engulfment pathways, autophagy and phagocytosis, contribute to the turnover of intracellular and extracellular substrates by delivering material to the lysosome. Historically these are thought to be separate pathways, but recent studies have revealed the direct participation of autophagy proteins in phagocytosis. Autophagy proteins lipidate LC3 onto phagosomes and other macroendocytic vacuole membranes, and are required for lysosomal degradation of engulfed cargo, demonstrating an autophagosome-independent role for autophagy proteins in mediating the turnover of extracellular substrates. This review discusses the biological systems in which autophagy proteins have been found to regulate lysosome fusion to non-autophagic membranes.

+ View Abstract

Trends in cell biology, 22, 7, 374-80, 2012

PMID: 22608991
DOI: 10.1016/j.tcb.2012.04.005

Open Access

Autophagy machinery mediates macroendocytic processing and entotic cell death by targeting single membranes.
O Florey, SE Kim, CP Sandoval, CM Haynes, M Overholtzer

Autophagy normally involves the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that mediate bulk cytoplasmic and organelle degradation. Here we report the modification of single-membrane vacuoles in cells by autophagy proteins. LC3 (Light chain 3) a component of autophagosomes, is recruited to single-membrane entotic vacuoles, macropinosomes and phagosomes harbouring apoptotic cells, in a manner dependent on the lipidation machinery including ATG5 and ATG7, and the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase VPS34. These downstream components of the autophagy machinery, but not the upstream mammalian Tor (mTor)-regulated ULK-ATG13-FIP200 complex, facilitate lysosome fusion to single membranes and the degradation of internalized cargo. For entosis, a live-cell-engulfment program, the autophagy-protein-dependent fusion of lysosomes to vacuolar membranes leads to the death of internalized cells. As pathogen-containing phagosomes can be targeted in a similar manner, the death of epithelial cells by this mechanism mimics pathogen destruction. These data demonstrate that proteins of the autophagy pathway can target single-membrane vacuoles in cells in the absence of pathogenic organisms.

+ View Abstract

Nature cell biology, 13, 11, 1335-43, 2011

PMID: 22002674
DOI: 10.1038/ncb2363

Open Access

Relative contribution of PECAM-1 adhesion and signaling to the maintenance of vascular integrity.
JR Privratsky, CM Paddock, O Florey, DK Newman, WA Muller, PJ Newman

PECAM-1 (CD31) is a cellular adhesion and signaling receptor that is highly expressed at endothelial cell-cell junctions in confluent vascular beds. Previous studies have implicated PECAM-1 in the maintenance of vascular barrier integrity; however, the mechanisms behind PECAM-1-mediated barrier protection are still poorly understood. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to examine the pertinent biological properties of PECAM-1 (i.e. adhesion and/or signaling) that allow it to support barrier integrity. We found that, compared with PECAM-1-deficient endothelial cells, PECAM-1-expressing endothelial cell monolayers exhibit increased steady-state barrier function, as well as more rapid restoration of barrier integrity following thrombin-induced perturbation of the endothelial cell monolayer. The majority of PECAM-1-mediated barrier protection was found to be due to the ability of PECAM-1 to interact homophilically and become localized to cell-cell junctions, because a homophilic binding-crippled mutant form of PECAM-1 was unable to support efficient barrier function when re-expressed in cells. By contrast, cells expressing PECAM-1 variants lacking residues known to be involved in PECAM-1-mediated signal transduction exhibited normal to near-normal barrier integrity. Taken together, these studies suggest that PECAM-1-PECAM-1 homophilic interactions are more important than its signaling function for maintaining the integrity of endothelial cell junctions.

+ View Abstract

Journal of cell science, 124, Pt 9, 1477-85, 2011

PMID: 21486942
DOI: 10.1242/jcs.082271

Open Access

Phosphorylation of leukocyte PECAM and its association with detergent-resistant membranes regulate transendothelial migration.
O Florey, J Durgan, W Muller

Leukocyte migration across the endothelial lining is a critical step in the body's response to infection and inflammation. The homophilic interaction between endothelial PECAM and leukocyte PECAM is essential for this process. The molecular events that are triggered in the endothelial cell by PECAM engagement have been well characterized; however, the function of leukocyte PECAM remains to be elucidated. To study this, we first blocked leukocyte transmigration using anti-PECAM Ab and then specifically activated leukocyte PECAM. This was sufficient to overcome the block and promote transmigration, suggesting an active signaling role for leukocyte PECAM. Consistent with this, we found that ligation of leukocyte PECAM induces phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues on its cytoplasmic tail. By performing RNA interference-rescue experiments, we demonstrate that these phosphorylation events are indispensable for transendothelial migration. Finally, we show that leukocyte PECAM translocates to a detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) during transmigration. PECAM localized in DRMs displays reduced phosphorylation and does not support transmigration. Together, these data support a model whereby engagement of leukocyte PECAM induces its transient tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of downstream signals that drive transmigration. These signals are then downregulated following PECAM translocation to DRMs.

+ View Abstract

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 185, 3, 1878-86, 2010

PMID: 20581150
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1001305

Open Access

Entosis.
O Florey, M Krajcovic, Q Sun, M Overholtzer

Current biology : CB, 20, 3, R88-9, 2010

PMID: 20144773
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.020

Open Access