Hooper KM, Jacquin E, Li T, Goodwin JM, Brumell JH, Durgan J, Florey O Signalling

Non-canonical autophagy is a key cellular pathway in immunity, cancer, and neurodegeneration, characterized by conjugation of ATG8 to endolysosomal single membranes (CASM). CASM is activated by engulfment (endocytosis, phagocytosis), agonists (STING, TRPML1), and infection (influenza), dependent on K490 in the ATG16L1 WD40-domain. However, factors associated with non-canonical ATG16L1 recruitment and CASM induction remain unknown. Here, using pharmacological inhibitors, we investigate a role for V-ATPase during non-canonical autophagy. We report that increased V0-V1 engagement is associated with, and sufficient for, CASM activation. Upon V0-V1 binding, V-ATPase recruits ATG16L1, via K490, during LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), STING- and drug-induced CASM, indicating a common mechanism. Furthermore, during LAP, key molecular players, including NADPH oxidase/ROS, converge on V-ATPase. Finally, we show that LAP is sensitive to Salmonella SopF, which disrupts the V-ATPase-ATG16L1 axis and provide evidence that CASM contributes to the Salmonella host response. Together, these data identify V-ATPase as a universal regulator of CASM and indicate that SopF evolved in part to evade non-canonical autophagy.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 35511089 06 Jun 2022

Timimi L, Figueras-Novoa C, Marcassa E, Florey O, Baillie JK, Beale R, Ulferts R Signalling

Conjugation of the Atg8 (autophagy related 8) family of ubiquitin-like proteins to phospholipids of the phagophore is a hallmark of macroautophagy/autophagy. Consequently, Atg8 family members, especially LC3B, are commonly used as a marker of autophagosomes. However, the Atg8 family of proteins are not found solely attached to double-membrane autophagosomes. In non-canonical Atg8-family protein lipidation they become conjugated to single membranes. We have shown that this process is triggered by recruitment of ATG16L1 by the vacuolar-type H-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump, suggesting a role for pH sensing in recruitment of Atg8-family proteins to single membranes.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 35258397 08 Mar 2022

Ulferts R, Marcassa E, Timimi L, Lee LC, Daley A, Montaner B, Turner SD, Florey O, Baillie JK, Beale R Signalling

Although commonly associated with autophagosomes, LC3 can also be recruited to membranes by covalent lipidation in a variety of non-canonical contexts. These include responses to ionophores such as the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus. We report a subtractive CRISPR screen that identifies factors required for non-canonical LC3 lipidation. As well as the enzyme complexes directly responsible for LC3 lipidation in all contexts, we show the RALGAP complex is important for M2-induced, but not ionophore drug-induced, LC3 lipidation. In contrast, ATG4D is responsible for LC3 recycling in M2-induced and basal LC3 lipidation. Identification of a vacuolar ATPase subunit in the screen suggests a common mechanism for non-canonical LC3 recruitment. Influenza-induced and ionophore drug-induced LC3 lipidation lead to association of the vacuolar ATPase and ATG16L1 and can be antagonized by Salmonella SopF. LC3 recruitment to erroneously neutral compartments may therefore represent a response to damage caused by diverse invasive pathogens.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34706226 26 Oct 2021

Goodwin JM, Walkup WG, Hooper K, Li T, Kishi-Itakura C, Ng A, Lehmberg T, Jha A, Kommineni S, Fletcher K, Garcia-Fortanet J, Fan Y, Tang Q, Wei M, Agrawal A, Budhe SR, Rouduri SR, Baird D, Saunders J, Kiselar J, Chance MR, Ballabio A, Appleton BA, Brumell JH, Florey O, Murphy LO Signalling

[Figure: see text].

+view abstract Science advances, PMID: 34597140 Oct 2021

Durgan J, Florey O Signalling

Atg8-family protein lipidation is the most commonly used marker for monitoring autophagy. During macroautophagy, Atg8-family proteins are specifically conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in forming, double-membrane autophagosomes. A distinct, non-canonical autophagy pathway also operates, characterized by the Conjugation of ATG8s to endolysosomal Single Membranes (CASM). In our new study, we show that CASM is associated with the alternative conjugation of Atg8-family proteins to phosphatidylserine (PS), and PE, in response to various cellular stimuli. We also discover differences in the regulation of conjugation to PE and PS by ATG4s, and altered dynamics between the two species. The identification of alternative Atg8-family protein PS lipidation opens up exciting new questions on the roles, regulation and biology of Atg8-family proteins during non-canonical autophagy.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 34251968 12 Jul 2021

Durgan J, Lystad AH, Sloan K, Carlsson SR, Wilson MI, Marcassa E, Ulferts R, Webster J, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Wakelam MJ, Beale R, Simonsen A, Oxley D, Florey O Signalling, Mass Spectrometry, Lipidomics

Autophagy is a fundamental catabolic process that uses a unique post-translational modification, the conjugation of ATG8 protein to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). ATG8 lipidation also occurs during non-canonical autophagy, a parallel pathway involving conjugation of ATG8 to single membranes (CASM) at endolysosomal compartments, with key functions in immunity, vision, and neurobiology. It is widely assumed that CASM involves the same conjugation of ATG8 to PE, but this has not been formally tested. Here, we discover that all ATG8s can also undergo alternative lipidation to phosphatidylserine (PS) during CASM, induced pharmacologically, by LC3-associated phagocytosis or influenza A virus infection, in mammalian cells. Importantly, ATG8-PS and ATG8-PE adducts are differentially delipidated by the ATG4 family and bear different cellular dynamics, indicating significant molecular distinctions. These results provide important insights into autophagy signaling, revealing an alternative form of the hallmark ATG8 lipidation event. Furthermore, ATG8-PS provides a specific "molecular signature" for the non-canonical autophagy pathway.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 33909989 16 Apr 2021

Odle RI, Florey O, Ktistakis NT, Cook SJ Signalling

Autophagy and cap-dependent mRNA translation are tightly regulated by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling complex in response to nutrient availability. However, the regulation of these processes, and mTORC1 itself, is different during mitosis, and this has remained an area of significant controversy; for example, studies have argued that autophagy is either repressed or highly active during mitosis. Recent studies have shown that autophagy initiation is repressed, and cap-dependent mRNA translation is maintained during mitosis despite mTORC1 activity being repressed. This is achieved in large part by a switch from mTORC1- to cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated regulation. Here, we review the history and recent advances and seek to present a unifying model to inform the future study of autophagy and mTORC1 during mitosis.

+view abstract Trends in cell biology, PMID: 33272830 30 Nov 2020

Odle RI, Walker SA, Oxley D, Kidger AM, Balmanno K, Gilley R, Okkenhaug H, Florey O, Ktistakis NT, Cook SJ Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Since nuclear envelope breakdown occurs during mitosis in metazoan cells, it has been proposed that macroautophagy must be inhibited to maintain genome integrity. However, repression of macroautophagy during mitosis remains controversial and mechanistic detail limited to the suggestion that CDK1 phosphorylates VPS34. Here, we show that initiation of macroautophagy, measured by the translocation of the ULK complex to autophagic puncta, is repressed during mitosis, even when mTORC1 is inhibited. Indeed, mTORC1 is inactive during mitosis, reflecting its failure to localize to lysosomes due to CDK1-dependent RAPTOR phosphorylation. While mTORC1 normally represses autophagy via phosphorylation of ULK1, ATG13, ATG14, and TFEB, we show that the mitotic phosphorylation of these autophagy regulators, including at known repressive sites, is dependent on CDK1 but independent of mTOR. Thus, CDK1 substitutes for inhibited mTORC1 as the master regulator of macroautophagy during mitosis, uncoupling autophagy regulation from nutrient status to ensure repression of macroautophagy during mitosis.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 31733992 06 Nov 2019

Florey O, Overholtzer M Signalling,

Adaptive strategies used by cells to scavenge and recycle essential nutrients are important for survival in nutrient-depleted environments such as cancer tissues. Autophagy and macropinocytosis are two major mechanisms that promote nutrient recycling and scavenging, which share considerable, yet poorly understood, cross-regulation. Here we review recent findings that connect these starvation response mechanisms and discuss the implications of their crosstalk. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Macropinocytosis'.

+view abstract Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, PMID: 30967004 2019

Lee Y, Hamann JC, Pellegrino M, Durgan J, Domart MC, Collinson LM, Haynes CM, Florey O, Overholtzer M Signalling,

Metazoan cell death mechanisms are diverse and include numerous non-apoptotic programs. One program called entosis involves the invasion of live cells into their neighbors and is known to occur in cancers. Here, we identify a developmental function for entosis: to clear the male-specific linker cell in C. elegans. The linker cell leads migration to shape the gonad and is removed to facilitate fusion of the gonad to the cloaca. We find that the linker cell is cleared in a manner involving cell-cell adhesions and cell-autonomous control of uptake through linker cell actin. Linker cell entosis generates a lobe structure that is deposited at the site of gonad-to-cloaca fusion and is removed during mating. Inhibition of lobe scission inhibits linker cell death, demonstrating that the linker cell invades its host while alive. Our findings demonstrate a developmental function for entosis: to eliminate a migrating cell and facilitate gonad-to-cloaca fusion, which is required for fertility.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 30893595 2019

Jacquin E, Fletcher K, Florey O Signalling,

Monitoring of ATG8 proteins by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy are the most common methods to monitor the autophagy pathway. However, it has recently been shown that ATG8 proteins can be lipidated to non-autophagosome, single-membrane compartments through a noncanonical autophagy pathway. This is commonly found to occur during macro-endocytic processes such as phagocytosis, where it has been termed LC3-associated phagocytosis, and upon lysosomotropic drug treatment. Therefore, care is required when interpreting data based on ATG8 in order to conclude whether a signal relates to the canonical or noncanonical pathway. Here we provide methods to monitor noncanonical autophagy through fluorescence microscopy.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), PMID: 30610705 2019

Florey O, Overholtzer M Signalling,

Adaptive strategies used by cells to scavenge and recycle essential nutrients are important for survival in nutrient-depleted environments such as cancer tissues. Autophagy and macropinocytosis are two major mechanisms that promote nutrient recycling and scavenging, which share considerable, yet poorly understood, cross-regulation. Here we review recent findings that connect these starvation response mechanisms and discuss the implications of their crosstalk. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Macropinocytosis’.

+view abstract Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, PMID: 30478386 2018

Florey O Signalling,

+view abstract Nature microbiology, PMID: 30478385 2018

Bussi C, Peralta Ramos JM, Arroyo DS, Gallea JI, Ronchi P, Kolovou A, Wang JM, Florey O, Celej MS, Schwab Y, Ktistakis NT, Iribarren P Signalling,

Autophagic dysfunction and protein aggregation have been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders, but the exact mechanisms and causal connections are not clear and most work was done in neurons and not in microglial cells. Here we report that exogenous fibrillar but not monomeric alpha-synuclein (AS) induces autophagy in microglial cells. We extensively studied the dynamics of this response by both live-cell imaging and correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) and found that it correlates with lysosomal damage and is characterised by the recruitment of the selective autophagy-associated proteins TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and Optineurin (OPTN) to ubiquitinated lysosomes. In addition, we observed that LC3 recruitment to damaged lysosomes was dependent on TBK1 activity. In these fibrillar AS-treated cells, autophagy inhibition impairs mitochondrial function and leads to microglial cell death. Our results suggest that microglial autophagy is induced in response to lysosomal damage caused by persistent accumulation of AS fibrils. Importantly, triggering of the autophagic response appears to be an attempt at lysosomal quality control and not for engulfment of fibrillar AS.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 30404831 2018

Rai S, Arasteh M, Jefferson M, Pearson T, Wang Y, Zhang W, Bicsak B, Divekar D, Powell PP, Nauman R, Beraza N, Carding SR, Florey O, Mayer U, Wileman T Signalling

Macroautophagy/autophagy delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes for degradation, and plays important roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis by reducing tissue damage. The translocation of LC3 to the limiting membrane of the phagophore, the precursor to the autophagosome, during autophagy provides a binding site for autophagy cargoes, and facilitates fusion with lysosomes. An autophagy-related pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) targets LC3 to phagosome and endosome membranes during uptake of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and targets LC3 to swollen endosomes containing particulate material or apoptotic cells. We have investigated the roles played by autophagy and LAP in vivo by exploiting the observation that the WD domain of ATG16L1 is required for LAP, but not autophagy. Mice lacking the linker and WD domains, activate autophagy, but are deficient in LAP. The LAP mice survive postnatal starvation, grow at the same rate as littermate controls, and are fertile. The liver, kidney, brain and muscle of these mice maintain levels of autophagy cargoes such as LC3 and SQSTM1/p62 similar to littermate controls, and prevent accumulation of SQSTM1 inclusions and tissue damage associated with loss of autophagy. The results suggest that autophagy maintains tissue homeostasis in mice independently of LC3-associated phagocytosis. Further deletion of glutamate E230 in the coiled-coil domain required for WIPI2 binding produced mice with defective autophagy that survived neonatal starvation. Analysis of brain lysates suggested that interactions between WIPI2 and ATG16L1 were less critical for autophagy in the brain, which may allow a low level of autophagy to overcome neonatal lethality. Abbreviations: CCD: coiled-coil domain; CYBB/NOX2: cytochrome b-245: beta polypeptide; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase: soluble; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; NOD: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; RUBCN/Rubicon: RUN domain and cysteine-rich domain containing Beclin 1-interacting protein; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TLR: toll-like receptor; TMEM: transmembrane protein; TRIM: tripartite motif-containing protein; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated gene; WD: tryptophan-aspartic acid; WIPI: WD 40 repeat domain: phosphoinositide interacting.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 30403914 2018

Fletcher K, Ulferts R, Jacquin E, Veith T, Gammoh N, Arasteh JM, Mayer U, Carding SR, Wileman T, Beale R, Florey O Signalling,

A hallmark of macroautophagy is the covalent lipidation of LC3 and insertion into the double-membrane phagophore, which is driven by the ATG16L1/ATG5-ATG12 complex. In contrast, non-canonical autophagy is a pathway through which LC3 is lipidated and inserted into single membranes, particularly endolysosomal vacuoles during cell engulfment events such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. Factors controlling the targeting of ATG16L1 to phagophores are dispensable for non-canonical autophagy, for which the mechanism of ATG16L1 recruitment is unknown. Here we show that the WD repeat-containing C-terminal domain (WD40 CTD) of ATG16L1 is essential for LC3 recruitment to endolysosomal membranes during non-canonical autophagy, but dispensable for canonical autophagy. Using this strategy to inhibit non-canonical autophagy specifically, we show a reduction of MHC class II antigen presentation in dendritic cells from mice lacking the WD40 CTD Further, we demonstrate activation of non-canonical autophagy dependent on the WD40 CTD during influenza A virus infection. This suggests dependence on WD40 CTD distinguishes between macroautophagy and non-canonical use of autophagy machinery.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 29317426 2018

Durgan J, Tseng YY, Hamann JC, Domart MC, Collinson L, Hall A, Overholtzer M, Florey O Signalling,

Entosis is a form of epithelial cell cannibalism that is prevalent in human cancer, typically triggered by loss of matrix adhesion. Here, we report an alternative mechanism for entosis in human epithelial cells, driven by mitosis. Mitotic entosis is regulated by Cdc42, which controls mitotic morphology. Cdc42 depletion enhances mitotic deadhesion and rounding, and these biophysical changes, which depend on RhoA activation and are phenocopied by Rap1 inhibition, permit subsequent entosis. Mitotic entosis occurs constitutively in some human cancer cell lines and mitotic index correlates with cell cannibalism in primary human breast tumours. Adherent, wild-type cells can act efficiently as entotic hosts, suggesting that normal epithelia may engulf and kill aberrantly dividing neighbours. Finally, we report that Paclitaxel/taxol promotes mitotic rounding and subsequent entosis, revealing an unconventional activity of this drug. Together, our data uncover an intriguing link between cell division and cannibalism, of significance to both cancer and chemotherapy.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 28693721 2017

Jacquin E, Leclerc-Mercier S, Judon C, Blanchard E, Fraitag S, Florey O Signalling,

The modulation of canonical macroautophagy/autophagy for therapeutic benefit is an emerging strategy of medical and pharmaceutical interest. Many drugs act to inhibit autophagic flux by targeting lysosome function, while others were developed to activate the pathway. Here, we report the surprising finding that many therapeutically relevant autophagy modulators with lysosomotropic and ionophore properties, classified as inhibitors of canonical autophagy, are also capable of activating a parallel noncanonical autophagy pathway that drives MAP1LC3/LC3 lipidation on endolysosomal membranes. Further, we provide the first evidence supporting drug-induced noncanonical autophagy in vivo using the local anesthetic lidocaine and human skin biopsies. In addition, we find that several published inducers of autophagy and mitophagy are also potent activators of noncanonical autophagy. Together, our data raise important issues regarding the interpretation of LC3 lipidation data and the use of autophagy modulators, and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the functional consequences of noncanonical autophagy.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 28296541 2017

Krishna S, Palm W, Lee Y, Yang W, Bandyopadhyay U, Xu H, Florey O, Thompson CB, Overholtzer M Signalling,

The scavenging of extracellular macromolecules by engulfment can sustain cell growth in a nutrient-depleted environment. Engulfed macromolecules are contained within vacuoles that are targeted for lysosome fusion to initiate degradation and nutrient export. We have shown that vacuoles containing engulfed material undergo mTORC1-dependent fission that redistributes degraded cargo back into the endosomal network. Here we identify the lipid kinase PIKfyve as a regulator of an alternative pathway that distributes engulfed contents in support of intracellular macromolecular synthesis during macropinocytosis, entosis, and phagocytosis. We find that PIKfyve regulates vacuole size in part through its downstream effector, the cationic transporter TRPML1. Furthermore, PIKfyve promotes recovery of nutrients from vacuoles, suggesting a potential link between PIKfyve activity and lysosomal nutrient export. During nutrient depletion, PIKfyve activity protects Ras-mutant cells from starvation-induced cell death and supports their proliferation. These data identify PIKfyve as a critical regulator of vacuole maturation and nutrient recovery during engulfment.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 27623384 2016

Russell MR, Lerner TR, Burden JJ, Nkwe DO, Pelchen-Matthews A, Domart MC, Durgan J, Weston A, Jones ML, Peddie CJ, Carzaniga R, Florey O, Marsh M, Gutierrez MG, Collinson LM Signalling,

The processes of life take place in multiple dimensions, but imaging these processes in even three dimensions is challenging. Here we describe a workflow for 3D correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) of cell monolayers using fluorescence microscopy to identify and follow biological events, combined with serial blockface scanning electron microscopy to analyse the underlying ultrastructure. The workflow encompasses all steps from cell culture to sample processing, imaging strategy and 3D image processing/analysis. We demonstrate successful application of the workflow to three studies, each aiming to better understand complex and dynamic biological processes, including bacterial and viral infections of cultured cells and formation of entotic cell-in-cell structures commonly observed in tumours. Our workflow revealed new insight into the replicative niche of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and the composition of the entotic vacuole. The broad application of this 3D CLEM technique will make it a useful addition to the correlative imaging toolbox for biomedical research.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 27445312 2016

Florey O, Gammoh N, Kim SE, Jiang X, Overholtzer M Signalling,

Recently a noncanonical activity of autophagy proteins has been discovered that targets lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) onto macroendocytic vacuoles, including macropinosomes, phagosomes, and entotic vacuoles. While this pathway is distinct from canonical autophagy, the mechanism of how these nonautophagic membranes are targeted for LC3 lipidation remains unclear. Here we present evidence that this pathway requires activity of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and is induced by osmotic imbalances within endolysosomal compartments. LC3 lipidation by this mechanism is induced by treatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, and through exposure to the Heliobacter pylori pore-forming toxin VacA. These data add novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of noncanonical LC3 lipidation and its associated processes, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and demonstrate that the widely and therapeutically used drug chloroquine, which is conventionally used to inhibit autophagy flux, is an inducer of LC3 lipidation.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 25484071 2014

Durgan J, Tao G, Walters MS, Florey O, Schmidt A, Arbelaez V, Rosen N, Crystal RG, Hall A Signalling,

The human airway is lined with respiratory epithelial cells, which create a critical barrier through the formation of apical tight junctions. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, an RNAi screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) was performed in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We report that SOS1, acting through the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway, is essential for tight junction formation. Global microarray analysis identifies epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1), an integral tetraspan membrane protein, as a major transcriptional target. EMP1 is indispensable for tight junction formation and function in 16HBE cells and in a human airway basal progenitor-like cell line (BCi-NS1.1). Furthermore, EMP1 is significantly downregulated in human lung cancers. Together, these data identify important roles for SOS1/Ras and EMP1 in tight junction assembly during airway morphogenesis.

+view abstract EMBO reports, PMID: 25394671 2015

Sun Q, Luo T, Ren Y, Florey O, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Robinson DN, Overholtzer M ,

Human carcinomas are comprised of complex mixtures of tumor cells that are known to compete indirectly for nutrients and growth factors. Whether tumor cells could also compete directly, for example by elimination of rivals, is not known. Here we show that human cells can directly compete by a mechanism of engulfment called entosis. By entosis, cells are engulfed, or cannibalized while alive, and subsequently undergo cell death. We find that the identity of engulfing ("winner") and engulfed ("loser") cells is dictated by mechanical deformability controlled by RhoA and actomyosin, where tumor cells with high deformability preferentially engulf and outcompete neighboring cells with low deformability in heterogeneous populations. We further find that activated Kras and Rac signaling impart winner status to cells by downregulating contractile myosin, allowing for the internalization of neighboring cells that eventually undergo cell death. Finally, we compute the energy landscape of cell-in-cell formation, demonstrating that a mechanical differential between winner and loser cells is required for entosis to proceed. These data define a mechanism of competition in mammalian cells that occurs in human tumors.

+view abstract Cell research, PMID: 25342560 2014

Sun Q, Luo T, Ren Y, Florey O, Shirasawa S, Sasazuki T, Robinson DN, Overholtzer M Signalling,

Human carcinomas are comprised of complex mixtures of tumor cells that are known to compete indirectly for nutrients and growth factors. Whether tumor cells could also compete directly, for example by elimination of rivals, is not known. Here we show that human cells can directly compete by a mechanism of engulfment called entosis. By entosis, cells are engulfed, or cannibalized while alive, and subsequently undergo cell death. We find that the identity of engulfing ("winner") and engulfed ("loser") cells is dictated by mechanical deformability controlled by RhoA and actomyosin, where tumor cells with high deformability preferentially engulf and outcompete neighboring cells with low deformability in heterogeneous populations. We further find that activated Kras and Rac signaling impart winner status to cells by downregulating contractile myosin, allowing for the internalization of neighboring cells that eventually undergo cell death. Finally, we compute the energy landscape of cell-in-cell formation, demonstrating that a mechanical differential between winner and loser cells is required for entosis to proceed. These data define a mechanism of competition in mammalian cells that occurs in human tumors.

+view abstract Cell research, PMID: 25342560 2014

Nair-Gupta P, Baccarini A, Tung N, Seyffer F, Florey O, Huang Y, Banerjee M, Overholtzer M, Roche PA, Tampé R, Brown BD, Amsen D, Whiteheart SW, Blander JM Signalling,

Adaptation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway for MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation in dendritic cells enables cross-presentation of peptides derived from phagocytosed microbes, infected cells, or tumor cells to CD8 T cells. How these peptides intersect with MHC-I molecules remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MHC-I selectively accumulate within phagosomes carrying microbial components, which engage Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Although cross-presentation requires Sec22b-mediated phagosomal recruitment of the peptide loading complex from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), this step is independent of TLR signaling and does not deliver MHC-I. Instead, MHC-I are recruited from an endosomal recycling compartment (ERC), which is marked by Rab11a, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP8/endobrevin and holds large reserves of MHC-I. While Rab11a activity stocks ERC stores with MHC-I, MyD88-dependent TLR signals drive IκB-kinase (IKK)2-mediated phosphorylation of phagosome-associated SNAP23. Phospho-SNAP23 stabilizes SNARE complexes orchestrating ERC-phagosome fusion, enrichment of phagosomes with ERC-derived MHC-I, and subsequent cross-presentation during infection.

+view abstract Cell, PMID: 25083866 2014

N Gammoh, O Florey, M Overholtzer, X Jiang ,

Autophagy is a finely orchestrated cellular catabolic process that requires multiple autophagy-related gene products (ATG proteins). The ULK1 complex functions to integrate upstream signals to downstream ATG proteins through an unknown mechanism. Here we have identified an interaction between mammalian FIP200 and ATG16L1, essential components of the ULK1 and ATG5 complexes, respectively. Further analyses show this is a direct interaction mediated by a short domain of ATG16L1 that we term the FIP200-binding domain (FBD). The FBD is not required for ATG16L1 self-dimerization or interaction with ATG5. Notably, an FBD-deleted ATG16L1 mutant is defective in mediating amino acid starvation-induced autophagy, which requires the ULK1 complex. However, this mutant retains its function in supporting glucose deprivation-induced autophagy, a ULK1 complex-independent process. This study therefore identifies a previously uncharacterized interaction between the ULK1 and ATG5 complexes that can distinguish ULK1-dependent and -independent autophagy processes.

+view abstract Nature structural & molecular biology, PMID: 23262492 2013

O Florey, M Overholtzer ,

Eukaryotic cells must constantly degrade both intracellular and extracellular material to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis. Two engulfment pathways, autophagy and phagocytosis, contribute to the turnover of intracellular and extracellular substrates by delivering material to the lysosome. Historically these are thought to be separate pathways, but recent studies have revealed the direct participation of autophagy proteins in phagocytosis. Autophagy proteins lipidate LC3 onto phagosomes and other macroendocytic vacuole membranes, and are required for lysosomal degradation of engulfed cargo, demonstrating an autophagosome-independent role for autophagy proteins in mediating the turnover of extracellular substrates. This review discusses the biological systems in which autophagy proteins have been found to regulate lysosome fusion to non-autophagic membranes.

+view abstract Trends in cell biology, PMID: 22608991 2012

O Florey, SE Kim, CP Sandoval, CM Haynes, M Overholtzer ,

Autophagy normally involves the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that mediate bulk cytoplasmic and organelle degradation. Here we report the modification of single-membrane vacuoles in cells by autophagy proteins. LC3 (Light chain 3) a component of autophagosomes, is recruited to single-membrane entotic vacuoles, macropinosomes and phagosomes harbouring apoptotic cells, in a manner dependent on the lipidation machinery including ATG5 and ATG7, and the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase VPS34. These downstream components of the autophagy machinery, but not the upstream mammalian Tor (mTor)-regulated ULK-ATG13-FIP200 complex, facilitate lysosome fusion to single membranes and the degradation of internalized cargo. For entosis, a live-cell-engulfment program, the autophagy-protein-dependent fusion of lysosomes to vacuolar membranes leads to the death of internalized cells. As pathogen-containing phagosomes can be targeted in a similar manner, the death of epithelial cells by this mechanism mimics pathogen destruction. These data demonstrate that proteins of the autophagy pathway can target single-membrane vacuoles in cells in the absence of pathogenic organisms.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 22002674 2011

JR Privratsky, CM Paddock, O Florey, DK Newman, WA Muller, PJ Newman ,

PECAM-1 (CD31) is a cellular adhesion and signaling receptor that is highly expressed at endothelial cell-cell junctions in confluent vascular beds. Previous studies have implicated PECAM-1 in the maintenance of vascular barrier integrity; however, the mechanisms behind PECAM-1-mediated barrier protection are still poorly understood. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to examine the pertinent biological properties of PECAM-1 (i.e. adhesion and/or signaling) that allow it to support barrier integrity. We found that, compared with PECAM-1-deficient endothelial cells, PECAM-1-expressing endothelial cell monolayers exhibit increased steady-state barrier function, as well as more rapid restoration of barrier integrity following thrombin-induced perturbation of the endothelial cell monolayer. The majority of PECAM-1-mediated barrier protection was found to be due to the ability of PECAM-1 to interact homophilically and become localized to cell-cell junctions, because a homophilic binding-crippled mutant form of PECAM-1 was unable to support efficient barrier function when re-expressed in cells. By contrast, cells expressing PECAM-1 variants lacking residues known to be involved in PECAM-1-mediated signal transduction exhibited normal to near-normal barrier integrity. Taken together, these studies suggest that PECAM-1-PECAM-1 homophilic interactions are more important than its signaling function for maintaining the integrity of endothelial cell junctions.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 21486942 2011

O Florey, J Durgan, W Muller Signalling,

Leukocyte migration across the endothelial lining is a critical step in the body's response to infection and inflammation. The homophilic interaction between endothelial PECAM and leukocyte PECAM is essential for this process. The molecular events that are triggered in the endothelial cell by PECAM engagement have been well characterized; however, the function of leukocyte PECAM remains to be elucidated. To study this, we first blocked leukocyte transmigration using anti-PECAM Ab and then specifically activated leukocyte PECAM. This was sufficient to overcome the block and promote transmigration, suggesting an active signaling role for leukocyte PECAM. Consistent with this, we found that ligation of leukocyte PECAM induces phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues on its cytoplasmic tail. By performing RNA interference-rescue experiments, we demonstrate that these phosphorylation events are indispensable for transendothelial migration. Finally, we show that leukocyte PECAM translocates to a detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) during transmigration. PECAM localized in DRMs displays reduced phosphorylation and does not support transmigration. Together, these data support a model whereby engagement of leukocyte PECAM induces its transient tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of downstream signals that drive transmigration. These signals are then downregulated following PECAM translocation to DRMs.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 20581150 2010

O Florey, M Krajcovic, Q Sun, M Overholtzer Signalling,

+view abstract Current biology : CB, PMID: 20144773 2010

O Florey, DO Haskard Signalling,

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid that is released by platelets and endothelial cells and has been implicated in diverse biological functions. We hypothesized that S1P may influence immune complex-mediated polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence spectrometry, we found that exogenous addition of S1P led to an enhanced polymorphonuclear neutrophil Fcgamma receptor-mediated rise in intracellular Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species generation in a pertussis toxin-independent manner, while having only a small effect by itself. Thus, S1P amplifies a positive feedback loop where Fcgamma receptor-mediated rises in Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species are interdependent, with reactive oxygen species acting to increase tyrosine phosphorylation and activity of upstream signaling intermediates. S1P augmentation of Fcgamma receptor signaling translates to downstream functional consequences, including shape change and recruitment to endothelial surfaces coated with suboptimal levels of immune complexes. Taken together, S1P from activated platelets or endothelial cells may serve to amplify leukocyte recruitment and tissue injury at sites of immune complex deposition in vasculitis.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 19620297 2009

O Florey, DO Haskard Signalling,

To be able to visualize real time leukocyte - endothelial cell interactions in vitro opens up the possibility of exploring the complex cascade of events that culminate in leukocyte recruitment and diapedesis in a much more detailed and controlled way. Techniques have been developed whereby fluorescently labeled leukocytes are perfused over an endothelial substrate in a controlled manner. Interactions can then be visualized and, using motion tracking software, the movement of cells characterized. Dynamic flow based adhesion assay protocols build on previous static assays of leukocyte adhesion in better modeling the environment in which these interactions actually take place in vivo.

+view abstract Methods in molecular medicine, PMID: 17951668 2007

E Galkina, O Florey, A Zarbock, BR Smith, G Preece, MB Lawrence, DO Haskard, A Ager Signalling,

L-selectin mediates tethering and rolling of lymphocytes in high endothelial venules (HEV) of lymph nodes (LN) and of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. We used transgenic mice expressing varying levels of wild-type or a non-cleavable mutant form of L-selectin on T cells to determine the relationship between L-selectin density, tethering and rolling, and migration into LN. T cells expressing supraphysiological levels of either wild-type or non-cleavable L-selectin showed rolling parameters similar to C57BL/6 T cells in hydrodynamic flow assays and during rolling in Peyer's patch HEV. In contrast, PMA- or antigen-activated T cells and L-selectin(+/-) T cells expressing subphysiological levels of L-selectin showed reduced numbers of rolling cells with increased rolling velocity. Short-term homing studies showed that elevated expression of L-selectin above physiological levels had no effect on T cell migration to LN; however, low L-selectin expression resulted in reduced T cell homing to LN. Thus, T lymphocyte migration into LN is regulated by the density of cell surface L-selectin. In addition, there is a saturable density of L-selectin required for optimal homing to PLN in C57BL/6 mice, the L-selectin level on circulating naive T cells promotes optimal homing, and increased expression above saturating levels promotes no further increase in T cell recruitment.

+view abstract European journal of immunology, PMID: 17429841 2007

OJ Florey, M Johns, OO Esho, JC Mason, DO Haskard Signalling,

Antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) are commonly detectable in diseases associated with vascular injury, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, Takayasu arteritis, Wegener granulomatosis, Behçet syndrome, and transplant arteriosclerosis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that these antibodies might augment polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to endothelium in inflammation. Initially, we established that a mouse IgG mAb bound to endothelial cells (ECs) significantly increased PMN adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelium in an FcgammaRIIa-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibodies, and adenoviral transduction of resting ECs, demonstrated that the combination of E-selectin, CXCR1/2, and beta(2) integrins is both necessary and sufficient for this process. We observed an identical mechanism using AECA IgG isolated directly from patients with SLE. Assembled immune complexes also enhanced PMN adhesion to endothelium, but, in contrast to adhesion because of AECAs, this process did not require CXCR1/2, was not inhibited by pertussis toxin, and was FcgammaRIIIb rather than FcgammaRIIa dependent. These data are the first to demonstrate separate nonredundant FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb-mediated mechanisms by which EC-bound monomeric IgG and assembled immune complexes amplify leukocyte adhesion under dynamic conditions. Furthermore, the observation that FcgammaRIIa and CXCR1/2 cooperate to enhance PMN recruitment in the presence of AECAs suggests a mechanism whereby AECAs may augment tissue injury during inflammatory responses.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 17244681 2007

AL Hepburn, JC Mason, S Wang, CJ Shepherd, O Florey, DO Haskard, KA Davies Signalling,

Abnormal clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system of immune complexes (IC) is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have developed an in vitro model to investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the transfer of soluble IC from erythrocytes to human macrophages under physiological flow conditions. In this assay, erythrocytes bearing fluorescently labelled IC are perfused over monolayers of human monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages in a parallel-plate flow chamber, and transfer quantified using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Using aggregated human IgG as a model IC, we have been able to demonstrate transfer of IC from erythrocytes to macrophages. Blocking studies with specific neutralizing antibodies have shown that both complement and Fcgamma receptors are required for IC transfer. Blockade of CR4 (alpha(x)beta(2) integrin), FcgammaRIIa or FcgammaRIII reduced transfer, while anti-CR3 (alpha(m)beta(2) integrin) had no effect. Blockade of CR3, FcgammaRIIa or FcgammaRIII also reduced the number of adhesive interactions between fluorescently labelled IC-bearing erythrocytes and macrophage monolayers. Taken together with the transfer data, this suggests differing roles for these receptors in the human IC transfer reaction that includes an adhesive function which facilitates IC processing by mononuclear phagocytes. Finally, a functional effect of the FcgammaRIIa R131/H131 polymorphism, important in susceptibility to SLE, has also been demonstrated using this model. Uptake of IgG(2) but not IgG(1)-containing soluble IC was reduced by macrophages from individuals homozygous for the R131 allelic variant of the receptor.

+view abstract Clinical and experimental immunology, PMID: 16968408 2006

J Domin, L Harper, D Aubyn, M Wheeler, O Florey, D Haskard, M Yuan, D Zicha Signalling,

The biological and pathophysiological significance of class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzyme expression currently remains unclear. Using an in vitro scrape wound assay and time-lapse video microscopy, we demonstrate that cell motility is increased in cultures expressing recombinant PI3K-C2beta enzyme. In addition, overexpression of PI3K-C2beta transiently decreased cell adhesion, stimulated the formation of cytoplasmic processes, and decreased the rate of cell proliferation. Consistent with these observations, expression of PI3K-C2beta also decreased expression of alpha4 beta1 integrin subunits. Using asynchronous cultures, we show that endogenous PI3K-C2beta is present in lamellipodia of motile cells. When cells expressing recombinant PI3K-C2beta were plated onto fibronectin, cortical actin staining increased markedly and actin rich lamellipodia and filopodia became evident. Overexpression of a 2xFYVE(Hrs) domain fusion protein abolished this response demonstrating that the effect of PI3K-C2beta on the reorganization of actin filaments is dependent upon PtdIns3P. Finally, overexpression of PI3K-C2beta increased GTP loading of Cdc42. Our data demonstrates for the first time, that PI3K-C2beta plays a regulatory role in cell motility and that the mechanism by which it reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton is dependent upon PtdIns3P production.

+view abstract Journal of cellular physiology, PMID: 16113997 2005

I Nadra, JC Mason, P Philippidis, O Florey, CD Smythe, GM McCarthy, RC Landis, DO Haskard Signalling,

Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition underlies the development of arterial calcification. Inflammatory macrophages colocalize with BCP deposits in developing atherosclerotic lesions and in vitro can promote calcification through the release of TNF alpha. Here we have investigated whether BCP crystals can elicit a proinflammatory response from monocyte-macrophages. BCP microcrystals were internalized into vacuoles of human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. This was associated with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8) capable of activating cultured endothelial cells and promoting capture of flowing leukocytes under shear flow. Critical roles for PKC, ERK1/2, JNK, but not p38 intracellular signaling pathways were identified in the secretion of TNF alpha, with activation of ERK1/2 but not JNK being dependent on upstream activation of PKC. Using confocal microscopy and adenoviral transfection approaches, we determined a specific role for the PKC-alpha isozyme. The response of macrophages to BCP crystals suggests that pathological calcification is not merely a passive consequence of chronic inflammatory disease but may lead to a positive feed-back loop of calcification and inflammation driving disease progression.

+view abstract Circulation research, PMID: 15905460 2005

LA Cardozo, DB Rouw, LR Ambrose, M Midulla, O Florey, DO Haskard, AN Warrens Signalling,

Xenotransplantation offers one way to circumvent the widening gap between the demand for and supply of human organs for transplantation, and the pig is widely regarded as the donor animal most likely to prove appropriate. Most attention has focused on the adaptive immune response to xenogeneic tissue. However, there is optimism that it may soon be possible to overcome that hurdle. In this paper, we consider the possibility of the direct recognition of xenogeneic tissue by neutrophils.

+view abstract Transplantation, PMID: 15614144 2004

DR Yagnik, BJ Evans, O Florey, JC Mason, RC Landis, DO Haskard Signalling,

It has previously been shown that as monocytes differentiate into macrophages, they lose the ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MSU crystals induce macrophages to secrete antiinflammatory factor instead.

+view abstract Arthritis and rheumatism, PMID: 15248227 2004

A Ivetic, O Florey, J Deka, DO Haskard, A Ager, AJ Ridley Signalling,

L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that mediates the initial capture (tethering) and subsequent rolling of leukocytes along ligands expressed on endothelial cells. We have previously identified ezrin and moesin as novel binding partners of the 17-amino acid L-selectin tail, but the biological role of this interaction is not known. Here we identify two basic amino acid residues within the L-selectin tail that are required for binding to ezrin-radixinmoesin (ERM) proteins: arginine 357 and lysine 362. L-selectin mutants defective for ERM binding show reduced localization to microvilli and decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced shedding of the L-selectin ectodomain. Cells expressing these L-selectin mutants have reduced tethering to the L-selectin ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, but rolling velocity on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 is not affected. These results suggest that ERM proteins are required for microvillar positioning of L-selectin and that this is important both for leukocyte tethering and L-selectin shedding.

+view abstract The Journal of biological chemistry, PMID: 15178693 2004

RC Landis, DR Yagnik, O Florey, P Philippidis, V Emons, JC Mason, DO Haskard Signalling,

Although monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals have been recognized since the 18th century as the etiologic agent of gout, it is still unknown why certain hyperuricemic individuals remain asymptomatic, and how an acute attack of gout spontaneously resolves. We hypothesized that mononuclear phagocytes hold the key to these questions, and that the state of monocyte/macrophage differentiation is critical.

+view abstract Arthritis and rheumatism, PMID: 12428246 2002