Chessa TAM, Jung P, Anwar A, Suire S, Anderson KE, Barneda D, Kielkowska A, Sadiq BA, Lai IW, Felisbino S, Turnham DJ, Pearson HB, Phillips WA, Sasaki J, Sasaki T, Oxley D, Spensberger D, Segonds-Pichon A, Wilson M, Walker S, Okkenhaug H, Cosulich S, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling, Imaging, Mass Spectrometry, Bioinformatics, Gene Targeting

The PIP/PI3K network is a central regulator of metabolism and is frequently activated in cancer, commonly by loss of the PIP/PI(3,4)P phosphatase, PTEN. Despite huge research investment, the drivers of the PI3K network in normal tissues and how they adapt to overactivation are unclear. We find that in healthy mouse prostate PI3K activity is driven by RTK/IRS signaling and constrained by pathway feedback. In the absence of PTEN, the network is dramatically remodeled. A poorly understood YXXM- and PIP/PI(3,4)P-binding PH domain-containing adaptor, PLEKHS1, became the dominant activator and was required to sustain PIP, AKT phosphorylation, and growth in PTEN-null prostate. This was because PLEKHS1 evaded pathway-feedback and experienced enhanced PI3K- and Src-family kinase-dependent phosphorylation of YXXM, eliciting PI3K activation. hPLEKHS1 mRNA and activating Y phosphorylation of hSrc correlated with PI3K pathway activity in human prostate cancers. We propose that in PTEN-null cells receptor-independent, Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PLEKHS1 creates positive feedback that escapes homeostasis, drives PIP signaling, and supports tumor progression.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 37567175 17 Aug 2023

Han X, Mei Y, Mishra RK, Bi H, Jain AD, Schiltz GE, Zhao B, Sukhanova M, Wang P, Grigorescu AA, Weber PC, Piwinski JJ, Prado MA, Paulo JA, Stephens L, Anderson KE, Abrams CS, Yang J, Ji P Signalling

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by the activated JAK2-STAT pathway. Pleckstrin-2 (Plek2) is a downstream target of the JAK2-STAT pathway and overexpressed in patients with MPNs. We previously revealed that Plek2 plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of JAK2 mutated MPNs. The non-essential roles of Plek2 under physiologic conditions makes it an ideal target for MPN therapy. Here we identified first-in-class Plek2 inhibitors through an in silico high-throughput screening and cell-based assays followed by the synthesis of analogs. The Plek2 specific small molecule inhibitors showed potent inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Mechanistically, Plek2 interacts with and enhances the activity of Akt through the recruitment of downstream effector proteins. The Plek2 signaling complex also includes Hsp72 that protects Akt from degradation. These functions were blocked by Plek2 inhibitors via their direct binding to Plek2 DEP domain. The role of Plek2 in activating the Akt signaling was further confirmed in vivo using a hematopoietic specific Pten knockout mouse model. We next tested Plek2 inhibitors alone or in combination with an Akt inhibitor in various MPN mouse models, which showed significant therapeutic efficacies similar to the genetic depletion of Plek2. The Plek2 inhibitor was also effective in reducing proliferation of CD34 positive cells from MPN patients. Our studies reveal a Plek2-Akt complex that drives cell proliferation and can be targeted by a new class of anti-proliferative compounds for MPN therapy.

+view abstract The Journal of clinical investigation, PMID: 36719747 31 Jan 2023

Barneda D, Stephens L, Hawkins P Signalling

Li et al present the results of a proximity-interaction screen in mammalian cells for the effector proteins of 25 members of the Arf family of small GTPases. This study has generated an important resource for those working in several areas of cell biology and provided an initial characterisation of two new cellular roles for some of the least well studied members of this family, the regulation of PLD1 by ARL11/14 in phagocytosis, and the regulation of PI4KB by ARL5A/5B in the Golgi.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 35929178 05 Aug 2022

Droubi A, Wallis C, Anderson KE, Rahman S, de Sa A, Rahman T, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Lowe M Signalling

Upon antigen binding, the B cell receptor (BCR) undergoes clustering to form a signalosome that propagates downstream signaling required for normal B cell development and physiology. BCR clustering is dependent on remodeling of the cortical actin network, but the mechanisms that regulate actin remodeling in this context remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify the inositol 5-phosphatase INPP5B as a key regulator of actin remodeling, BCR clustering, and downstream signaling in antigen-stimulated B cells. INPP5B acts via dephosphorylation of the inositol lipid PI(4,5)P2 that in turn is necessary for actin disassembly, BCR mobilization, and cell spreading on immobilized surface antigen. These effects can be explained by increased actin severing by cofilin and loss of actin linking to the plasma membrane by ezrin, both of which are sensitive to INPP5B-dependent PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. INPP5B is therefore a new player in BCR signaling and may represent an attractive target for treatment of B cell malignancies caused by aberrant BCR signaling.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 35878408 05 Sep 2022

Barneda D, Janardan V, Niewczas I, Collins DM, Cosulich S, Clark J, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Phosphoinositides (PIPn) in mammalian tissues are enriched in the stearoyl/arachidonoyl acyl chain species ("C38:4"), but its functional significance is unclear. We have used metabolic tracers (isotopologues of inositol, glucose and water) to study PIPn synthesis in cell lines in which this enrichment is preserved to differing relative extents. We show that PIs synthesised from glucose are initially enriched in shorter/more saturated acyl chains, but then rapidly remodelled towards the C38:4 species. PIs are also synthesised by a distinct 're-cycling pathway', which utilises existing precursors and exhibits substantial selectivity for the synthesis of C38:4-PA and -PI. This re-cycling pathway is rapidly stimulated during receptor activation of phospholipase-C, both allowing the retention of the C38:4 backbone and the close coupling of PIPn consumption to its resynthesis, thus maintaining pool sizes. These results suggest that one property of the specific acyl chain composition of PIPn is that of a molecular code, to facilitate 'metabolic channelling' from PIP2 to PI via pools of intermediates (DG, PA and CDP-DG) common to other lipid metabolic pathways.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 35771169 2022

Walpole GFW, Pacheco J, Chauhan N, Clark J, Anderson KE, Abbas YM, Brabant-Kirwan D, Montaño-Rendón F, Liu Z, Zhu H, Brumell JH, Deiters A, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Hammond GRV, Grinstein S, Fairn GD Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Despite their low abundance, phosphoinositides play a central role in membrane traffic and signalling. PtdIns(3,4,5)P and PtdIns(3,4)P are uniquely important, as they promote cell growth, survival and migration. Pathogenic organisms have developed means to subvert phosphoinositide metabolism to promote successful infection and their survival in host organisms. We demonstrate that PtdIns(3,4)P is a major product generated in host cells by the effectors of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Shigella. Pharmacological, gene silencing and heterologous expression experiments revealed that, remarkably, the biosynthesis of PtdIns(3,4)P occurs independently of phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Instead, we found that the Salmonella effector SopB, heretofore believed to be a phosphatase, generates PtdIns(3,4)P de novo via a phosphotransferase/phosphoisomerase mechanism. Recombinant SopB is capable of generating PtdIns(3,4,5)P and PtdIns(3,4)P from PtdIns(4,5)P in a cell-free system. Through a remarkable instance of convergent evolution, bacterial effectors acquired the ability to synthesize 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides by an ATP- and kinase-independent mechanism, thereby subverting host signalling to gain entry and even provoke oncogenic transformation.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 35484249 May 2022

Luff DH, Wojdyla K, Oxley D, Chessa T, Hudson K, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Barry ST, Okkenhaug K Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a central role in adaptive immunity by transducing signals from the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) via production of PIP. PI3Kδ is a heterodimer composed of a p110δ catalytic subunit associated with a p85α or p85β regulatory subunit and is preferentially engaged by the TCR upon T cell activation. The molecular mechanisms leading to PI3Kδ recruitment and activation at the TCR signalosome remain unclear. In this study, we have used quantitative mass spectrometry, biochemical approaches and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to uncover the p110δ interactome in primary CD4 T cells. Moreover, we have determined how the PI3Kδ interactome changes upon the differentiation of small naïve T cells into T cell blasts expanded in the presence of IL-2. Our interactomic analyses identified multiple constitutive and inducible PI3Kδ-interacting proteins, some of which were common to naïve and previously-activated T cells. Our data reveals that PI3Kδ rapidly interacts with as many as seven adaptor proteins upon TCR engagement, including the Gab-family proteins, GAB2 and GAB3, a CD5-CBL signalosome and the transmembrane proteins ICOS and TRIM. Our results also suggest that PI3Kδ pre-forms complexes with the adaptors SH3KBP1 and CRKL in resting cells that could facilitate the localization and activation of p110δ at the plasma membrane by forming ternary complexes during early TCR signalling. Furthermore, we identify interactions that were not previously known to occur in CD4 T cells, involving BCAP, GAB3, IQGAP3 and JAML. We used CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout in primary T cells to confirm that BCAP is a positive regulator of PI3K-AKT signalling in CD4 T cell blasts. Overall, our results provide evidence for a large protein network that regulates the recruitment and activation of PI3Kδ in T cells. Finally, this work shows how the PI3Kδ interactome is remodeled as CD4 T cells differentiate from naïve T cells to activated T cell blasts. These activated T cells upregulate additional PI3Kδ adaptor proteins, including BCAP, GAB2, IQGAP3 and ICOS. This rewiring of TCR-PI3K signalling that occurs upon T cell differentiation may serve to reduce the threshold of activation and diversify the inputs for the PI3K pathway in effector T cells.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 33763075 2021

Rynkiewicz NK, Anderson KE, Suire S, Collins DM, Karanasios E, Vadas O, Williams R, Oxley D, Clark J, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Mass Spectrometry, Biological Chemistry

The PI3Kγ isoform is activated by Gi-coupled GPCRs in myeloid cells, but the extent to which the two endogenous complexes of PI3Kγ, p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ, receive direct regulation through Gβγ or indirect regulation through RAS and the sufficiency of those inputs is controversial or unclear. We generated mice with point mutations that prevent Gβγ binding to p110γ (RK552DD) or to p101 (VVKR777AAAA) and investigated the effects of these mutations in primary neutrophils and in mouse models of neutrophilic inflammation. Loss of Gβγ binding to p110γ substantially reduced the activation of both p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ in neutrophils by various GPCR agonists. Loss of Gβγ binding to p101 caused more variable effects, depending on both the agonist and cellular response, with the biggest reductions seen in PIP production by primary neutrophils in response to LTB4 and MIP-2 and in the migration of neutrophils during thioglycolate-induced peritonitis or MIP2-induced ear pouch inflammation. We also observed that p101 neutrophils showed enhanced p84-dependent ROS responses to MLP and C5a, suggesting that competition may exist between p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ for Gβγ subunits downstream of GPCR activation. GPCRs did not activate p110γ in neutrophils from mice lacking both the p101 and p84 regulatory subunits, indicating that RAS binding to p110γ is insufficient to support GPCR activation in this cell type. These findings define a direct role for Gβγ subunits in activating both of the endogenous PI3Kγ complexes and indicate that the regulatory PI3Kγ subunit biases activation toward different GPCRs.

+view abstract Science signaling, PMID: 33144519 03 Nov 2020

Barneda D, Cosulich S, Stephens L, Hawkins P Signalling

The phosphoinositide (PIPn) family of signalling phospholipids are central regulators in membrane cell biology. Their varied functions are based on the phosphorylation pattern of their inositol ring, which can be recognized by selective binding domains in their effector proteins and be modified by a series of specific PIPn kinases and phosphatases, which control their interconversion in a spatial and temporal manner. Yet, a unique feature of PIPns remains largely unexplored: their unusually uniform acyl chain composition. Indeed, while most phospholipids present a range of molecular species comprising acyl chains of diverse length and saturation, PIPns in several organisms and tissues show the predominance of a single hydrophobic backbone, which in mammals is composed of arachidonoyl and stearoyl chains. Despite evolution having favoured this specific PIPn configuration, little is known regarding the mechanisms and functions behind it. In this review, we explore the metabolic pathways that could control the acyl chain composition of PIPns as well as the potential roles of this selective enrichment. While our understanding of this phenomenon has been constrained largely by the technical limitations in the methods traditionally employed in the PIPn field, we believe that the latest developments in PIPn analysis should shed light onto this old question.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 31657437 31 10 2019

Suire S, Baltanas FC, Segonds-Pichon A, Davidson K, Santos E, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling, Bioinformatics

Circulating neutrophils are, by necessity, quiescent and relatively unresponsive to acute stimuli. In regions of inflammation, mediators can prime neutrophils to react to acute stimuli with stronger proinflammatory, pathogen-killing responses. In neutrophils G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven proinflammatory responses, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and accumulation of the key intracellular messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP ), are highly dependent on PI3K-γ, a Ras-GTP, and Gβγ coincidence detector. In unprimed cells, the major GPCR-triggered activator of Ras is the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 (RasGRP4). Although priming is known to increase GPCR-PIP signaling, the mechanisms underlying this augmentation remain unclear. We used genetically modified mice to address the role of the 2 RasGEFs, RasGRP4 and son of sevenless (SOS)1/2, in neutrophil priming. We found that following GM-CSF/TNFα priming, RasGRP4 had only a minor role in the enhanced responses. In contrast, SOS1/2 acquired a substantial role in ROS formation, PIP accumulation, and ERK activation in primed cells. These results suggest that SOS1/2 signaling plays a key role in determining the responsiveness of neutrophils in regions of inflammation.

+view abstract Journal of leukocyte biology, PMID: 30720883 2019

Tsolakos N, Durrant TN, Chessa T, Suire SM, Oxley D, Kulkarni S, Downward J, Perisic O, Williams RL, Stephens L, Hawkins PT Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Class IA PI3Ks have many roles in health and disease. The rules that govern intersubunit and receptor associations, however, remain unclear. We engineered mouse lines in which individual endogenous class IA PI3K subunits were C-terminally tagged with 17aa that could be biotinylated in vivo. Using these tools we quantified PI3K subunits in streptavidin or PDGFR pull-downs and cell lysates. This revealed that p85α and β bound equivalently to p110α or p110β but p85α bound preferentially to p110δ. p85s were found in molar-excess over p110s in a number of contexts including MEFs (p85β, 20%) and liver (p85α, 30%). In serum-starved MEFs, p110-free-p85s were preferentially, compared with heterodimeric p85s, bound to PDGFRs, consistent with in vitro assays that demonstrated they bound PDGFR-based tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides with higher affinity and co-operativity; suggesting they may act to tune a PI3K activation threshold. p110α-heterodimers were recruited 5-6× more efficiently than p110β-heterodimers to activated PDGFRs in MEFs or to PDGFR-based tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides in MEF-lysates. This suggests that PI3Kα has a higher affinity for relevant tyrosine-phosphorylated motifs than PI3Kβ. Nevertheless, PI3Kβ contributes substantially to acute PDGF-stimulation of PIP and PKB in MEFs because it is synergistically, and possibly sequentially, activated by receptor-recruitment and small GTPases (Rac/CDC42) via its RBD, whereas parallel activation of PI3Kα is independent of its RBD. These results begin to provide molecular clarity to the rules of engagement between class IA PI3K subunits in vivo and past work describing "excess p85," p85α as a tumor suppressor, and differential receptor activation of PI3Kα and PI3Kβ.

+view abstract Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: 30442661 2018

Koohy H, Bolland DJ, Matheson LS, Schoenfelder S, Stellato C, Dimond A, Várnai C, Chovanec P, Chessa T, Denizot J, Manzano Garcia R, Wingett SW, Freire-Pritchett P, Nagano T, Hawkins P, Stephens L, Elderkin S, Spivakov M, Fraser P, Corcoran AE, Varga-Weisz PD Signalling, Bioinformatics

Aging is characterized by loss of function of the adaptive immune system, but the underlying causes are poorly understood. To assess the molecular effects of aging on B cell development, we profiled gene expression and chromatin features genome-wide, including histone modifications and chromosome conformation, in bone marrow pro-B and pre-B cells from young and aged mice.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 30180872 2018

Mujalli A, Chicanne G, Bertrand-Michel J, Viars F, Stephens L, Hawkins P, Viaud J, Gaits-Iacovoni F, Severin S, Gratacap MP, Terrisse AD, Payrastre B Signalling,

Phosphoinositides are bioactive lipids essential in the regulation of cell signaling as well as cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics. Their metabolism is highly active in blood platelets where they play a critical role during activation, at least through two well identified pathways involving phospholipase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Here, using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method recently developed, we monitored for the first time the profiling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), PIP, PIP and PIP molecular species (fatty-acyl profiles) in human and mouse platelets during the course of stimulation by thrombin and collagen-related peptide. Furthermore, using class IA PI3K p110α or p110β deficient mouse platelets and a pharmacological inhibitor, we show the crucial role of p110β and the more subtle role of p110α in the production of PIP molecular species following stimulation. This comprehensive platelet phosphoinositides profiling provides important resources for future studies and reveals new information on phosphoinositides biology, similarities and differences in mouse and human platelets and unexpected dramatic increase in low-abundance molecular species of PIP during stimulation, opening new perspectives in phosphoinositide signaling in platelets.

+view abstract Biochimica et biophysica acta, PMID: 29902570 2018

Gyori D, Lim EL, Grant FM, Spensberger D, Roychoudhuri R, Shuttleworth SJ, Okkenhaug K, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Gene Targeting

Redundancy and compensation provide robustness to biological systems but may contribute to therapy resistance. Both tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells promote tumor progression by limiting antitumor immunity. Here we show that genetic ablation of CSF1 in colorectal cancer cells reduces the influx of immunosuppressive CSF1R+ TAMs within tumors. This reduction in CSF1-dependent TAMs resulted in increased CD8+ T cell attack on tumors, but its effect on tumor growth was limited by a compensatory increase in Foxp3+ Treg cells. Similarly, disruption of Treg cell activity through their experimental ablation produced moderate effects on tumor growth and was associated with elevated numbers of CSF1R+ TAMs. Importantly, codepletion of CSF1R+ TAMs and Foxp3+ Treg cells resulted in an increased influx of CD8+ T cells, augmentation of their function, and a synergistic reduction in tumor growth. Further, inhibition of Treg cell activity either through systemic pharmacological blockade of PI3Kδ, or its genetic inactivation within Foxp3+ Treg cells, sensitized previously unresponsive solid tumors to CSF1R+ TAM depletion and enhanced the effect of CSF1R blockade. These findings identify CSF1R+ TAMs and PI3Kδ-driven Foxp3+ Treg cells as the dominant compensatory cellular components of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, with implications for the design of combinatorial immunotherapies.

+view abstract JCI insight, PMID: 29875321 2018

Durrant TN, Hutchinson JL, Heesom KJ, Anderson KE, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Marshall AJ, Moore SF, Hers I Signalling,

The class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms play important roles in platelet priming, activation, and stable thrombus formation. Class I PI3Ks predominantly regulate cell function through their catalytic product, the signaling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], which coordinates the localization and/or activity of a diverse range of binding proteins. Notably, the complete repertoire of these class I PI3K effectors in platelets remains unknown, limiting mechanistic understanding of class I PI3K-mediated control of platelet function. We measured robust agonist-driven PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 generation in human platelets by lipidomic mass spectrometry (MS), and then used affinity-capture coupled to high-resolution proteomic MS to identify the targets of PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 in these cells. We reveal for the first time a diverse platelet PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 interactome, including kinases, signaling adaptors, and regulators of small GTPases, many of which are previously uncharacterized in this cell type. Of these, we show dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1) to be regulated by Src-family kinases and PI3K, while platelets from DAPP1-deficient mice display enhanced thrombus formation on collagen in vitro. This was associated with enhanced platelet α/δ granule secretion and αIIbβ3 integrin activation downstream of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI. Thus, we present the first comprehensive analysis of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signalosome of human platelets and identify DAPP1 as a novel negative regulator of platelet function. This work provides important new insights into how class I PI3Ks shape platelet function.

+view abstract Blood advances, PMID: 29242851 2017

Malek M, Kielkowska A, Chessa T, Anderson KE, Barneda D, Pir P, Nakanishi H, Eguchi S, Koizumi A, Sasaki J, Juvin V, Kiselev VY, Niewczas I, Gray A, Valayer A, Spensberger D, Imbert M, Felisbino S, Habuchi T, Beinke S, Cosulich S, Le Novère N, Sasaki T, Clark J, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling, Gene Targeting

The PI3K signaling pathway regulates cell growth and movement and is heavily mutated in cancer. Class I PI3Ks synthesize the lipid messenger PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by 3- or 5-phosphatases, the latter producing PI(3,4)P2. The PTEN tumor suppressor is thought to function primarily as a PI(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase, limiting activation of this pathway. Here we show that PTEN also functions as a PI(3,4)P2 3-phosphatase, both in vitro and in vivo. PTEN is a major PI(3,4)P2 phosphatase in Mcf10a cytosol, and loss of PTEN and INPP4B, a known PI(3,4)P2 4-phosphatase, leads to synergistic accumulation of PI(3,4)P2, which correlated with increased invadopodia in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells. PTEN deletion increased PI(3,4)P2 levels in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and it inversely correlated with PI(3,4)P2 levels across several EGF-stimulated prostate and breast cancer lines. These results point to a role for PI(3,4)P2 in the phenotype caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in PTEN.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 29056325 2017

Gyori D, Chessa T, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a diverse family of enzymes which regulate various critical biological processes, such as cell proliferation and survival. Class (I) PI3Ks (PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ) mediate the phosphorylation of the inositol ring at position D3 leading to the generation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by several phosphatases, of which the best known is the 3-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). The Class (I) PI3K pathway is frequently disrupted in human cancers where mutations are associated with increased PI3K-activity or loss of PTEN functionality within the tumor cells. However, the role of PI3Ks in the tumor stroma is less well understood. Recent evidence suggests that the white blood cell-selective PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ isoforms have an important role in regulating the immune-suppressive, tumor-associated myeloid cell and regulatory T cell subsets, respectively, and as a consequence are also critical for solid tumor growth. Moreover, PI3Kα is implicated in the direct regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and dysregulation of the PI3K pathway in stromal fibroblasts can also contribute to cancer progression. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of the Class (I) PI3K family in the tumor microenvironment can be a highly attractive anti-cancer strategy and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors may act as potent cancer immunotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic agents.

+view abstract Cancers, PMID: 28273837 2017

Cerny O, Anderson KE, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Sebo P Signalling,

The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) plays a key role in immune evasion and virulence of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA penetrates the complement receptor 3-expressing phagocytes and ablates their bactericidal capacities by catalyzing unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key second messenger molecule cAMP. We show that signaling of CyaA-generated cAMP blocks the oxidative burst capacity of neutrophils by two converging mechanisms. One involves cAMP/protein kinase A-mediated activation of the Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and limits the activation of MAPK ERK and p38 that are required for assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex. In parallel, activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) provokes inhibition of the phospholipase C by an as yet unknown mechanism. Indeed, selective activation of Epac by the cell-permeable analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate counteracted the direct activation of phospholipase C by 2,4,6-trimethyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzenesulfonamide. Hence, by inhibiting production of the protein kinase C-activating lipid, diacylglycerol, cAMP/Epac signaling blocks the bottleneck step of the converging pathways of oxidative burst triggering. Manipulation of neutrophil membrane composition by CyaA-produced signaling of cAMP thus enables B. pertussis to evade the key innate host defense mechanism of reactive oxygen species-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 28039302 2017

Bulley SJ, Droubi A, Clarke JH, Anderson KE, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Irvine RF Signalling,

Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are enigmatic lipid kinases with physiological functions that are incompletely understood, not the least because genetic deletion and cell transfection have led to contradictory data. Here, we used the genetic tractability of DT40 cells to create cell lines in which endogenous PI5P4Kα was removed, either stably by genetic deletion or transiently (within 1 h) by tagging the endogenous protein genomically with the auxin degron. In both cases, removal impacted Akt phosphorylation, and by leaving one PI5P4Kα allele present but mutating it to be kinase-dead or have PI4P 5-kinase activity, we show that all of the effects on Akt phosphorylation were dependent on the ability of PI5P4Kα to synthesize phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] rather than to remove PI5P. Although stable removal of PI5P4Kα resulted in a pronounced decrease in Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473, in part because of reduced plasma membrane PIP3, its acute removal led to an increase in Akt phosphorylation only at Ser473. This process invokes activation primarily of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), which was confirmed by increased phosphorylation of other mTORC2 substrates. These findings establish PI5P4Kα as a kinase that synthesizes a physiologically relevant pool of PI(4,5)P2 and as a regulator of mTORC2, and show a phenomenon similar to the "butterfly effect" described for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Iα [Hart JR, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(4):1131-1136], whereby through apparently the same underlying mechanism, the removal of a protein's activity from a cell can have widely divergent effects depending on the time course of that removal.

+view abstract Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: 27601656 2016

Ross SH, Rollings C, Anderson KE, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Cantrell DA Signalling,

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a fundamental cytokine that controls proliferation and differentiation of T cells. Here, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to generate a comprehensive and detailed map of IL-2 protein phosphorylations in cytotoxic T cells (CTL). The data revealed that Janus kinases (JAKs) couple IL-2 receptors to the coordinated phosphorylation of transcription factors, regulators of chromatin, mRNA translation, GTPases, vesicle trafficking, and the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We identified an IL-2-JAK-independent SRC family Tyr-kinase-controlled signaling network that regulates ∼10% of the CTL phosphoproteome, the production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), and the activity of the serine/threonine kinase AKT. These data reveal a signaling framework wherein IL-2-JAK-controlled pathways coordinate with IL-2-independent networks of kinase activity and provide a resource toward the further understanding of the networks of protein phosphorylation that program CTL fate.

+view abstract Immunity, PMID: 27566939 2016

Houslay DM, Anderson KE, Chessa T, Kulkarni S, Fritsch R, Downward J, Backer JM, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling,

Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) catalyze production of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which plays a central role in a complex signaling network regulating cell growth, survival, and movement. This network is overactivated in cancer and inflammation, and there is interest in determining the PI3K catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, or p110δ) that should be targeted in different therapeutic contexts. Previous studies have defined unique regulatory inputs for p110β, including direct interaction with Gβγ subunits, Rac, and Rab5. We generated mice with knock-in mutations of p110β that selectively blocked the interaction with Gβγ and investigated its contribution to the PI3K isoform dependency of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) responses in primary macrophages and neutrophils. We discovered a unique role for p110β in supporting synergistic PIP3 formation in response to the coactivation of macrophages by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the complement protein C5a. In contrast, we found partially redundant roles for p110α, p110β, and p110δ downstream of M-CSF alone and a nonredundant role for p110γ downstream of C5a alone. This role for p110β completely depended on direct interaction with Gβγ, suggesting that p110β transduces GPCR signals in the context of coincident activation by an RTK. The p110β-Gβγ interaction was also required for neutrophils to generate reactive oxygen species in response to the Fcγ receptor-dependent recognition of immune complexes and for their β2 integrin-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen or poly-RGD+, directly implicating heterotrimeric G proteins in these two responses.

+view abstract Science signaling, PMID: 27531651 2016

Frej AD, Clark J, Roy CL, Lilla S, Thomason P, Otto GP, Churchill G, Insall R, Claus SP, Hawkins P, Stephens L, Williams RS Signalling,

Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in inositol auxotrophy that can only be partially rescued by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1(-) mutant results in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalised decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterise this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) was identified with homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism.

+view abstract Molecular and cellular biology, PMID: 26951199 2016

Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

There are eight members of the phosphoinositide family of phospholipids in eukaryotes; PI, PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. Receptor activation of Class I PI3Ks stimulates the phosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 to form PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 is an important messenger molecule that is part of a complex signalling network controlling cell growth and division. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by both 3- and 5-phosphatases, producing PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4)P2, respectively. There is now strong evidence that PI(3,4)P2 generated by this route does not merely represent another pathway for removal of PI(3,4,5)P3, but can act as a signalling molecule in its own right, regulating macropinocytosis, fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME), membrane ruffling, lamellipodia and invadopodia. PI(3,4)P2 can also be synthesized directly from PI4P by Class II PI3Ks and this is important for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits [clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)] and signalling in early endosomes. Thus PI(3,4)P2 is emerging as an important signalling molecule involved in the coordination of several specific membrane and cytoskeletal responses. Further, its inappropriate accumulation contributes to pathology caused by mutations in genes encoding enzymes responsible for its degradation, e.g. Inpp4B.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 26862220 2016

Alliouachene S, Bilanges B, Chicanne G, Anderson KE, Pearce W, Ali K, Valet C, Posor Y, Low PC, Chaussade C, Scudamore CL, Salamon RS, Backer JM, Stephens L, Hawkins PT, Payrastre B, Vanhaesebroeck B Signalling,

In contrast to the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), the organismal roles of the kinase activity of the class II PI3Ks are less clear. Here, we report that class II PI3K-C2β kinase-dead mice are viable and healthy but display an unanticipated enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as well as protection against high-fat-diet-induced liver steatosis. Despite having a broad tissue distribution, systemic PI3K-C2β inhibition selectively enhances insulin signaling only in metabolic tissues. In a primary hepatocyte model, basal PI3P lipid levels are reduced by 60% upon PI3K-C2β inhibition. This results in an expansion of the very early APPL1-positive endosomal compartment and altered insulin receptor trafficking, correlating with an amplification of insulin-induced, class I PI3K-dependent Akt signaling, without impacting MAPK activity. These data reveal PI3K-C2β as a critical regulator of endosomal trafficking, specifically in insulin signaling, and identify PI3K-C2β as a potential drug target for insulin sensitization.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 26655903 2015

Anderson KE, Juvin V, Clark J, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Phosphoinositides in primary mammalian tissue are highly enriched in a stearoyl/arachidonyl (C38:4) diacylgycerol backbone. However, mammalian cells grown in culture typically contain more diverse molecular species of phosphoinositides, characterised by a reduction in arachidonyl content in the sn-2 position. We have analysed the phosphoinositide species in MCF10a cells grown in culture by mass spectrometry. Under either serum or serum starved conditions the most abundant species of PI, PIP, PIP2 and PIP3 had masses which corresponded to C36:2, C38:4, C38:3, C38:2 and C36:1 diacylglycerol backbones and the relative proportions of each molecular species were broadly similar between each phosphoinositide class (approx. 50%, 25%, 10%, 10% and 10% respectively, for the species listed above). Supplementing the culture medium with BSA-loaded arachidonic acid promoted a rapid increase in the proportion of the C38:4 species in all phosphoinositide classes (from approx. 25%-60% of total species within 24 h), but the total amount of all combined species for each class remained remarkably constant. Stimulation of cells, cultured in either normal or arachidonate-enriched conditions, with 2 ng/ml EGF for 90 s caused substantial activation of Class I PI3K and accumulation of PIP3. Despite the increased proportion of C38:4 PIP3 under the arachidonate-supplemented conditions, the total amount of all combined PIP3 species accumulating in response to EGF was the same, with or without arachidonate supplementation; there were however small but significant preferences for the conversion of some PIP2 species to PIP3, with the polyunsaturated C38:4 and C38:3 species being more favoured over other species. These results suggest the enzymes which interconvert phosphoinositides are able to act on several different molecular species and homoeostatic mechanisms are in place to deliver similar phosphoinositide pool sizes under quite different conditions of arachidonate availability. They also suggest enzymes regulating PIP3 levels downstream of growth factor stimulation (i.e. PI3Ks and PIP3-phosphatases) show some acyl selectivity and further work should be directed at assessing whether different acyl species of PIP3 exhibit differing signalling potential.

+view abstract Advances in biological regulation, PMID: 26639089 2015

Norton L, Lindsay Y, Deladeriere A, Chessa T, Guillou H, Suire S, Lucocq J, Walker S, Andrews S, Segonds-Pichon A, Rausch O, Finan P, Sasaki T, Du CJ, Bretschneider T, Ferguson GJ, Hawkins PT, Stephens L Signalling, Bioinformatics

Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important regulators of neutrophil migration in response to a range of chemoattractants. Their primary lipid products PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 preferentially accumulate near to the leading edge of migrating cells and are thought to act as an important cue organizing molecular and morphological polarization. We have investigated the distribution and accumulation of these lipids independently in mouse neutrophils using eGFP-PH reportersand electron microscopy (EM). We found that authentic mouse neutrophils rapidly polarized their Class I PI3K signalling, as read-out by eGFP-PH reporters, both at the up-gradient leading edge in response to local stimulation with fMLP as well as spontaneously and randomly in response to uniform stimulation. EM studies revealed these events occurred at the plasma membrane, were dominated by accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but not PtdIns(3,4)P2, and were dependent on PI3Kγ and its upstream activation by both Ras and Gβγs.

+view abstract Advances in biological regulation, PMID: 26596865 2015

Hukelmann JL, Anderson KE, Sinclair LV, Grzes KM, Murillo AB, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Lamond AI, Cantrell DA Signalling,

We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to map the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) proteome and the effect of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 on CTLs. The CTL proteome was dominated by metabolic regulators and granzymes, and mTORC1 selectively repressed and promoted expression of a subset of CTL proteins (~10%). These included key CTL effector molecules, signaling proteins and a subset of metabolic enzymes. Proteomic data highlighted the potential for negative control of the production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) by mTORC1 in CTLs. mTORC1 repressed PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production and determined the requirement for mTORC2 in activation of the kinase Akt. Our unbiased proteomic analysis thus provides comprehensive understanding of CTL identity and the control of CTL function by mTORC1.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 26551880 2015

Kiselev VY, Juvin V, Malek M, Luscombe N, Hawkins P, Novère NL, Stephens L Signalling,

PIP3 is synthesized by the Class I PI3Ks and regulates complex cell responses, such as growth and migration. Signals that drive long-term reshaping of cell phenotypes are difficult to resolve because of complex feedback networks that operate over extended times. PIP3-dependent modulation of mRNA accumulation is clearly important in this process but is poorly understood. We have quantified the genome-wide mRNA-landscape of non-transformed, breast epithelium-derived MCF10a cells and its response to acute regulation by EGF, in the presence or absence of a PI3Kα inhibitor, compare it to chronic activation of PI3K signalling by cancer-relevant mutations (isogenic cells expressing an oncomutant PI3Kα allele or lacking the PIP3-phosphatase/tumour-suppressor, PTEN). Our results show that whilst many mRNAs are changed by long-term genetic perturbation of PIP3 signalling ('butterfly effect'), a much smaller number do so in a coherent fashion with the different PIP3 perturbations. This suggests a subset of more directly regulated mRNAs. We show that mRNAs respond differently to given aspects of PIP3 regulation. Some PIP3-sensitive mRNAs encode PI3K pathway components, thus suggesting a transcriptional feedback loop. We identify the transcription factor binding motifs SRF and PRDM1 as important regulators of PIP3-sensitive mRNAs involved in cell movement.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 26464442 2015

Deladeriere A, Gambardella L, Pan D, Anderson KE, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

Neutrophils, which migrate toward inflamed sites and kill pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), are important in the defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens, but their inappropriate regulation causes various chronic inflammatory diseases. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) functions downstream of proinflammatory G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in neutrophils and is a therapeutic target. In neutrophils, PI3Kγ consists of a p110γ catalytic subunit, which is activated by the guanosine triphosphatase Ras, and either a p84 or p101 regulatory subunit. Loss or inhibition of p110γ or expression of a Ras-insensitive variant p110γ (p110γ(DASAA/DASAA)) impairs PIP3 production, Akt phosphorylation, migration, and ROS formation in response to GPCR activation. The p101 subunit binds to, and mediates PI3Kγ activation by, G protein βγ subunits, and p101(-/-) neutrophils have a similar phenotype to that of p110γ(-/-) neutrophils, except that ROS responses are normal. We found that p84(-/-) neutrophils displayed reduced GPCR-stimulated PIP3 and Akt signaling, which was indistinguishable from that of p101(-/-) neutrophils. However, p84(-/-) neutrophils produced less ROS and exhibited normal migration in response to GPCR stimulation. These data suggest that p84-containing PI3Kγ controls GPCR-dependent ROS production. Thus, the PI3Kγ regulatory subunits enable PI3Kγ to mediate distinct neutrophil responses, which may occur by targeting PIP3 signaling into spatially distinct domains.

+view abstract Science signaling, PMID: 25605974 2015

Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

PI3Ks regulate several key events in the inflammatory response to damage and infection. There are four Class I PI3K isoforms (PI3Kα,β,γ,δ), three Class II PI3K isoforms (PI3KC2α, C2β, C2γ) and a single Class III PI3K. The four Class I isoforms synthesise the phospholipid 'PIP3'. PIP3 is a 'second messenger' used by many different cell surface receptors to control cell movement, growth, survival and differentiation. These four isoforms have overlapping functions but each is adapted to receive efficient stimulation by particular receptor sub-types. PI3Kγ is highly expressed in leukocytes and plays a particularly important role in chemokine-mediated recruitment and activation of innate immune cells at sites of inflammation. PI3Kδ is also highly expressed in leukocytes and plays a key role in antigen receptor and cytokine-mediated B and T cell development, differentiation and function. Class III PI3K synthesises the phospholipid PI3P, which regulates endosome-lysosome trafficking and the induction of autophagy, pathways involved in pathogen killing, antigen processing and immune cell survival. Much less is known about the function of Class II PI3Ks, but emerging evidence indicates they can synthesise PI3P and PI34P2 and are involved in the regulation of endocytosis. The creation of genetically-modified mice with altered PI3K signalling, together with the development of isoform-selective, small-molecule PI3K inhibitors, has allowed the evaluation of the individual roles of Class I PI3K isoforms in several mouse models of chronic inflammation. Selective inhibition of PI3Kδ, γ or β has each been shown to reduce the severity of inflammation in one or more models of autoimmune disease, respiratory disease or allergic inflammation, with dual γ/δ or β/δ inhibition generally proving more effective. The inhibition of Class I PI3Ks may therefore offer a therapeutic opportunity to treat non-resolving inflammatory pathologies in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides.

+view abstract Biochimica et biophysica acta, PMID: 25514767 2015

Clark J,Kay RR,Kielkowska A,Niewczas I,Fets L,Oxley D,Stephens LR,Hawkins PT Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Inositol phospholipids are critical regulators of membrane biology throughout eukaryotes. The general principle by which they perform these roles is conserved across species and involves binding of differentially phosphorylated inositol head groups to specific protein domains. This interaction serves to both recruit and regulate the activity of several different classes of protein which act on membrane surfaces. In mammalian cells, these phosphorylated inositol head groups are predominantly borne by a C38:4 diacylglycerol backbone. We show here that the inositol phospholipids of Dictyostelium are different, being highly enriched in an unusual C34:1e lipid backbone, 1-hexadecyl-2-(11Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol), in which the sn-1 position contains an ether-linked C16:0 chain; they are thus plasmanylinositols. These plasmanylinositols respond acutely to stimulation of cells with chemoattractants, and their levels are regulated by PIPKs, PI3Ks and PTEN. In mammals and now in Dictyostelium, the hydrocarbon chains of inositol phospholipids are a highly selected subset of those available to other phospholipids, suggesting that different molecular selectors are at play in these organisms but serve a common, evolutionarily conserved purpose.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 25180230 2014

Jones DR, Keune WJ, Anderson KE, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Divecha N Signalling,

Glucose provides an essential nutrient source that supports glycolysis and the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) to maintain tumour cell growth and survival. Here we investigated if short-term glucose deprivation specifically modulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB) cell survival pathway. Insulin-stimulated PKB activation was strongly abrogated in the absence of extracellular glucose as a consequence of the loss of insulin-stimulated PI3K activation and short-term glucose deprivation inhibited subsequent tumour cell growth. Loss of insulin-stimulated PKB signalling and cell growth was rescued by extracellular glucosamine and increased flux through the HBP. Disruption of O-GlcNAc transferase activity, a terminal step in the HBP, implicated O-GlcNAcylation in PKB signalling and cell growth. Glycogenolysis is known to support cell survival during glucose deprivation, and in A549 lung cancer cells its inhibition attenuates PKB activation which is rescued by increased flux through the HBP. Our studies show that rerouting of glycolytic metabolites to the HBP under glucose-restricted conditions maintains PI3K/PKB signalling enabling cell survival and proliferation.

+view abstract The FEBS journal, PMID: 24938479 2014

Győri D, Csete D, Benkő S, Kulkarni S, Mandl P, Dobó-Nagy C, Vanhaesebroeck B, Stephens L, Hawkins PT, Mócsai A Signalling,

While phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in various intracellular signal transduction processes, the specific functions of the different PI3K isoforms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that the PI3Kβ isoform is required for arthritis development in the K/BxN serum-transfer model. Since osteoclasts play a critical role in pathologic bone loss during inflammatory arthritis and other diseases, we undertook this study to test the role of PI3Kβ in osteoclast development and function using a combined genetic and pharmacologic approach.

+view abstract Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), PMID: 24719382 2014

Potter DS, Kelly P, Denneny O, Juvin V, Stephens LR, Dive C, Morrow CJ Signalling,

Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer, and reversing this process by inhibition of survival signaling pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling can promote cell survival and is upregulated in solid tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC), although these effects are context dependent. The role of PI3K in tumorigenesis combined with their amenability to specific inhibition makes them attractive drug targets. However, we observed that inhibition of PI3K in HCT116, DLD-1, and SW620 CRC cells did not induce apoptotic cell death. Moreover, these cells were relatively resistant to the Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetic ABT-737, which directly targets the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators. To test the hypothesis that PI3K inhibition lowers the apoptotic threshold without causing apoptosis per se, PI3K inhibitors were combined with ABT-737. PI3K inhibition enhanced ABT-737-induced apoptosis by 2.3- to 4.5-fold and reduced expression levels of MCL-1, the resistance biomarker for ABT-737. PI3K inhibition enhanced ABT-737-induced apoptosis a further 1.4- to 2.4-fold in CRC cells with small interfering RNA-depleted MCL-1, indicative of additional sensitizing mechanisms. The observation that ABT-737-induced apoptosis was unaffected by inhibition of PI3K downstream effectors AKT and mTOR, implicated a novel PI3K-dependant pathway. To elucidate this, an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of potential downstream effectors of PI3K signaling was conducted, which demonstrated that knockdown of the TEC kinase BMX sensitized to ABT-737. This suggests that BMX is an antiapoptotic downstream effector of PI3K, independent of AKT.

+view abstract Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), PMID: 24709422 2014

G Damoulakis, L Gambardella, KL Rossman, CD Lawson, KE Anderson, Y Fukui, HC Welch, CJ Der, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins ,

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton by activating the Rac subfamily of small GTPases. The guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) P-Rex1 is engaged downstream of GPCRs and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in many cell types, and promotes tumorigenic signalling and metastasis in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. Although P-Rex1-dependent functions have been attributed to its GEF activity towards Rac1, we show that P-Rex1 also acts as a GEF for the Rac-related GTPase RhoG, both in vitro and in GPCR-stimulated primary mouse neutrophils. Furthermore, loss of either P-Rex1 or RhoG caused equivalent reductions in GPCR-driven Rac activation and Rac-dependent NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting they both function upstream of Rac in this system. Loss of RhoG also impaired GPCR-driven recruitment of the Rac GEF DOCK2, and F-actin, to the leading edge of migrating neutrophils. Taken together, our results reveal a new signalling hierarchy in which P-Rex1, acting as a GEF for RhoG, regulates Rac-dependent functions indirectly through RhoG-dependent recruitment of DOCK2. These findings thus have broad implications for our understanding of GPCR signalling to Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 24659802 2014

Hodakoski C, Hopkins BD, Barrows D, Mense SM, Keniry M, Anderson KE, Kern PA, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Parsons R Signalling,

Insulin activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling regulates glucose homeostasis through the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). The dual-specificity phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) blocks PI3K signaling by dephosphorylating PIP3, and is inhibited through its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 2 (P-REX2). The mechanism of inhibition and its physiological significance are not known. Here, we report that P-REX2 interacts with PTEN via two interfaces. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of P-REX2 inhibits PTEN by interacting with the catalytic region of PTEN, and the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase domain of P-REX2 provides high-affinity binding to the postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1-binding domain of PTEN. P-REX2 inhibition of PTEN requires C-terminal phosphorylation of PTEN to release the P-REX2 PH domain from its neighboring diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain. Consistent with its function as a PTEN inhibitor, deletion of Prex2 in fibroblasts and mice results in increased Pten activity and decreased insulin signaling in liver and adipose tissue. Prex2 deletion also leads to reduced glucose uptake and insulin resistance. In human adipose tissue, P-REX2 protein expression is decreased and PTEN activity is increased in insulin-resistant human subjects. Taken together, these results indicate a functional role for P-REX2 PH-domain-mediated inhibition of PTEN in regulating insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis and suggest that loss of P-REX2 expression may cause insulin resistance.

+view abstract Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: 24367090 2014

I Angulo, O Vadas, F Garçon, E Banham-Hall, V Plagnol, TR Leahy, H Baxendale, T Coulter, J Curtis, C Wu, K Blake-Palmer, O Perisic, D Smyth, M Maes, C Fiddler, J Juss, D Cilliers, G Markelj, A Chandra, G Farmer, A Kielkowska, J Clark, S Kracker, M Debré, C Picard, I Pellier, N Jabado, JA Morris, G Barcenas-Morales, A Fischer, L Stephens, P Hawkins, JC Barrett, M Abinun, M Clatworthy, A Durandy, R Doffinger, E Chilvers, AJ Cant, D Kumararatne, K Okkenhaug, RL Williams, A Condliffe, S Nejentsev Immunology,

Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-δ Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.

+view abstract Science (New York, N.Y.), PMID: 24136356 2013

Juvin V, Malek M, Anderson KE, Dion C, Chessa T, Lecureuil C, Ferguson GJ, Cosulich S, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives) and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ) and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB), and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K), basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/-) cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/-) MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely modulating PI3K-activity-independent mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that there is not a universal mechanism that up-regulates p110β function in the absence of PTEN.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 24124465 2013

Kielkowska A, Niewczas I, Anderson KE, Durrant TN, Clark J, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling,

The phosphoinositide family of phospholipids, defined here as PtdIns, PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns5P, PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(3,5)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, play pivotal roles in organising the location and activity of many different proteins acting on biological membranes, including those involved in vesicle and protein trafficking through the endolysosomal system and receptor signal transduction at the plasma membrane. Accurate measurement of the cellular levels of these lipids, particularly the more highly phosphorylated species, is hampered by their high polarity and low cellular concentrations. Recently, much progress has been made in using mass spectrometry to measure many different lipid classes in parallel, an approach generally referred to as 'lipidomics'. Unfortunately, the acidic nature of highly phosphorylated phosphoinositides makes them difficult to measure using these methods, because they yield low levels of useful ions; this is particularly the case with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. We have solved some of these problems by methylating the phosphate groups of these lipids with TMS-diazomethane and describe a simple, integrated approach to measuring PtdIns, PtdInsP, PtdInsP2 and PtdInsP3 classes of lipids, in parallel with other phospholipid species, in cell and tissue extracts. This methodology is sensitive, accurate and robust, and also yields fatty-acyl compositions, suggesting it can be used to further our understanding of both the normal and pathophysiological roles of these important lipids.

+view abstract Advances in biological regulation, PMID: 24120934 2014

Du CJ, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Bretschneider T Signalling,

Fundamental cellular processes such as cell movement, division or food uptake critically depend on cells being able to change shape. Fast acquisition of three-dimensional image time series has now become possible, but we lack efficient tools for analysing shape deformations in order to understand the real three-dimensional nature of shape changes.

+view abstract BMC bioinformatics, PMID: 24090312 2013

L Stephens, P Hawkins ,

+view abstract PLoS biology, PMID: 23853549 2013

O Hoeller, P Bolourani, J Clark, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins, OD Weiner, G Weeks, RR Kay ,

Class-1 PI3-kinases are major regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, whose precise contributions to chemotaxis, phagocytosis and macropinocytosis remain unresolved. We used systematic genetic ablation to examine this question in growing Dictyostelium cells. Mass spectroscopy shows that a quintuple mutant lacking the entire genomic complement of class-1 PI3-kinases retains only 10% of wild-type PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels. Chemotaxis to folate and phagocytosis of bacteria proceed normally in the quintuple mutant but macropinocytosis is abolished. In this context PI3-kinases show specialized functions, only one of which is directly linked to gross PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels: macropinosomes originate in patches of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, with associated F-actin-rich ruffles, both of which depend on PI3-kinase 1/2 (PI3K1/2) but not PI3K4, whereas conversion of ruffles into vesicles requires PI3K4. A biosensor derived from the Ras-binding domain of PI3K1 suggests that Ras is activated throughout vesicle formation. Binding assays show that RasG and RasS interact most strongly with PI3K1/2 and PI3K4, and single mutants of either Ras have severe macropinocytosis defects. Thus, the fundamental function of PI3-kinases in growing Dictyostelium cells is in macropinocytosis where they have two distinct functions, supported by at least two separate Ras proteins.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 23843627 2013

KE Anderson, A Kielkowska, TN Durrant, V Juvin, J Clark, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins ,

We disrupted the gene encoding lysophosphatidylinositol-acyltransferase-1 (LPIAT1) in the mouse with the aim of understanding its role in determining cellular phosphoinositide content. LPIAT1(-/-) mice were born at lower than Mendelian ratios and exhibited a severe developmental brain defect. We compared the phospholipid content of livers and brains from LPIAT1(-/-) and LPIAT1(+/+) littermates by LC-ESI/MS. In accord with previous studies, the most abundant molecular species of each phosphoinositide class (PtdIns, PtdInsP, PtdInsP2 and PtdInsP3) possessed a C38∶4 complement of fatty-acyl esters (C18∶0 and C20∶4 are usually assigned to the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively). LPIAT1(-/-) liver and brain contained relatively less of the C38∶4 species of PtdIns, PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 (dropping from 95-97% to 75-85% of the total species measured for each lipid class) and relatively more of the less abundant species (PtdInsP3 less abundant species were below our quantification levels). The increases in the less abundant PtdIns and PtdInsP2 species did not compensate for the loss in C38∶4 species, resulting in a 26-44% reduction in total PtdIns and PtdInsP2 levels in both brain and liver. LPIAT1(-/-) brain and liver also contained increased levels of C18∶0 lyso-PtdIns (300% and 525% respectively) indicating a defect in the reacylation of this molecule. LPIAT1(-/-) brain additionally contained significantly reduced C38∶4 PC and PE levels (by 47% and 55% respectively), possibly contributing to the phenotype in this organ. The levels of all other molecular species of PC, PE, PS and PA measured in the brain and liver were very similar between LPIAT1(-/-) and LPIAT1(+/+) samples. These results suggest LPIAT1 activity plays a non-redundant role in maintaining physiological levels of PtdIns within an active deacylation/reacylation cycle in mouse tissues. They also suggest that this pathway must act in concert with other, as yet unidentified, mechanisms to achieve the enrichment observed in C38∶4 molecular species of phosphoinositides.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 23472195 2013

KB Boyle, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins ,

Upon infection of the respiratory system with the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus various leukoctytes, in particular neutrophils, are recruited to the lung to mount an immune response. Neutrophils respond by both phagocytosing conidia and mediating extracellular killing of germinated, invasive hyphae. Of paramount importance to an appropriate immune response is the neutrophil NADPH oxidase enzyme, which mediates the production of various reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is evidenced by the acute sensitivity of both oxidase-deficient humans and mice to invasive aspergillosis. Herein we briefly review the mechanisms and functions of oxidase activation and discuss our recent work identifying at least some of the important players in hyphal-induced oxidase activation and neutrophil function. Among these we define the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzyme and the regulatory protein Vav to be of critical importance and allude to a kinase-independent role for Syk.

+view abstract Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, PMID: 23230839 2012

L Gambardella, KE Anderson, Z Jakus, M Kovács, S Voigt, PT Hawkins, L Stephens, A Mócsai, S Vermeren ,

ARAP3, a GTPase activating protein for Rho and Arf family GTPases, is one of many phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) effectors. In this study, we investigate the regulatory input of PI3K upstream of ARAP3 by analyzing neutrophils from an ARAP3 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain point mutation knock-in mouse (R302, 303A), in which ARAP3 is uncoupled from activation by PI3K. ARAP3 PH domain point mutant neutrophils are characterized by disturbed responses linked to stimulation by either integrin ligands or immobilized immune complexes. These cells exhibit increased β2 integrin inside-out signaling (binding affinity and avidity), and our work suggests the disturbed responses to immobilized immune complexes are secondary to this. In vitro, neutrophil chemotaxis is affected in the mutant. In vivo, ARAP3 PH domain point mutant bone marrow chimeras exhibit reduced neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum on induction of sterile peritonitis and also reduced inflammation in a model for rheumatoid arthritis. The current work suggests a dramatic regulatory input of PI3K into the regulation of β2 integrin activity, and processes dependent on this, by signaling through its effector ARAP3.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 23180820 2013

JK Juss, RP Hayhoe, CE Owen, I Bruce, SR Walmsley, AS Cowburn, S Kulkarni, KB Boyle, L Stephens, PT Hawkins, ER Chilvers, AM Condliffe ,

We have investigated the contribution of individual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Class I isoforms to the regulation of neutrophil survival using (i) a panel of commercially available small molecule isoform-selective PI3K Class I inhibitors, (ii) novel inhibitors, which target single or multiple Class I isoforms (PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kδ, and PI3Kγ), and (iii) transgenic mice lacking functional PI3K isoforms (p110δ(KO)γ(KO) or p110γ(KO)). Our data suggest that there is considerable functional redundancy amongst Class I PI3Ks (both Class IA and Class IB) with regard to GM-CSF-mediated suppression of neutrophil apoptosis. Hence pharmacological inhibition of any 3 or more PI3K isoforms was required to block the GM-CSF survival response in human neutrophils, with inhibition of individual or any two isoforms having little or no effect. Likewise, isolated blood neutrophils derived from double knockout PI3K p110δ(KO)γ(KO) mice underwent normal time-dependent constitutive apoptosis and displayed identical GM-CSF mediated survival to wild type cells, but were sensitized to pharmacological inhibition of the remaining PI3K isoforms. Surprisingly, the pro-survival neutrophil phenotype observed in patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was resilient to inactivation of the PI3K pathway.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 23029326 2012

S Suire, C Lécureuil, KE Anderson, G Damoulakis, I Niewczas, K Davidson, H Guillou, D Pan, Jonathan Clark, Phillip T Hawkins, L Stephens ,

The molecular mechanisms by which receptors regulate the Ras Binding Domains of the PIP3-generating, class I PI3Ks remain poorly understood, despite their importance in a range of biological settings, including tumorigenesis, activation of neutrophils by pro-inflammatory mediators, chemotaxis of Dictyostelium and cell growth in Drosophila. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can stimulate PLCb2/b3 and diacylglycerol- dependent activation of the RasGEF, RasGRP4 in neutrophils. The genetic loss of RasGRP4 phenocopies knock-in of a Ras-insensitive version of PI3Kc in its effects on PI3Kc-dependent PIP3 accumulation, PKB activation, chemokinesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. These results establish a new mechanism by which GPCRs can stimulate Ras, and the broadly important principle that PLCs can control activation of class I PI3Ks.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 22728827 2012

B Vanhaesebroeck, L Stephens, P Hawkins ,

Over the past two decades, our understanding of phospoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) has progressed from the identification of an enzymatic activity associated with growth factors, GPCRs and certain oncogene products to a disease target in cancer and inflammation, with PI3K inhibitors currently in clinical trials. Elucidation of PI3K-dependent networks led to the discovery of the phosphoinositide-binding PH, PX and FYVE domains as conduits of intracellular lipid signalling, the determination of the molecular function of the tumour suppressor PTEN and the identification of AKT and mTOR protein kinases as key regulators of cell growth. Here we look back at the main discoveries that shaped the PI3K field.

+view abstract Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, PMID: 22358332 2012

MA Vinolo, GJ Ferguson, S Kulkarni, G Damoulakis, K Anderson, M Bohlooly-Y, L Stephens, PT Hawkins, R Curi ,

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have recently attracted attention as potential mediators of the effects of gut microbiota on intestinal inflammation. Some of these effects have been suggested to occur through the direct actions of SCFAs on the GPR43 receptor in neutrophils, though the precise role of this receptor in neutrophil activation is still unclear. We show that mouse bone marrow derived neutrophils (BMNs) can chemotax effectively through polycarbonate filters towards a source of acetate, propionate or butyrate. Moreover, we show that BMNs move with good speed and directionality towards a source of propionate in an EZ-Taxiscan chamber coated with fibrinogen. These effects of SCFAs were mimicked by low concentrations of the synthetic GPR43 agonist phenylacetamide-1 and were abolished in GPR43(-/-) BMNs. SCFAs and phenylacetamide-1 also elicited GPR43-dependent activation of PKB, p38 and ERK and these responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin, indicating a role for Gi proteins. Phenylacetamide-1 also elicited rapid and transient activation of Rac1/2 GTPases and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic and pharmacological intervention identified important roles for PI3Kγ, Rac2, p38 and ERK, but not mTOR, in GPR43-dependent chemotaxis. These results identify GPR43 as a bona fide chemotactic receptor for neutrophils in vitro and start to define important elements in its signal transduction pathways.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 21698257 2011

L Gambardella, KE Anderson, C Nussbaum, A Segonds-Pichon, T Margarido, L Norton, T Ludwig, M Sperandio, PT Hawkins, L Stephens, S Vermeren ,

Neutrophils form a vital part of the innate immune response, but at the same time their inappropriate activation contributes to autoimmune diseases. Many molecular components are involved in fine-tuning neutrophil function. We report here the first characterization of the role of ARAP3, a PI3K and Rap-regulated GTPase-activating protein for RhoA and Arf6 in murine neutrophils. We show that neutrophils lacking ARAP3 are preactivated in vitro and in vivo, exhibiting increased β2 integrin affinity and avidity. ARAP3-deficient neutrophils are hyperresponsive in several adhesion-dependent situations in vitro, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, adhesion, spreading, and granule release. ARAP3-deficient cells adhere more firmly under flow conditions in vitro and to the vessel wall in vivo. Finally, loss of ARAP3 interferes with integrin-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis. The results of the present study suggest an important function of ARAP3 downstream of Rap. By modulating β2 integrin activity, ARAP3 guards neutrophils in their quiescent state unless activated.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 21490342 2011

S Kulkarni, C Sitaru, Z Jakus, KE Anderson, G Damoulakis, K Davidson, M Hirose, J Juss, D Oxley, TA Chessa, F Ramadani, H Guillou, A Segonds-Pichon, A Fritsch, GE Jarvis, K Okkenhaug, R Ludwig, D Zillikens, A Mocsai, B Vanhaesebroeck, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins ,

Neutrophils are activated by immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing immune complexes through receptors that recognize the Fc portion of IgG (FcγRs). Here, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to define a selective role for the β isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kβ) in FcγR-dependent activation of mouse neutrophils by immune complexes of IgG and antigen immobilized on a plate surface. At low concentrations of immune complexes, loss of PI3Kβ alone substantially inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils, whereas at higher doses, similar suppression of ROS production was achieved only by targeting both PI3Kβ and PI3Kδ, suggesting that this pathway displays stimulus strength-dependent redundancy. Activation of PI3Kβ by immune complexes involved cooperation between FcγRs and BLT1, the receptor for the endogenous proinflammatory lipid leukotriene B₄. Coincident activation by a tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor (FcγR) and a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (BLT1) may provide a rationale for the preferential activation of the β isoform of PI3K. PI3Kβ-deficient mice were highly protected in an FcγR-dependent model of autoantibody-induced skin blistering and were partially protected in an FcγR-dependent model of inflammatory arthritis, whereas combined deficiency of PI3Kβ and PI3Kδ resulted in near-complete protection in the latter case. These results define PI3Kβ as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory disease.

+view abstract Science signaling, PMID: 21487106 2011

X Zhang, O Vadas, O Perisic, KE Anderson, J Clark, PT Hawkins, LR Stephens, RL Williams Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential for cell growth, migration, and survival. The structure of a p110β/p85β complex identifies an inhibitory function for the C-terminal SH2 domain (cSH2) of the p85 regulatory subunit. Mutagenesis of a cSH2 contact residue activates downstream signaling in cells. This inhibitory contact ties up the C-terminal region of the p110β catalytic subunit, which is essential for lipid kinase activity. In vitro, p110β basal activity is tightly restrained by contacts with three p85 domains: the cSH2, nSH2, and iSH2. RTK phosphopeptides relieve inhibition by nSH2 and cSH2 using completely different mechanisms. The binding site for the RTK's pYXXM motif is exposed on the cSH2, requiring an extended RTK motif to reach and disrupt the inhibitory contact with p110β. This contrasts with the nSH2 where the pY-binding site itself forms the inhibitory contact. This establishes an unusual mechanism by which p85 SH2 domains contribute to RTK signaling specificities.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 21362552 2011

J Clark, KE Anderson, V Juvin, TS Smith, F Karpe, MJ Wakelam, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms generate the intracellular signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)). PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) regulates major aspects of cellular behavior, and the use of both genetic and pharmacological intervention has revealed important isoform-specific roles for PI3Ks in health and disease. Despite this interest, current methods for measuring PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) have major limitations, including insensitivity, reliance on radiolabeling, low throughput and an inability to resolve different fatty-acyl species. We introduce a methodology based on phosphate methylation coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to solve many of these problems and describe an integrated approach to quantify PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and related phosphoinositides (regio-isomers of PtdInsP and PtdInsP(2) are not resolved). This methodology can be used to quantify multiple fatty-acyl species of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in unstimulated mouse and human cells (≥10(5)) or tissues (≥0.1 mg) and their increase upon appropriate stimulation.

+view abstract Nature methods, PMID: 21278744 2011

KB Boyle, D Gyori, A Sindrilaru, K Scharffetter-Kochanek, PR Taylor, A Mócsai, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling,

An effective immune response to the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase. This is evidenced by the acute sensitivity of oxidase-deficient humans and mice to invasive aspergillosis. Neutrophils are recruited to the lungs shortly postinfection and respond by phagocytosing conidia and mediating extracellular killing of germinated hyphae in a ROS-dependent manner. However, the signaling mechanisms regulating the generation of ROS in response to hyphae are poorly understood. PI3Ks are important regulators of numerous cellular processes, with much recent work describing unique roles for the different class I PI3K isoforms. We showed by live-cell imaging that the lipid products of class I PI3Ks accumulated at the hyphal-bound neutrophil plasma membrane. Further, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate essential, but overlapping, roles for PI3Kβ and PI3Kδ in the ROS and spreading responses of murine neutrophils to Aspergillus hyphae. Hyphal-induced ROS responses were substantially inhibited by deletion of the common β2-integrin subunit CD18, with only a minor, redundant role for Dectin-1. However, addition of soluble algal glucans plus the genetic deletion of CD18 were required to significantly inhibit activation of the PI3K-effector protein kinase B. Hyphal ROS responses were also totally dependent on the presence of Syk, but not its ITAM-containing adaptor proteins FcRγ or DAP12, and the Vav family of Rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factors. These results start to define the signaling network controlling neutrophil ROS responses to A. fumigatus hyphae.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 21257963 2011

L Stephens, P Hawkins Signalling,

+view abstract Advances in enzyme regulation, PMID: 21035483 2011

TA Chessa, KE Anderson, Y Hu, Q Xu, O Rausch, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling,

The neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase is a multisubunit enzyme (comprising gp91(phox), p22(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), and Rac) that plays a vital role in microbial killing. The recent discovery of a chronic granulomatous disease patient who expresses a mutant p40(phox) subunit, together with the development of mouse models of p40(phox) function, indicate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding to the PX domain of p40(phox) is an important signal for oxidase activation. However, the presence of other conserved residues and domains in p40(phox) suggest further regulatory roles for this protein. To test this, we introduced wild-type and mutated versions of p40(phox) into fully differentiated mouse neutrophils by retroviral transduction of p40(phox)(-/-) bone marrow progenitors and repopulation of the bone marrow compartment in radiation chimaeras. Phosphorylation of p40(phox) on threonine 154, but not serine 315, was required for full oxidase activation in response to formylated bacterial peptide fMLP, serum-opsonized S aureus, and immunoglobulin-opsonized sheep red blood cells. A functional SH3 domain was not required for oxidase activation, and deletion of the entire domain resulted in enhanced oxidase responses. Phosphorylation of threonine 154 in response to S aureus was mediated by protein kinase Cδ and was required for full translocation of p47(phox) to phagosomes. These results define an important new element in the physiological activation of the oxidase.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 20861461 2010

KE Anderson, TA Chessa, K Davidson, RB Henderson, S Walker, T Tolmachova, K Grys, O Rausch, MC Seabra, VL Tybulewicz, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling,

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus-containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (∼ 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40(phox), but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67(phox). In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40(phox) and Rac2-p67(phox) interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 20813901 2010

SJ Conway, J Gardiner, SJ Grove, MK Johns, ZY Lim, GF Painter, DE Robinson, C Schieber, JW Thuring, LS Wong, MX Yin, AW Burgess, B Catimel, PT Hawkins, NT Ktistakis, LR Stephens, AB Holmes Signalling,

The synthesis of the complete family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate analogues (PIPs) from five key core intermediates A-E is described. These core compounds were obtained from myo-inositol orthoformate 1 via regioselective DIBAL-H and trimethylaluminium-mediated cleavages and a resolution-protection process using camphor acetals 10. Coupling of cores A-E with phosphoramidites 34 and 38, derived from the requisite protected lipid side chains, afforded the fully-protected PIPs. Removal of the remaining protecting groups was achieved via hydrogenolysis using palladium black or palladium hydroxide on carbon in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to afford the complete family of dipalmitoyl- and amino-PIP analogues 42, 45, 50, 51, 58, 59, 67, 68, 76, 77, 82, 83, 92, 93, 99 and 100. Investigations using affinity probes incorporating these compounds have identified novel proteins involved in the PI3K intracellular signalling network and have allowed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of phosphoinositide interacting proteins.

+view abstract Organic & biomolecular chemistry, PMID: 20024134 2010

KE Anderson, KB Boyle, K Davidson, TA Chessa, S Kulkarni, GE Jarvis, A Sindrilaru, K Scharffetter-Kochanek, O Rausch, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling,

Phagocytosis and activation of the NADPH oxidase are important mechanisms by which neutrophils and macrophages engulf and kill microbial pathogens. We investigated the role of PI3K signaling pathways in the regulation of the oxidase during phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by mouse and human neutrophils, a mouse macrophage-like cell line and a human myeloid-like cell line. Phagocytosis of these bacteria was promoted by serum, independent of serum-derived antibodies, and effectively abolished in mouse neutrophils lacking the beta(2)-integrin common chain, CD18. A combination of PI3K isoform-selective inhibitors, mouse knock-outs, and RNA-interference indicated CD18-dependent activation of the oxidase was independent of class I and II PI3Ks, but substantially dependent on the single class III isoform (Vps34). Class III PI3K was responsible for the synthesis of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomes containing either bacteria. The use of mouse neutrophils carrying an appropriate knock-in mutation indicated that PtdIns(3)P binding to the PX domain of their p40(phox) oxidase subunit is important for oxidase activation in response to both S aureus and E coli. This interaction does not, however, account for all the PI3K sensitivity of these responses, particularly the oxidase response to E coli, suggesting that additional mechanisms for PtdIns(3)P-regulation of the oxidase must exist.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 18755982 2008

L Stephens, L Milne, P Hawkins Signalling,

Eukaryotic cells are thought to move across supporting surfaces through a combination of coordinated processes: polarisation; extension of dynamic protrusions from a leading edge; adhesion-associated stabilisation of some protrusions; centripetal pulling against those leading adhesions; and de-adhesion at the rear. Gradients of extracellular ligands can be detected by cells and then used to guide them either towards the source (in the case of a chemoattractant) or away from the source (in the case of a chemorepellent)--such migration is termed chemotaxis. Recent work suggests that chemotaxis probably emerges from the ability of cells to spatially encode extracellular gradients of ligands, a process for which phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K) signals alone are insufficient, and to use that vectorial information to bias movement by enhancing the survival, and not the formation, of the protrusions that experience the greatest stimulation.

+view abstract Current biology : CB, PMID: 18522824 2008

S Andrews, L Stephens, P Hawkins Signalling, Bioinformatics

Activation of G(i)-coupled receptors in neutrophils stimulates class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (also known as PI3Kgamma) through the combined actions of Gbetagamma subunits and the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Ras, resulting in the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] in the plasma membrane. In most cases, the effectors of this pathway possess a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that mediates the interaction with and regulation by these two lipid messengers. These direct effectors sit within a complex regulatory network that includes several other signaling pathways and that is responsible for the control of important neutrophil functions, including adhesion, chemotaxis, secretion, and the "respiratory burst" [activation of the nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate (NADPH) oxidase]. Although the molecular details that link the direct effectors of class IB PI3K to these complex cell responses are still largely unknown, these responses involve complex regulation of small GTPases of the Rac, Rho, and Arf families.

+view abstract Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment, PMID: 17925574 2007

Andrews S, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Bioinformatics

Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are well-established signal transduction enzymes that play an important role in the mechanisms by which a wide variety of cell surface receptors control several cellular functions, including cellular growth, division, survival, and movement. Class IB PI3K (also known as PI3Kgamma) allows fast-acting, heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors to access this pathway. Activation of class IB PI3K results in the rapid synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and its dephosphorylation product, PI(3,4)P2, in the plasma membrane. These two lipid messengers bind to multiple, pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing effectors, which together regulate a complex signaling web downstream of receptor activation. This pathway regulates the activity of protein kinases and small guanosine triphosphatases that control cellular movement, adhesion, contraction, and secretion. Most of the ligands that have been established to activate class IB PI3K are involved in coordinating the body's response to injury and infection through the regulation of multiple cell types in the immune system and vascular lining. Mice lacking the catalytic subunit of class IB PI3K are remarkably resistant to the development of several inflammatory pathologies in mouse models of human inflammatory disease. These results suggest small molecule inhibitors of class IB PI3K may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents that may complement existing anti-inflammatory treatments.

+view abstract Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment, PMID: 17925573 2007

PT Hawkins, LR Stephens Signalling,

Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways regulate several important cellular functions, including cellular growth, division, survival, and movement. Class IB PI3K (also known as PI3Kgamma) links heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors to these pathways. Activation of class IB PI3K results in the rapid synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] and its dephosphorylation product PtdIns(3,4)P2 in the plasma membrane. These two lipid messengers bind to pleckstrin homology domain-containing effectors that regulate a complex signaling web downstream of receptor activation. Characteristic features of this pathway are the regulation of protein kinases and the regulation of small guanosine triphosphatases that control cellular movement, adhesion, contraction, and secretion. Most of the ligands that activate class IB PI3K are involved in coordinating the body's response to injury and infection, and recent studies suggest that small molecule inhibitors of this enzyme may represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

+view abstract Science (New York, N.Y.), PMID: 17916723 2007

PT Hawkins, K Davidson, LR Stephens Signalling,

The NADPH oxidase complex of neutrophils and macrophages is an important weapon used by these cells to kill microbial pathogens. The regulation of this enzyme complex is necessarily complicated by the diverse receptor types that are needed to trigger its activation and also the tight control that is required to deliver this activation at the appropriate time and place. As such, several signalling pathways have been established to regulate the NADPH oxidase downstream of cell surface receptors. Central amongst these are PI3K- (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent pathways, blockade of which severely limits activation of the oxidase to several soluble and particulate stimuli. The precise roles of the phosphoinositide products of PI3K activity in regulating NADPH oxidase assembly and activation are still unclear, but there is emerging evidence that they play a key role via regulation of guanine nucleotide exchange on Rac, a key component in the oxidase complex. There is also very strong evidence that the PI3K products PtdIns(3,4)P2 and PtdIns3P can bind directly to the PX (Phox homology) domains of the core oxidase components p47phox and p40phox respectively. However, the significance of these interactions in terms of membrane localization or allosteric consequences for the oxidase complex remains to be established.

+view abstract Biochemical Society symposium, PMID: 17233580 2007

V Paranavitane, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins ,

PI3K signalling pathways link cell surface receptors to the control of several intracellular functions including cell growth, survival and movement. Filamins are important regulators of cortical actin structure and function. LL5beta is a filamin binding protein that is an effector of the PI3K signalling pathway. We define an N-terminal region of LL5beta that is responsible for binding to the C-terminus of filamins. Under conditions of very low PI3K activity, we show that this region, together with an additional domain of the protein, is responsible for localising the complex to punctate structures that are also decorated by L-FILIP (a protein previously characterised to bind filamin and accelerate its destruction). Under conditions of significant PI3K activity, PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) binding to the C-terminal PH domain in LL5beta prevents localisation to these structures. These observations start to define the basis for PI3K regulation of filamin through LL5beta.

+view abstract Cellular signalling, PMID: 17174070 2007

GJ Ferguson, L Milne, S Kulkarni, T Sasaki, S Walker, S Andrews, T Crabbe, P Finan, G Jones, S Jackson, M Camps, C Rommel, M Wymann, E Hirsch, P Hawkins, L Stephens Signalling, Bioinformatics

The directional movement of cells in a gradient of external stimulus is termed chemotaxis and is important in many aspects of development and differentiated cell function. Phophoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) are thought to have critical roles within the gradient-sensing machinery of a variety of highly motile cells, such as mammalian phagocytes, allowing these cells to respond quickly and efficiently to shallow gradients of soluble stimuli. Our analysis of mammalian neutrophil migration towards ligands such as fMLP shows that, although PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulate in a PI(3)Kgamma-dependent fashion at the up-gradient leading-edge, this signal is not required for efficient gradient-sensing and gradient-biased movement. PI(3)Kgamma activity is however, a critical determinant of the proportion of cells that can move, that is, respond chemokinetically, in reaction to fMLP. Furthermore, this dependence of chemokinesis on PI(3)Kgamma activity is context dependent, both with respect to the state of priming of the neutrophils and the type of surface on which they are migrating. We propose this effect of PI(3)Kgamma is through roles in the regulation of some aspects of neutrophil polarization that are relevant to movement, such as integrin-based adhesion and the accumulation of polymerized (F)-actin at the leading-edge.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 17173040 2007

H Guillou, C Lécureuil, KE Anderson, S Suire, GJ Ferguson, CD Ellson, A Gray, N Divecha, PT Hawkins, LR Stephens Signalling,

We describe a novel approach to the relative quantification of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] and its application to measure, in neutrophils, the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This protein-lipid overlay-based assay allowed us to confirm and extend the observations, first, that N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulation of primed human neutrophils leads to a transient and biphasic increase in PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels and, second, that the ability of fMLP to stimulate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulation in neutrophils isolated from mice carrying a Ras-insensitive ('DASAA') knock-in of PI3Kgamma (p110gamma(DASAA/DASAA)) is substantially dependent on the Ras binding domain of PI3Kgamma.

+view abstract Journal of lipid research, PMID: 17130283 2007

S Suire, AM Condliffe, GJ Ferguson, CD Ellson, H Guillou, K Davidson, H Welch, J Coadwell, M Turner, ER Chilvers, PT Hawkins, L Stephens Immunology,

Through their ability to regulate production of the key lipid messenger PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), the class I phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks) support many critical cell responses. They, in turn, can be regulated by cell-surface receptors through signals acting on either their adaptor subunits (for example, through phosphotyrosine or Gbetagammas) or their catalytic subunits (for example, through GTP-Ras). The relative significance of these controlling inputs is undefined in vivo. Here, we have studied the roles of Gbetagammas, the adaptor p101, Ras and the Ras binding domain (RBD) in the control of the class I PI(3)K, PI(3)Kgamma, in mouse neutrophils. Loss of p101 leads to major reductions in the accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and in migration towards G-protein activating ligands in vitro, and to an aseptically inflamed peritoneum in vivo. Loss of sensitivity of PI(3)Kgamma to Ras unexpectedly caused similar reductions, but additionally caused a substantial loss in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We conclude that Gbetagammas, p101 and the Ras-RBD interaction all have important roles in the regulation of PI(3)Kgamma in vivo and that they can simultaneously, but differentially, control distinct PI(3)Kgamma effectors.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 17041586 2006

Ellson C, Davidson K, Anderson K, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling,

The production of reactive oxygen species by the NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes plays a critical role in our defence against bacterial and fungal infections. The PX domains of two oxidase components, p47(phox) and p40(phox), are known to bind phosphoinositide products of PI3Ks but the physiological roles of these interactions are unclear. We have created mice which carry an R58A mutation in the PX domain of their p40(phox) gene, which selectively prevents binding to PtdIns3P. p40(phoxR58A/R58A) embryos do not develop normally but p40(phoxR58A/-) mice are viable and neutrophils from these animals exhibit significantly reduced oxidase responses compared to those from their p40(phox+/-) siblings (e.g. 60% reduced in response to phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus). Wortmannin inhibition of the S. aureus oxidase response correlates with inhibition of phagosomal PtdIns3P accumulation and overlaps with the reduction in this response caused by the R58A mutation, suggesting PI3K regulation of this response is substantially dependent on PtdIns3P-binding to p40(phox). p40(phoxR58A/-) mice are significantly compromised in their ability to kill S. aureus in vivo, defining the physiological importance of this interaction.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 16990793 2006

CD Ellson, K Davidson, GJ Ferguson, R O'Connor, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Signalling,

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex plays a critical role in the antimicrobial functions of the phagocytic cells of the immune system. The catalytic core of this oxidase consists of a complex between gp91(phox), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac-2. Mutations in each of the phox components, except p40(phox), have been described in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), defining their essential role in oxidase function. We sought to establish the role of p40(phox) by investigating the NADPH oxidase responses of neutrophils isolated from p40(phox-/-) mice. In the absence of p40(phox), the expression of p67(phox) is reduced by approximately 55% and oxidase responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha/fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G latex beads, Staphylococcus aureus, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and zymosan were reduced by approximately 97, 85, 84, 75, and 30%, respectively. The defect in ROS production by p40(phox-/-) neutrophils in response to S. aureus translated into a severe, CGD-like defect in the killing of this organism both in vitro and in vivo, defining p40(phox) as an essential component in bacterial killing.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 16880254 2006

Condliffe AM, Webb LM, Ferguson GJ, Davidson K, Turner M, Vigorito E, Manifava M, Chilvers ER, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Immunology,

RhoG is a Rho family small GTPase implicated in cytoskeletal regulation, acting either upstream of or in parallel to Rac1. The precise function(s) of RhoG in vivo has not yet been defined. We have identified a novel role for RhoG in signaling the neutrophil respiratory burst stimulated by G protein-coupled receptor agonists. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils from RhoG knockout (RhoG(-/-)) mice exhibited a marked impairment of oxidant generation in response to C5a or fMLP, but normal responses to PMA or opsonized zymosan and normal bacterial killing. Activation of Rac1 and Rac2 by fMLP was diminished in RhoG(-/-) neutrophils only at very early (5 s) time points (by 25 and 32%, respectively), whereas chemotaxis in response to soluble agonists was unaffected by lack of RhoG. Additionally, fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38MAPK, activation of phospholipase D, and calcium fluxes were equivalent in wild-type and RhoG(-/-) neutrophils. Our results define RhoG as a critical component of G protein-coupled receptor-stimulated signaling cascades in murine neutrophils, acting either via a subset of total cellular Rac relevant to oxidase activation and/or by a novel and as yet undefined interaction with the neutrophil NADPH oxidase.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 16621998 2006

Krugmann S, Andrews S, Stephens L, Hawkins PT Signalling,

Rho and Arf family small GTPases control dynamic actin rearrangements and vesicular trafficking events. ARAP3 is a dual GAP for RhoA and Arf6 that is regulated by phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], a product of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway. To investigate the physiological function of ARAP3, we used an RNAi-based approach in an endothelial cell model. ARAP3-deficient cells showed increased activities of RhoA and Arf6. Phenotypically, they were more rounded than control counterparts and displayed very fine stress fibres. ARAP3-deficient cells were not capable of producing lamellipodia upon growth factor stimulation, a process known to depend on PI3K and Rac activities. Rac was transiently activated in stimulated ARAP3 RNAi cells although its cellular localisation was altered, a likely consequence of increased Arf6 activity. We conclude that ARAP3 recruitment to sites of elevated PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) is crucial to allow localised inactivation of RhoA and cycling of Arf6, both of which are necessary to allow growth factor-stimulated formation of lamellipodia.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 16418224 2006

Welch HC, Condliffe AM, Milne LJ, Ferguson GJ, Hill K, Webb LM, Okkenhaug K, Coadwell WJ, Andrews SR, Thelen M, Jones GE, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Immunology, Bioinformatics

Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, is believed to link GPCRs and PI3Kgamma to Rac-dependent neutrophil responses. We have investigated the functional importance of P-Rex1 by generating a P-Rex1(-/-) mouse. P-Rex1(-/-) mice are viable and healthy, with apparently normal leukocyte development, but with mild neutrophilia. In neutrophils from P-Rex1(-/-) mice, GPCR-dependent Rac2 activation is impaired, whereas Rac1 activation is less compromised. GPCR-dependent ROS formation is absent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed P-Rex1(-/-) neutrophils, but less affected in unprimed or TNFalpha-primed cells. Recruitment of P-Rex1(-/-) neutrophils to inflammatory sites is impaired. Surprisingly, chemotaxis of isolated neutrophils is only slightly reduced, with a mild defect in cell speed, but normal polarization and directionality. Secretion of azurophil granules is unaffected. In conclusion, P-Rex1 is an important regulator of neutrophil function by mediating a subset of Rac-dependent neutrophil responses. However, P-Rex1 is not an essential regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation.

+view abstract Current biology : CB, PMID: 16243035 2005

AM Condliffe, K Davidson, KE Anderson, CD Ellson, T Crabbe, K Okkenhaug, B Vanhaesebroeck, M Turner, L Webb, MP Wymann, E Hirsch, T Ruckle, M Camps, C Rommel, SP Jackson, ER Chilvers, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins Immunology,

It is well established that preexposure of human neutrophils to proinflammatory cytokines markedly augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to subsequent stimuli. This priming event is thought to be critical for localizing ROS to the vicinity of the inflammation, maximizing their role in the resolution of the inflammation, and minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue. We have used a new generation of isoform-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors to show that ROS production under these circumstances is regulated by temporal control of class I PI3K activity. Stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-primed human neutrophils with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in biphasic activation of PI3K; the first phase is largely dependent on PI3Kgamma, and the second phase is largely dependent on PI3Kdelta. The second phase of PI3K activation requires the first phase; it is this second phase that is augmented by TNF-alpha priming and that regulates parallel activation of ROS production. Surprisingly, although TNF-alpha-primed mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils exhibit superficially similar patterns of PI3K activation and ROS production in response to fMLP, these responses are substantially lower and largely dependent on PI3Kgamma alone. These results start to define which PI3K isoforms are responsible for modulating neutrophil responsiveness to infection and inflammation.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 15878979 2005

S Suire, J Coadwell, GJ Ferguson, K Davidson, P Hawkins, L Stephens Signalling,

A variety of genetic and inhibitor studies have shown that phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) plays an essential role in a number of physiological responses, including neutrophil chemotaxis, mast cell degranulation, and cardiac function []. PI3Kgamma is currently thought to be composed of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and a single regulatory subunit, p101. The binding of p110gamma to p101 dramatically increases the activation of the complex by Gbetagamma subunits and, hence, is thought to be critical for the coupling of PI3Kgamma to G protein coupled receptors []. Here, we characterize a new regulatory subunit for PI3Kgamma. p84 is present in human, mouse, chicken, frog, and fugu genomes and is located beside the p101 locus. It is broadly expressed in cells of the murine immune system. Both recombinant and endogenous p84 bind p110gamma specifically and with high affinity. Binding of p84 to p110gamma substantially increases the ability of Gbetagamma to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) production both in vitro and in vivo. However, the p84/p110gamma heterodimer is approximately 4-fold less sensitive to Gbetagammas than p101/p110gamma. Endogenous murine p84 expression is substantially reduced in the absence of p110gamma expression. We conclude that p110gamma has two potential regulatory subunits in vivo, p84 and p101.

+view abstract Current biology : CB, PMID: 15797027 2005

Welch HC, Coadwell WJ, Ellson CD, Ferguson GJ, Andrews SR, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR Signalling,

Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has Rac-GEF activity that is directly, substantially, and synergistically activated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and Gbetagammas both in vitro and in vivo. P-Rex1 antisense oligonucleotides reduced endogenous P-Rex1 expression and C5a-stimulated reactive oxygen species formation in a neutrophil-like cell line. P-Rex1 appears to be a coincidence detector in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and Gbetagamma signaling pathways that is particularly adapted to function downstream of heterotrimeric G proteins in neutrophils.

+view abstract Cell, PMID: 11955434 2002

CD Ellson, S Gobert-Gosse, KE Anderson, K Davidson, H Erdjument-Bromage, P Tempst, JW Thuring, MA Cooper, ZY Lim, AB Holmes, PR Gaffney, J Coadwell, ER Chilvers, PT Hawkins, LR Stephens Signalling,

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils has a vital role in defence against a range of infectious agents, and is driven by the assembly of a multi-protein complex containing a minimal core of five proteins: the two membrane-bound subunits of cytochrome b(558) (gp91(phox) and p22(phox)) and three soluble factors (GTP-Rac, p47(phox) and p67(phox) (refs 1, 2). This minimal complex can reconstitute ROS formation in vitro in the presence of non-physiological amphiphiles such as SDS. p40(phox) has subsequently been discovered as a binding partner for p67(phox) (ref. 3), but its role in ROS formation is unclear. Phosphoinositide-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks) have been implicated in the intracellular signalling pathways coordinating ROS formation but through an unknown mechanism. We show that the addition of p40(phox) to the minimal core complex allows a lipid product of PI(3)Ks, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), to stimulate specifically the formation of ROS. This effect was mediated by binding of PtdIns(3)P to the PX domain of p40(phox). These results offer new insights into the roles for PI(3)Ks and p40(phox) in ROS formation and define a cellular ligand for the orphan PX domain.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 11433301 2001