‘X-shape’ not true picture of chromosome structure, new imaging technique reveals

‘X-shape’ not true picture of chromosome structure, new imaging technique reveals

A new method for visualising chromosomes is painting a truer picture of their shape, which is rarely like the X-shaped blob of DNA most of us are familiar with. Scientists at the BBSRC-funded Babraham Institute, working with the University of Cambridge and the Weizmann Institute, have produced beautiful 3D models that more accurately show their complex shape and the way DNA within them folds up. The X-shape, often used to describe chromosomes, is only a snapshot of their complexity.

Dr Peter Fraser of the Babraham Institute explains: “The image of a chromosome, an X-shaped blob of DNA, is familiar to many but this microscopic portrait of a chromosome actually shows a structure that occurs only transiently in cells – at a point when they are just about to divide.”

“The vast majority of cells in an organism have finished dividing and their chromosomes don’t look anything like the X-shape. Chromosomes in these cells exist in a very different form and so far it has been impossible to create accurate pictures of their structure.”

Peter’s team has developed a new method to visualise their shape. It involves creating thousands of molecular measurements of chromosomes in single cells, using the latest DNA sequencing technology. By combining these tiny measurements, using powerful computers, they have created a three-dimensional portrait of chromosomes for the first time. This new technology has been made possible thanks to funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Wellcome Trust.

Fraser added: “These unique images not only show us the structure of the chromosome, but also the path of the DNA in it, allowing us to map specific genes and other important features. Using these 3D models, we have begun to unravel the basic principles of chromosome structure and its role in how our genome functions.”

This latest research, published in Nature, puts DNA into its proper context in a cell, conveying the beauty and complexity of the mammalian genome in a far more effective way than volumes of text previously have. In doing so it shows that the structure of these chromosomes, and the way the DNA within them folds up, are intimately linked to when and how much genes are expressed, which has direct consequences for health, ageing and disease.

Douglas Kell, BBSRC Chief Executive, said: “Until now, our understanding of chromosome structure has been limited to rather fuzzy pictures, alongside diagrams of the all too familiar X-shape seen before cell division. These truer pictures help us to understand more about what chromosomes look like in the majority of cells in our bodies. The intricate folds help to unravel how chromosomes interact and how genome functions are controlled.” See: 'Single cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure' 10.1038/nature12593

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About the Babraham Institute:
The Babraham Institute undertakes world-class life sciences research to generate new knowledge of biological mechanisms underpinning ageing, development and the maintenance of health. Our research focuses on cellular signalling, gene regulation and the impact of epigenetic regulation at different stages of life. By determining how the body reacts to dietary and environmental stimuli and manages microbial and viral interactions, we aim to improve wellbeing and support healthier ageing. The Institute is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation, through an Institute Core Capability Grant and also receives funding from other UK research councils, charitable foundations, the EU and medical charities.
 
Website: www.babraham.ac.uk
 
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £450 million in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life for UK citizens and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders including the agriculture, food, chemical, health and well-being and pharmaceutical sectors. BBSRC carries out its mission by funding internationally competitive research, providing training in the biosciences, fostering opportunities for knowledge transfer and innovation and promoting interaction with the public and other stakeholders on issues of scientific interest in universities, centres and institutes.
 
Website: bbsrc.ukri.org/