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Regulatory T cells prevent the emergence of autoantibodies and excessive IgE, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that BCL6-expressing Tregs, known as follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells, produce abundant neuritin protein that targets B cells. Mice lacking Tfr cells or neuritin in Foxp3-expressing cells accumulated early plasma cells in germinal centers (GCs) and developed autoantibodies against histones and tissue-specific self-antigens. Upon immunization, these mice also produced increased plasma IgE and IgG1. We show that neuritin is taken up by B cells, causes phosphorylation of numerous proteins, and dampens IgE class switching. Neuritin reduced differentiation of mouse and human GC B cells into plasma cells, downregulated BLIMP-1, and upregulated BCL6. Administration of neuritin to Tfr-deficient mice prevented the accumulation of early plasma cells in GCs. Production of neuritin by Tfr cells emerges as a central mechanism to suppress B cell-driven autoimmunity and IgE-mediated allergies.
Adhesive structures between cells and with the surrounding matrix are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. In addition to providing mechanical integrity, they are key signalling centres providing feedback on the extracellular environment to the cell interior, and vice versa. During development, mitosis and repair, cell adhesions must undergo extensive remodelling. Post-translational modifications of proteins within these complexes serve as switches for activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important modification in cell adhesion that is dynamically regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases. Several PTPs are implicated in the assembly and maintenance of cell adhesions, however, their signalling functions remain poorly defined. The PTPs can act by directly dephosphorylating adhesive complex components or function as scaffolds. In this review, we will focus on human PTPs and discuss their individual roles in major adhesion complexes, as well as Hippo signalling. We have collated PTP interactome and cell adhesome datasets, which reveal extensive connections between PTPs and cell adhesions that are relatively unexplored. Finally, we reflect on the dysregulation of PTPs and cell adhesions in disease.
In 2016 specific heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in MEFV were reported causal for a distinct autoinflammatory disease coined pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND). We sought to provide an extended report on clinical manifestations in PAAND patients to date and evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with the IL-1-blocking agent anakinra.
A functional adaptive immune system must generate enormously diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires from a limited number of AgR genes, using a common mechanism, V(D)J recombination. The AgR loci are among the largest in the genome, and individual genes must overcome huge spatial and temporal challenges to co-localize with optimum variability. Our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved has increased enormously, due in part to new technologies for high resolution mapping of AgR structure and dynamic movement, underpinning mechanisms, and resulting repertoires. This review will examine these advances using the paradigm of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. We will discuss the key regulatory elements implicated in Igh locus structure. Recent next generation repertoire sequencing methods have shown that local chromatin state at V genes contribute to recombination efficiency. Next on the multidimensional scale, we will describe imaging studies that provided the first picture of the large-scale dynamic looping and contraction the Igh locus undergoes during recombination. We will discuss chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based technologies that have provided higher resolution pictures of Igh locus structure, including the different models that have evolved. We will consider the key transcription factors (PAX5, YY1, E2A, Ikaros), and architectural factors, CTCF and cohesin, that regulate these processes. Lastly, we will discuss a plethora of recent exciting mechanistic findings. These include Rag recombinase scanning for convergent RSS sequences within DNA loops; identification of Igh loop extrusion, and its putative role in Rag scanning; the roles of CTCF, cohesin and cohesin loading factor, WAPL therein; a new phase separation model for Igh locus compartmentalization. We will draw these together and conclude with some horizon-scanning and unresolved questions.
In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
Modulation and depletion strategies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitute valid approaches in antitumor immunotherapy but suffer from severe adverse effects due to their lack of selectivity for the tumor-infiltrating (ti-)Treg population, indicating the need for a ti-Treg specific biomarker.
Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantification using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample. As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment. Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways. As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging. BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways. BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.
Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantitation using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample. As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment. Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways. As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging. BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways. BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.
Chromatin configuration influences gene expression in eukaryotes at multiple levels, from individual nucleosomes to chromatin domains several Mb long. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of core histones seem to be involved in chromatin structural transitions, but how remains unclear. To explore this, we used ChIP-seq and two cell types, HeLa and lymphoblastoid (LCL), to define how changes in chromatin packaging through the cell cycle influence the distributions of three transcription-associated histone modifications, H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. We show that chromosome regions (bands) of 10-50 Mb, detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy of metaphase (M) chromosomes, are also present in G and G. They comprise 1-5 Mb sub-bands that differ between HeLa and LCL but remain consistent through the cell cycle. The same sub-bands are defined by H3K9ac and H3K4me3, while H3K27me3 spreads more widely. We found little change between cell cycle phases, whether compared by 5 Kb rolling windows or when analysis was restricted to functional elements such as transcription start sites and topologically associating domains. Only a small number of genes showed cell-cycle related changes: at genes encoding proteins involved in mitosis, H3K9 became highly acetylated in GM, possibly because of ongoing transcription. In conclusion, modified histone isoforms H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 exhibit a characteristic genomic distribution at resolutions of 1 Mb and below that differs between HeLa and lymphoblastoid cells but remains remarkably consistent through the cell cycle. We suggest that this cell-type-specific chromosomal bar-code is part of a homeostatic mechanism by which cells retain their characteristic gene expression patterns, and hence their identity, through multiple mitoses.
Prior work in mice has shown that some retrotransposed elements remain substantially methylated during DNA methylation reprogramming of germ cells. In the pig, however, information about this process is scarce. The present study was designed to examine the methylation profiles of porcine germ cells during the time course of epigenetic reprogramming.
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic that has affected almost every aspect of human life. The development of an effective COVID-19 vaccine could limit the morbidity and mortality caused by infection and may enable the relaxation of social-distancing measures. Age is one of the most significant risk factors for poor health outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection; therefore, it is desirable that any new vaccine candidates elicit a robust immune response in older adults.
A simple method for extraction of high quality RNA from cells that have been fixed, stained and sorted by flow cytometry would allow routine transcriptome analysis of highly purified cell populations and single cells. However, formaldehyde fixation impairs RNA extraction and inhibits RNA amplification. Here we show that good quality RNA can be readily extracted from stained and sorted mammalian cells if formaldehyde is replaced by glyoxal-a well-characterised fixative that is widely compatible with immunofluorescent staining methods. Although both formaldehyde and glyoxal efficiently form protein-protein crosslinks, glyoxal does not crosslink RNA to proteins nor form stable RNA adducts, ensuring that RNA remains accessible and amenable to enzymatic manipulation after glyoxal fixation. We find that RNA integrity is maintained through glyoxal fixation, permeabilisation with methanol or saponin, indirect immunofluorescent staining and flow sorting. RNA can then be extracted by standard methods and processed into RNA-seq libraries using commercial kits; mRNA abundances measured by poly(A)+ RNA-seq correlate well between freshly harvested cells and fixed, stained and sorted cells. We validate the applicability of this approach to flow cytometry by staining MCF-7 cells for the intracellular G2/M-specific antigen cyclin B1 (CCNB1), and show strong enrichment for G2/M-phase cells based on transcriptomic data. Switching to glyoxal fixation with RNA-compatible staining methods requires only minor adjustments of most existing staining and sorting protocols, and should facilitate routine transcriptomic analysis of sorted cells.
Our knowledge of the role and biology of the different phosphoinositides has greatly expanded over recent years. Reversible phosphorylation by specific kinases and phosphatases of positions 3, 4, and 5 on the inositol ring is a highly dynamic process playing a critical role in the regulation of the spatiotemporal recruitment and binding of effector proteins. The specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases are key players in the control of many cellular functions, including proliferation, survival, intracellular trafficking, or cytoskeleton reorganization. Several of these enzymes are mutated in human diseases. The impact of the fatty acid composition of phosphoinositides in their function is much less understood. There is an important molecular diversity in the fatty acid side chains of PI. While stearic and arachidonic fatty acids are the major acyl species in PIP, PIP, and PIP, other fatty acid combinations are also found. The role of these different molecular species is still unknown, but it is important to quantify these different molecules and their potential changes during cell stimulation to better characterize this emerging field. Here, we describe a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method that we used for the first time to profile the changes in phosphoinositide molecular species (summed fatty acyl chain profiles) in human and mouse platelets under resting conditions and following stimulation. This method can be applied to other hematopoietic primary cells isolated from human or experimental animal models.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting side effect of cancer treatment, often associated with degeneration of sensory axons or their terminal regions. Presence of the slow Wallerian degeneration protein (WLD), or genetic deletion of sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein 1 (SARM1), which strongly protect axons from degeneration after injury or axonal transport block, alleviate pain in several CIPN models. However, oxaliplatin can cause an acute pain response, suggesting a different mechanism of pain generation. Here, we tested whether the presence of WLD or absence of SARM1 protects against acute oxaliplatin-induced pain in mice after a single oxaliplatin injection. In BL/6 and Wld mice, oxaliplatin induced significant mechanical and cold hypersensitivities which were absent in Sarm1 mice. Despite the presence of hypersensitivity there was no significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in the footpads of any mice after oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting that early stages of pain hypersensitivity could be independent of axon degeneration. To identify other changes that could underlie the pain response, RNA sequencing was carried out in DRGs from treated and control mice of each genotype. Sarm1 mice had fewer gene expression changes than either BL/6 or Wld mice. This is consistent with the pain measurements in demonstrating that Sarm1DRGs remain relatively unchanged after oxaliplatin treatment, unlike those in BL/6 and Wld mice. Changes in levels of four transcripts - Alas2, Hba-a1, Hba-a2, and Tfrc - correlated with oxaliplatin-induced pain, or absence thereof, across the three genotypes. Our findings suggest that targeting SARM1 could be a viable therapeutic approach to prevent oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathic pain.
DNA methylation has emerged as an important epigenetic regulator of brain processes, including circadian rhythms. However, how DNA methylation intervenes between environmental signals, such as light entrainment, and the transcriptional and translational molecular mechanisms of the cellular clock is currently unknown. Here, we studied the after-hours mice, which have a point mutation in the Fbxl3 gene and a lengthened circadian period.
RAC1 activity is critical for intestinal homeostasis, and is required for hyperproliferation driven by loss of the tumour suppressor gene Apc in the murine intestine. To avoid the impact of direct targeting upon homeostasis, we reasoned that indirect targeting of RAC1 via RAC-GEFs might be effective. Transcriptional profiling of Apc deficient intestinal tissue identified Vav3 and Tiam1 as key targets. Deletion of these indicated that while TIAM1 deficiency could suppress Apc-driven hyperproliferation, it had no impact upon tumourigenesis, while VAV3 deficiency had no effect. Intriguingly, deletion of either gene resulted in upregulation of Vav2, with subsequent targeting of all three (Vav2 Vav3 Tiam1), profoundly suppressing hyperproliferation, tumourigenesis and RAC1 activity, without impacting normal homeostasis. Critically, the observed RAC-GEF dependency was negated by oncogenic KRAS mutation. Together, these data demonstrate that while targeting RAC-GEF molecules may have therapeutic impact at early stages, this benefit may be lost in late stage disease.
Ageing profoundly changes our immune system and is thought to be a driving factor in the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious disease in older people. We have previously shown that the impaired immunity to vaccination that occurs in aged individuals is partly attributed to the effect of age on T follicular helper (Tfh) cell formation. In this study, we examined how age intrinsically affects Tfh cell formation in both mice and humans. We show increased formation of Tfh precursors (pre-Tfh) but no associated increase in germinal centre (GC)-Tfh cells in aged mice, suggesting age-driven promotion of only early Tfh cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we show that ageing alters TCR signalling which drives expression of the Notch-associated transcription factor, RBPJ. Genetic or chemical modulation of RBPJ or Notch rescues this age-associated early Tfh cell differentiation, and increased intrinsic Notch activity recapitulates this phenomenon in younger mice. Our data offer mechanistic insight into the age-induced changes in T-cell activation that affects the differentiation and ultimately the function of effector T cells.
Lamins are crucial proteins for nuclear functionality. Here, we provide new evidence showing that increased lamin B1 levels contribute to the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD), a CAG repeat-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Through fluorescence-activated nuclear suspension imaging, we show that nucleus from striatal medium-sized spiny and CA1 hippocampal neurons display increased lamin B1 levels, in correlation with altered nuclear morphology and nucleocytoplasmic transport disruption. Moreover, ChIP-sequencing analysis shows an alteration of lamin-associated chromatin domains in hippocampal nuclei, accompanied by changes in chromatin accessibility and transcriptional dysregulation. Supporting lamin B1 alterations as a causal role in mutant huntingtin-mediated neurodegeneration, pharmacological normalization of lamin B1 levels in the hippocampus of the R6/1 mouse model of HD by betulinic acid administration restored nuclear homeostasis and prevented motor and cognitive dysfunction. Collectively, our work points increased lamin B1 levels as a new pathogenic mechanism in HD and provides a novel target for its intervention.
The RAS-regulated RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway promotes cell proliferation and survival and RAS and BRAF proteins are commonly mutated in cancer. This has fuelled the development of small molecule kinase inhibitors including ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors. Type I and type I½ ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors are effective in BRAFV600E/K-mutant cancer cells. However, in RAS-mutant cells these compounds instead promote RAS-dependent dimerisation and paradoxical activation of wild-type RAF proteins. RAF dimerisation is mediated by two key regions within each RAF protein; the RKTR motif of the αC-helix and the NtA-region of the dimer partner. Dimer formation requires the adoption of a closed, active kinase conformation which can be induced by RAS-dependent activation of RAF or by the binding of type I and I½ RAF inhibitors. Binding of type I or I½ RAF inhibitors to one dimer partner reduces the binding affinity of the other, thereby leaving a single dimer partner uninhibited and able to activate MEK. To overcome this paradox two classes of drug are currently under development; type II pan-RAF inhibitors that induce RAF dimer formation but bind both dimer partners thus allowing effective inhibition of both wild-type RAF dimer partners and monomeric active class I mutant RAF, and the recently developed "paradox breakers" which interrupt BRAF dimerisation through disruption of the αC-helix. Here we review the regulation of RAF proteins, including RAF dimers, and the progress towards effective targeting of the wild-type RAF proteins.
Upon DNA damage, the ALC1/CHD1L nucleosome remodeling enzyme (remodeler) is activated by binding to poly(ADP-ribose). How activated ALC1 recognizes the nucleosome, as well as how this recognition is coupled to remodeling, is unknown. Here, we show that remodeling by ALC1 requires a wild-type acidic patch on the entry side of the nucleosome. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a nucleosome-ALC1 linker complex reveals a regulatory linker segment that binds to the acidic patch. Mutations within this interface alter the dynamics of ALC1 recruitment to DNA damage and impede the ATPase and remodeling activities of ALC1. Full activation requires acidic patch-linker segment interactions that tether the remodeler to the nucleosome and couple ATP hydrolysis to nucleosome mobilization. Upon DNA damage, such a requirement may be used to modulate ALC1 activity via changes in the nucleosome acidic patches.
The concept of cellular plasticity is particularly apt in early embryonic development, where there is a tug-of-war between the stability and flexibility of cell identity. This balance is controlled in part through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic plasticity dictates how malleable cells are to change by adjusting the potential to initiate new transcriptional programmes. The higher the plasticity of a cell, the more readily it can adapt and change its identity in response to external stimuli such as differentiation cues. Epigenetic plasticity is regulated in part through the action of epigenetic priming factors which establish this permissive epigenetic landscape at genomic regulatory elements to enable future transcriptional changes. Recent studies on the DNA binding proteins Developmental Pluripotency Associated 2 and 4 (Dppa2/4) support their roles as epigenetic priming factors in facilitating cell fate transitions. Here, using Dppa2/4 as a case study, the concept of epigenetic plasticity and molecular mechanism of epigenetic priming factors will be explored. Understanding how epigenetic priming factors function is key not only to improve our understanding of the tight control of development, but also to give insights into how this goes awry in diseases of cell identity, such as cancer.
Autophagy, a process of degradation that occurs via the lysosomal pathway, has an essential role in multiple aspects of immunity, including immune system development, regulation of innate and adaptive immune and inflammatory responses, selective degradation of intracellular microorganisms, and host protection against infectious diseases. Autophagy is known to be induced by stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and suppression of mTOR, but little is known about how autophagosomal biogenesis is initiated in mammalian cells in response to viral infection. Here, using genome-wide short interfering RNA screens, we find that the endosomal protein sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) is essential for virus-induced, but not for basal, stress- or endosome-induced, autophagy. We show that SNX5 deletion increases cellular susceptibility to viral infection in vitro, and that Snx5 knockout in mice enhances lethality after infection with several human viruses. Mechanistically, SNX5 interacts with beclin 1 and ATG14-containing class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3) complex 1 (PI3KC3-C1), increases the lipid kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1, and is required for endosomal generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and recruitment of the PtdIns(3)P-binding protein WIPI2 to virion-containing endosomes. These findings identify a context- and organelle-specific mechanism-SNX5-dependent PI3KC3-C1 activation at endosomes-for initiation of autophagy during viral infection.
Cell migration relies on coordinated activity of chemotactic and guidance receptors. Here, we report a specific role for the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 in limiting the abundance of molecules involved in the homing of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) to the bone marrow (BM). In the absence of ZFP36L1, ASCs build up in the spleen and the liver and show diminished accumulation in the BM. ZFP36L1 facilitates migration by directly regulating G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and the integrin chains α4 and β1 in splenic ASCs. Expression of CXCR4 and of the integrins α4 and β1 is differentially regulated on ASCs produced at the early and late stages of the immune response. Consequently, deletion of the Zfp36l1 gene has a stronger effect on BM accumulation of high-affinity ASCs formed late in the response. Thus, ZFP36L1 is an integral part of the regulatory network controlling gene expression during ASC homing.