Yshii L, Pasciuto E, Bielefeld P, Mascali L, Lemaitre P, Marino M, Dooley J, Kouser L, Verschoren S, Lagou V, Kemps H, Gervois P, de Boer A, Burton OT, Wahis J, Verhaert J, Tareen SHK, Roca CP, Singh K, Whyte CE, Kerstens A, Callaerts-Vegh Z, Poovathingal S, Prezzemolo T, Wierda K, Dashwood A, Xie J, Van Wonterghem E, Creemers E, Aloulou M, Gsell W, Abiega O, Munck S, Vandenbroucke RE, Bronckaers A, Lemmens R, De Strooper B, Van Den Bosch L, Himmelreich U, Fitzsimons CP, Holt MG, Liston A Immunology

The ability of immune-modulating biologics to prevent and reverse pathology has transformed recent clinical practice. Full utility in the neuroinflammation space, however, requires identification of both effective targets for local immune modulation and a delivery system capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. The recent identification and characterization of a small population of regulatory T (T) cells resident in the brain presents one such potential therapeutic target. Here, we identified brain interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels as a limiting factor for brain-resident T cells. We developed a gene-delivery approach for astrocytes, with a small-molecule on-switch to allow temporal control, and enhanced production in reactive astrocytes to spatially direct delivery to inflammatory sites. Mice with brain-specific IL-2 delivery were protected in traumatic brain injury, stroke and multiple sclerosis models, without impacting the peripheral immune system. These results validate brain-specific IL-2 gene delivery as effective protection against neuroinflammation, and provide a versatile platform for delivery of diverse biologics to neuroinflammatory patients.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 35618831 26 May 2022

Liston A, Aloulou M Immunology

CD4Foxp3 Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining self-tolerance and are increasingly recognised to have important roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. In the CD8 compartment an analogous Foxp3 population is present, which shares phenotypic aspects with the more common CD4Foxp3 Treg population. While oft neglected for their low frequency, there is increasing evidence that these CD8Foxp3 cells are bona fide regulatory cells, with both shared and distinct characteristics from their CD4 analogue. Here we focus on the evidence for a regulatory function of CD8Foxp3 cells, and the potential unique role this neglected lineage may play in immune homeostasis and disease prevention.

+view abstract Immunology letters, PMID: 35609830 21 May 2022

Young C, Russell JR, Van De Lagemaat LN, Lawson H, Mapperley C, Kranc KR, Christophorou MA Epigenetics

Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) are strongly associated with the development of autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and cancer but their physiological roles are ill-defined. The nuclear deiminase PADI4 regulates pluripotency in the mammalian pre-implantation embryo but its function in tissue development is unknown. PADI4 is primarily expressed in the bone marrow, as part of a self-renewal-associated gene signature. It has been shown to regulate the proliferation of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors and proposed to impact on the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), suggesting that it controls haematopoietic development or regeneration. Using conditional in vivo models of steady state and acute Padi4 ablation, we examined the role of PADI4 in the development and function of the haematopoietic system. We found that PADI4 loss does not significantly affect HSC self-renewal or differentiation potential upon injury or serial transplantation, nor does it lead to HSC exhaustion or premature ageing. Thus PADI4 is dispensable for cell-autonomous HSC maintenance, differentiation and haematopoietic regeneration. This work represents the first study of PADI4 in tissue development and indicates that pharmacological PADI4 inhibition may be tolerated without adverse effects.

+view abstract Biology Open, PMID: 35603697 15 Jun 2022

Spaan AN, Neehus AL, Laplantine E, Staels F, Ogishi M, Seeleuthner Y, Rapaport F, Lacey KA, Van Nieuwenhove E, Chrabieh M, Hum D, Migaud M, Izmiryan A, Lorenzo L, Kochetkov T, Heesterbeek DAC, Bardoel BW, DuMont AL, Dobbs K, Chardonnet S, Heissel S, Baslan T, Zhang P, Yang R, Bogunovic D, Wunderink HF, Haas PA, Molina H, Van Buggenhout G, Lyonnet S, Notarangelo LD, Seppänen MRJ, Weil R, Seminario G, Gomez-Tello H, Wouters C, Mesdaghi M, Shahrooei M, Bossuyt X, Sag E, Topaloglu R, Ozen S, Leavis HL, van Eijk MMJ, Bezrodnik L, Blancas Galicia L, Hovnanian A, Nassif A, Bader-Meunier B, Neven B, Meyts I, Schrijvers R, Puel A, Bustamante J, Aksentijevich I, Kastner D, Torres VJ, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Abel L, Boisson B, Casanova JL Immunology

The molecular basis of interindividual clinical variability upon infection with is unclear. We describe patients with haploinsufficiency for the linear deubiquitinase OTULIN, encoded by a gene on chromosome 5p. Patients present episodes of life-threatening necrosis, typically triggered by infection. The disorder is phenocopied in patients with the 5p- (Cri-du-Chat) chromosomal deletion syndrome. OTULIN haploinsufficiency causes an accumulation of linear ubiquitin in dermal fibroblasts, but TNF-receptor NF-κB-signaling remains intact. Blood leukocyte subsets are unaffected. The OTULIN-dependent accumulation of caveolin-1 in dermal fibroblasts-but not leukocytes-facilitates the cytotoxic damage inflicted by the staphylococcal virulence factor α-toxin. Naturally elicited antibodies against α-toxin contribute to incomplete clinical penetrance. Human OTULIN haploinsufficiency underlies life-threatening staphylococcal disease by disrupting cell-intrinsic immunity to α-toxin in non-leukocytic cells.

+view abstract Science, PMID: 35587511 19 May 2022

Yao Y, Du Jiang P, Chao BN, Cagdas D, Kubo S, Balasubramaniyam A, Zhang Y, Shadur B, NaserEddin A, Folio LR, Schwarz B, Bohrnsen E, Zheng L, Lynberg M, Gottlieb S, Leney-Greene MA, Park AY, Tezcan I, Akdogan A, Gocmen R, Onder S, Rosenberg A, Soilleux EJ, Johnson E, Jackson PK, Demeter J, Chauvin SD, Paul F, Selbach M, Bulut H, Clatworthy MR, Tuong ZK, Zhang H, Stewart BJ, Bosio CM, Stepensky P, Clare S, Ganesan S, Pascall JC, Daumke O, Butcher GW, McMichael AJ, Simon AK, Lenardo MJ Signalling

Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) unveil regulatory pathways of human immunity. We describe a new IEI caused by mutations in the GTPase of the immune-associated protein 6 (GIMAP6) gene in patients with infections, lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, and multiorgan vasculitis. Patients and Gimap6-/- mice show defects in autophagy, redox regulation, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-containing lipids. We find that GIMAP6 complexes with GABARAPL2 and GIMAP7 to regulate GTPase activity. Also, GIMAP6 is induced by IFN-γ and plays a critical role in antibacterial immunity. Finally, we observed that Gimap6-/- mice died prematurely from microangiopathic glomerulosclerosis most likely due to GIMAP6 deficiency in kidney endothelial cells.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 35551368 06 Jun 2022

Parry AJ, Reik W Epigenetics

No abstract available.

+view abstract Nature genetics, PMID: 35534560 09 May 2022

Denton AE, Dooley J, Cinti I, Silva-Cayetano A, Fra-Bido S, Innocentin S, Hill DL, Carr EJ, McKenzie ANJ, Liston A, Linterman MA Immunology

The failure to generate enduring humoral immunity after vaccination is a hallmark of advancing age. This can be attributed to a reduction in the germinal center (GC) response, which generates long-lived antibody-secreting cells that protect against (re)infection. Despite intensive investigation, the primary cellular defect underlying impaired GCs in aging has not been identified. Here, we used heterochronic parabiosis to demonstrate that GC formation was dictated by the age of the lymph node (LN) microenvironment rather than the age of the immune cells. Lymphoid stromal cells are a key determinant of the LN microenvironment and are also an essential component underpinning GC structure and function. Using mouse models, we demonstrated that mucosal adressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1)-expressing lymphoid stromal cells were among the first cells to respond to NP-KLH + Alum immunization, proliferating and up-regulating cell surface proteins such as podoplanin and cell adhesion molecules. This response was essentially abrogated in aged mice. By targeting TLR4 using adjuvants, we improved the MAdCAM-1 stromal cell response to immunization. This correlated with improved GC responses in both younger adult and aged mice, suggesting a link between stromal cell responses to immunization and GC initiation. Using bone marrow chimeras, we also found that MAdCAM-1 stromal cells could respond directly to TLR4 ligands. Thus, the age-associated defect in GC and stromal cell responses to immunization can be targeted to improve vaccines in older people.

+view abstract Science immunology, PMID: 35522725 06 May 2022

Van de Pette M, Dimond A, Galvão AM, Millership SJ, To W, Prodani C, McNamara G, Bruno L, Sardini A, Webster Z, McGinty J, French PMW, Uren AG, Castillo-Fernandez J, Watkinson W, Ferguson-Smith AC, Merkenschlager M, John RM, Kelsey G, Fisher AG Epigenetics

Transmission of epigenetic information between generations occurs in nematodes, flies and plants, mediated by specialised small RNA pathways, modified histones and DNA methylation. Similar processes in mammals can also affect phenotype through intergenerational or trans-generational mechanisms. Here we generate a luciferase knock-in reporter mouse for the imprinted Dlk1 locus to visualise and track epigenetic fidelity across generations. Exposure to high-fat diet in pregnancy provokes sustained re-expression of the normally silent maternal Dlk1 in offspring (loss of imprinting) and increased DNA methylation at the somatic differentially methylated region (sDMR). In the next generation heterogeneous Dlk1 mis-expression is seen exclusively among animals born to F1-exposed females. Oocytes from these females show altered gene and microRNA expression without changes in DNA methylation, and correct imprinting is restored in subsequent generations. Our results illustrate how diet impacts the foetal epigenome, disturbing canonical and non-canonical imprinting mechanisms to modulate the properties of successive generations of offspring.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 35513363 05 May 2022

Hooper KM, Jacquin E, Li T, Goodwin JM, Brumell JH, Durgan J, Florey O Signalling

Non-canonical autophagy is a key cellular pathway in immunity, cancer, and neurodegeneration, characterized by conjugation of ATG8 to endolysosomal single membranes (CASM). CASM is activated by engulfment (endocytosis, phagocytosis), agonists (STING, TRPML1), and infection (influenza), dependent on K490 in the ATG16L1 WD40-domain. However, factors associated with non-canonical ATG16L1 recruitment and CASM induction remain unknown. Here, using pharmacological inhibitors, we investigate a role for V-ATPase during non-canonical autophagy. We report that increased V0-V1 engagement is associated with, and sufficient for, CASM activation. Upon V0-V1 binding, V-ATPase recruits ATG16L1, via K490, during LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), STING- and drug-induced CASM, indicating a common mechanism. Furthermore, during LAP, key molecular players, including NADPH oxidase/ROS, converge on V-ATPase. Finally, we show that LAP is sensitive to Salmonella SopF, which disrupts the V-ATPase-ATG16L1 axis and provide evidence that CASM contributes to the Salmonella host response. Together, these data identify V-ATPase as a universal regulator of CASM and indicate that SopF evolved in part to evade non-canonical autophagy.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 35511089 06 Jun 2022

Barry DJ, Gerri C, Bell DM, D'Antuono R, Niakan KK Epigenetics

The study of cellular and developmental processes in physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) systems facilitates an understanding of mechanisms underlying cell fate, disease and injury. While cutting-edge microscopy technologies permit the routine acquisition of 3D datasets, there is currently a limited number of open-source software packages to analyse such images. Here we describe GIANI (General Image Analysis of Nuclei-based Images; https://djpbarry.github.io/Giani), new software for the analysis of 3D images. The design primarily facilitates segmentation of nuclei and cells, followed by quantification of morphology and protein expression. GIANI enables routine and reproducible batch-processing of large numbers of images and comes with scripting and command line tools. We demonstrate the utility of GIANI by quantifying cell morphology and protein expression in confocal images of mouse early embryos and by segmenting nuclei from light sheet microscopy images of the flour beetle embryo. We also validate the performance of the software using simulated data. More generally, we anticipate that GIANI will be a useful tool for researchers in a variety of biomedical fields.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 35502739 03 May 2022

Walpole GFW, Pacheco J, Chauhan N, Clark J, Anderson KE, Abbas YM, Brabant-Kirwan D, Montaño-Rendón F, Liu Z, Zhu H, Brumell JH, Deiters A, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT, Hammond GRV, Grinstein S, Fairn GD Signalling, Biological Chemistry

Despite their low abundance, phosphoinositides play a central role in membrane traffic and signalling. PtdIns(3,4,5)P and PtdIns(3,4)P are uniquely important, as they promote cell growth, survival and migration. Pathogenic organisms have developed means to subvert phosphoinositide metabolism to promote successful infection and their survival in host organisms. We demonstrate that PtdIns(3,4)P is a major product generated in host cells by the effectors of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Shigella. Pharmacological, gene silencing and heterologous expression experiments revealed that, remarkably, the biosynthesis of PtdIns(3,4)P occurs independently of phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Instead, we found that the Salmonella effector SopB, heretofore believed to be a phosphatase, generates PtdIns(3,4)P de novo via a phosphotransferase/phosphoisomerase mechanism. Recombinant SopB is capable of generating PtdIns(3,4,5)P and PtdIns(3,4)P from PtdIns(4,5)P in a cell-free system. Through a remarkable instance of convergent evolution, bacterial effectors acquired the ability to synthesize 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides by an ATP- and kinase-independent mechanism, thereby subverting host signalling to gain entry and even provoke oncogenic transformation.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 35484249 May 2022

Petkau G, Mitchell TJ, Chakraborty K, Bell SE, D Angeli V, Matheson L, Turner DJ, Saveliev A, Gizlenci O, Salerno F, Katsikis PD, Turner M Immunology

CD8 T cell differentiation into effector cells is initiated early after antigen encounter by signals from the T cell antigen receptor and costimulatory molecules. The molecular mechanisms that establish the timing and rate of differentiation however are not defined. Here we show that the RNA binding proteins (RBP) ZFP36 and ZFP36L1 limit the rate of differentiation of activated naïve CD8 T cells and the potency of the resulting cytotoxic lymphocytes. The RBP function in an early and short temporal window to enforce dependency on costimulation via CD28 for full T cell activation and effector differentiation by directly binding mRNA of NF-κB, Irf8 and Notch1 transcription factors and cytokines, including Il2. Their absence in T cells, or the adoptive transfer of small numbers of CD8 T cells lacking the RBP, promotes resilience to influenza A virus infection without immunopathology. These findings highlight ZFP36 and ZFP36L1 as nodes for the integration of the early T cell activation signals controlling the speed and quality of the CD8 T cell response.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 35477960 27 Apr 2022

Kyriakopoulos C, Nordström K, Kramer PL, Gottfreund JY, Salhab A, Arand J, Müller F, von Meyenn F, Ficz G, Reik W, Wolf V, Walter J, Giehr P Epigenetics

A precise understanding of DNA methylation dynamics is of great importance for a variety of biological processes including cellular reprogramming and differentiation. To date, complex integration of multiple and distinct genome-wide datasets is required to realize this task. We present GwEEP (genome-wide epigenetic efficiency profiling) a versatile approach to infer dynamic efficiencies of DNA modifying enzymes. GwEEP relies on genome-wide hairpin datasets, which are translated by a hidden Markov model into quantitative enzyme efficiencies with reported confidence around the estimates. GwEEP predicts and maintenance methylation efficiencies of Dnmts and furthermore the hydroxylation efficiency of Tets. Its design also allows capturing further oxidation processes given available data. We show that GwEEP predicts accurately the epigenetic changes of ESCs following a Serum-to-2i shift and applied to Tet TKO cells confirms the hypothesized mutual interference between Dnmts and Tets.

+view abstract Cell reports methods, PMID: 35475220 28 Mar 2022

Miller DC, Reuillon T, Molyneux L, Blackburn T, Cook SJ, Edwards N, Endicott JA, Golding BT, Griffin RJ, Hardcastle I, Harnor SJ, Heptinstall A, Lochhead P, Martin MP, Martin NC, Myers S, Newell DR, Noble RA, Phillips N, Rigoreau L, Thomas H, Tucker JA, Wang LZ, Waring MJ, Wong AC, Wedge SR, Noble MEM, Cano C Signalling

The nonclassical extracellular signal-related kinase 5 (ERK5) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has been implicated in increased cellular proliferation, migration, survival, and angiogenesis; hence, ERK5 inhibition may be an attractive approach for cancer treatment. However, the development of selective ERK5 inhibitors has been challenging. Previously, we described the development of a pyrrole carboxamide high-throughput screening hit into a selective, submicromolar inhibitor of ERK5 kinase activity. Improvement in the ERK5 potency was necessary for the identification of a tool ERK5 inhibitor for target validation studies. Herein, we describe the optimization of this series to identify nanomolar pyrrole carboxamide inhibitors of ERK5 incorporating a basic center, which suffered from poor oral bioavailability. Parallel optimization of potency and pharmacokinetic parameters led to the identification of a nonbasic pyrazole analogue with an optimal balance of ERK5 inhibition and oral exposure.

+view abstract Journal of medicinal chemistry, PMID: 35468293 12 May 2022

D'Angeli V, Monzón-Casanova E, Matheson LS, Gizlenci Ö, Petkau G, Gooding C, Berrens RV, Smith CWJ, Turner M Immunology

The RNA-binding protein polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) has been found to have roles in CD4 T-cell activation, but its function in CD8 T cells remains untested. We show it is dispensable for the development of naïve mouse CD8 T cells, but is necessary for the optimal expansion and production of effector molecules by antigen-specific CD8 T cells in vivo. PTBP1 has an essential role in regulating the early events following activation of the naïve CD8 T cell leading to IL-2 and TNF production. It is also required to protect activated CD8 T cells from apoptosis. PTBP1 controls alternative splicing of over 400 genes in naïve CD8 T cells in addition to regulating the abundance of ∼200 mRNAs. PTBP1 is required for the nuclear accumulation of c-Fos, NFATc2, and NFATc3, but not NFATc1. This selective effect on NFAT proteins correlates with PTBP1-promoted expression of the shorter Aβ1 isoform and exon 13 skipped Aβ2 isoform of the catalytic A-subunit of calcineurin phosphatase. These findings reveal a crucial role for PTBP1 in regulating CD8 T-cell activation.

+view abstract European journal of immunology, PMID: 35460072 22 Apr 2022

Turner DJ, Saveliev A, Salerno F, Matheson LS, Screen M, Lawson H, Wotherspoon D, Kranc KR, Turner M Immunology

To identify roles of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in the differentiation or survival of antibody secreting plasma cells we performed a CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen of 1213 mouse RBPs for their ability to affect proliferation and/or survival, and the abundance of differentiated CD138 + cells in vitro. We validated the binding partners CSDE1 and STRAP as well as the mA binding protein YTHDF2 as promoting the accumulation of CD138 + cells in vitro. We validated the EIF3 subunits EIF3K and EIF3L and components of the CCR4-NOT complex as inhibitors of CD138 + cell accumulation in vitro. In chimeric mouse models YTHDF2-deficient plasma cells failed to accumulate.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 35451955 22 Apr 2022

Protty MB, Jenkins PV, Collins PW, O'Donnell VB Signalling

Phospholipids (PLs) are found in all cell types and are required for structural support and cell activation signalling pathways. In resting cells, PLs are asymmetrically distributed throughout the plasma membrane with native procoagulant aminophospholipids (aPLs) being actively maintained in the inner leaflet of the membrane. Upon platelet activation, aPLs rapidly externalize to the outer leaflet and are essential for supporting the coagulation cascade by providing binding sites for factors in the cell-based model. More recent work has uncovered a role for enzymatically oxidized PLs (eoxPLs) in facilitating coagulation, working in concert with native aPLs. Despite this, the role of aPLs and eoxPLs in thrombo-inflammatory conditions, such as arterial and venous thrombosis, has not been fully elucidated. In this review, we describe the biochemical structures, distribution and regulation of aPL externalization and summarize the literature on eoxPL generation in circulating blood cells. We focus on the currently understood role of these lipids in mediating coagulation reactions , and in human thrombotic disease. Finally, we highlight gaps in our understanding in how these lipids vary in health and disease, which may place them as future therapeutic targets for the management of thrombo-inflammatory conditions.

+view abstract Open biology, PMID: 35440201 Apr 2022

Rostovskaya M, Andrews S, Reik W, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

In primates, the amnion emerges through cavitation of the epiblast during implantation, whereas in other species it does so later at gastrulation by the folding of the ectoderm. How the mechanisms of amniogenesis diversified during evolution remains unknown. Unexpectedly, single-cell analysis of primate embryos uncovered two transcriptionally and temporally distinct amniogenesis waves. To study this, we employed the naive-to-primed transition of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to model peri-implantation epiblast development. Partially primed hPSCs transiently gained the ability to differentiate into cavitating epithelium that transcriptionally and morphologically matched the early amnion, whereas fully primed hPSCs produced cells resembling the late amnion instead, thus recapitulating the two independent differentiation waves. The early wave follows a trophectoderm-like pathway and encompasses cavitation, whereas the late wave resembles an ectoderm-like route during gastrulation. The discovery of two independent waves explains how amniogenesis through cavitation could emerge during evolution via duplication of the pre-existing trophectoderm program.

+view abstract Cell stem cell, PMID: 35439430 05 May 2022

Saud Z, Tyrrell VJ, Zaragkoulias A, Protty MB, Statkute E, Rubina A, Bentley K, White DA, Rodrigues PDS, Murphy RC, Köfeler H, Griffiths WJ, Alvarez-Jarreta J, Brown RW, Newcombe RG, Heyman J, Pritchard M, Mcleod RW, Arya A, Lynch CA, Owens D, Jenkins PV, Buurma NJ, O'Donnell VB, Thomas DW, Stanton RJ Signalling

The lipid envelope of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of anti-viral agents, as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Using lipidomics analyses, we revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PL), with little cholesterol or sphingolipids, indicating significant differences from the composition of host membranes. Unlike cellular membranes, procoagulant aminophospholipids were present on the external side of the viral envelope at levels exceeding those on activated platelets. As a result, virions directly promoted blood coagulation. To investigate whether these differences could enable selective targeting of the viral envelope in vivo, we tested whether oral rinses containing lipid-disrupting chemicals could reduce viral infectivity. Products containing PL-disrupting surfactants (such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)) met European virucidal standards in vitro; however, components that altered the critical micelle concentration reduced efficacy, and products containing essential oils, PVP-I, or Chlorhexidine were ineffective. This result was recapitulated in vivo, where a 30-second oral rinse with CPC mouthwash eliminated live virus in the oral cavity of COVID-19 patients for at least one hour, while PVP-Iodine and saline mouthwashes were found ineffective. We conclude the SARS-CoV-2 lipid envelope (i) is distinct from the host plasma membrane, which may enable design of selective anti-viral approaches; (ii) contains exposed PE and PS, which may influence thrombosis, pathogenicity, and inflammation; and (iii) can be selectively targeted in vivo by specific oral rinses.

+view abstract Journal of lipid research, PMID: 35436499 15 Apr 2022

Gill D, Parry A, Santos F, Okkenhaug H, Todd CD, Hernando-Herraez I, Stubbs TM, Milagre I, Reik W Epigenetics, Imaging

Ageing is the gradual decline in organismal fitness that occurs over time leading to tissue dysfunction and disease. At the cellular level, ageing is associated with reduced function, altered gene expression and a perturbed epigenome. Recent work has demonstrated that the epigenome is already rejuvenated by the maturation phase of somatic cell reprogramming, which suggests full reprogramming is not required to reverse ageing of somatic cells. Here we have developed the first "maturation phase transient reprogramming" (MPTR) method, where reprogramming factors are selectively expressed until this rejuvenation point then withdrawn. Applying MPTR to dermal fibroblasts from middle-aged donors, we found that cells temporarily lose and then reacquire their fibroblast identity, possibly as a result of epigenetic memory at enhancers and/or persistent expression of some fibroblast genes. Excitingly, our method substantially rejuvenated multiple cellular attributes including the transcriptome, which was rejuvenated by around 30 years as measured by a novel transcriptome clock. The epigenome was rejuvenated to a similar extent, including H3K9me3 levels and the DNA methylation ageing clock. The magnitude of rejuvenation instigated by MPTR appears substantially greater than that achieved in previous transient reprogramming protocols. In addition, MPTR fibroblasts produced youthful levels of collagen proteins, and showed partial functional rejuvenation of their migration speed. Finally, our work suggests that optimal time windows exist for rejuvenating the transcriptome and the epigenome. Overall, we demonstrate that it is possible to separate rejuvenation from complete pluripotency reprogramming, which should facilitate the discovery of novel anti-ageing genes and therapies.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 35390271 08 Apr 2022

Willemsen M, Van Nieuwenhove E, Seyed Tabib NS, Staels F, Schrijvers R, De Somer L, Liston A, Humblet-Baron S, Wouters C Immunology

No abstract available

+view abstract Rheumatology advances in practice, PMID: 35368972 2022

Rodríguez-Ubreva J, Arutyunyan A, Bonder MJ, Del Pino-Molina L, Clark SJ, de la Calle-Fabregat C, Garcia-Alonso L, Handfield LF, Ciudad L, Andrés-León E, Krueger F, Català-Moll F, Rodríguez-Cortez VC, Polanski K, Mamanova L, van Dongen S, Kiselev VY, Martínez-Saavedra MT, Heyn H, Martín J, Warnatz K, López-Granados E, Rodríguez-Gallego C, Stegle O, Kelsey G, Vento-Tormo R, Ballestar E Epigenetics

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, displays impaired terminal B-cell differentiation and defective antibody responses. Incomplete genetic penetrance and ample phenotypic expressivity in CVID suggest the participation of additional pathogenic mechanisms. Monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for CVID are uniquely valuable for studying the contribution of epigenetics to the disease. Here, we generate a single-cell epigenomics and transcriptomics census of naïve-to-memory B cell differentiation in a CVID-discordant MZ twin pair. Our analysis identifies DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility and transcriptional defects in memory B-cells mirroring defective cell-cell communication upon activation. These findings are validated in a cohort of CVID patients and healthy donors. Our findings provide a comprehensive multi-omics map of alterations in naïve-to-memory B-cell transition in CVID and indicate links between the epigenome and immune cell cross-talk. Our resource, publicly available at the Human Cell Atlas, gives insight into future diagnosis and treatments of CVID patients.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 35365635 01 Apr 2022

Marino M, Zhou L, Rincon MY, Callaerts-Vegh Z, Verhaert J, Wahis J, Creemers E, Yshii L, Wierda K, Saito T, Marneffe C, Voytyuk I, Wouters Y, Dewilde M, Duqué SI, Vincke C, Levites Y, Golde TE, Saido TC, Muyldermans S, Liston A, De Strooper B, Holt MG Immunology

Single domain antibodies (VHHs) are potentially disruptive therapeutics, with important biological value for treatment of several diseases, including neurological disorders. However, VHHs have not been widely used in the central nervous system (CNS), largely because of their restricted blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Here, we propose a gene transfer strategy based on BBB-crossing adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to deliver VHH directly into the CNS. As a proof-of-concept, we explored the potential of AAV-delivered VHH to inhibit BACE1, a well-characterized target in Alzheimer's disease. First, we generated a panel of VHHs targeting BACE1, one of which, VHH-B9, shows high selectivity for BACE1 and efficacy in lowering BACE1 activity in vitro. We further demonstrate that a single systemic dose of AAV-VHH-B9 produces positive long-term (12 months plus) effects on amyloid load, neuroinflammation, synaptic function, and cognitive performance, in the App Alzheimer's mouse model. These results constitute a novel therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases, which is applicable to a range of CNS disease targets.

+view abstract EMBO molecular medicine, PMID: 35352880 07 04 2022

Hu F, Lu J, Matheson LS, Díaz-Muñoz MD, Saveliev A, Turner M Immunology

n/a

+view abstract Bioinformatics, PMID: 35349648 29 Mar 2022

Collier AJ, Bendall A, Fabian C, Malcolm AA, Tilgner K, Semprich CI, Wojdyla K, Nisi PS, Kishore K, Roamio Franklin VN, Mirshekar-Syahkal B, D'Santos C, Plath K, Yusa K, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics

Uncovering the mechanisms that establish naïve pluripotency in humans is crucial for the future applications of pluripotent stem cells including the production of human blastoids. However, the regulatory pathways that control the establishment of naïve pluripotency by reprogramming are largely unknown. Here, we use genome-wide screening to identify essential regulators as well as major impediments of human primed to naïve pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. We discover that factors essential for cell state change do not typically undergo changes at the level of gene expression but rather are repurposed with new functions. Mechanistically, we establish that the variant Polycomb complex PRC1.3 and PRDM14 jointly repress developmental and gene regulatory factors to ensure naïve cell reprogramming. In addition, small-molecule inhibitors of reprogramming impediments improve naïve cell reprogramming beyond current methods. Collectively, this work defines the principles controlling the establishment of human naïve pluripotency and also provides new insights into mechanisms that destabilize and reconfigure cell identity during cell state transitions.

+view abstract Science advances, PMID: 35333572 25 Mar 2022

Schebb NH, Kühn H, Kahnt AS, Rund KM, O'Donnell VB, Flamand N, Peters-Golden M, Jakobsson PJ, Weylandt KH, Rohwer N, Murphy RC, Geisslinger G, FitzGerald GA, Hanson J, Dahlgren C, Alnouri MW, Offermanns S, Steinhilber D Signalling

Formation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins or resolvins usually involves arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, ALOX5) and different types of arachidonic acid 12- and 15-lipoxygenating paralogues (15-LO1, ALOX15; 15-LO2, ALOX15B; 12-LO, ALOX12). Typically, SPMs are thought to be formed via consecutive steps of oxidation of polyenoic fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid. One hallmark of SPM formation is that reported levels of these lipid mediators are much lower than typical pro-inflammatory mediators including the monohydroxylated fatty acid derivatives (e.g., 5-HETE), leukotrienes or certain cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins. Thus, reliable detection and quantification of these metabolites is challenging. This paper is aimed at critically evaluating i) the proposed biosynthetic pathways of SPM formation, ii) the current knowledge on SPM receptors and their signaling cascades and iii) the analytical methods used to quantify these pro-resolving mediators in the context of their instability and their low concentrations. Based on current literature it can be concluded that i) there is at most, a low biosynthetic capacity for SPMs in human leukocytes. ii) The identity and the signaling of the proposed G-protein-coupled SPM receptors have not been supported by studies in knock-out mice and remain to be validated. iii) In humans, SPM levels were neither related to dietary supplementation with their ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors nor were they formed during the resolution phase of an evoked inflammatory response. iv) The reported low SPM levels cannot be reliably quantified by means of the most commonly reported methodology. Overall, these questions regarding formation, signaling and occurrence of SPMs challenge their role as endogenous mediators of the resolution of inflammation.

+view abstract Frontiers in pharmacology, PMID: 35308198 2022

Davarinejad H, Huang YC, Mermaz B, LeBlanc C, Poulet A, Thomson G, Joly V, Muñoz M, Arvanitis-Vigneault A, Valsakumar D, Villarino G, Ross A, Rotstein BH, Alarcon EI, Brunzelle JS, Voigt P, Dong J, Couture JF, Jacob Y Epigenetics

The tail of replication-dependent histone H3.1 varies from that of replication-independent H3.3 at the amino acid located at position 31 in plants and animals, but no function has been assigned to this residue to demonstrate a unique and conserved role for H3.1 during replication. We found that TONSOKU (TSK/TONSL), which rescues broken replication forks, specifically interacts with H3.1 via recognition of alanine 31 by its tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Our results indicate that genomic instability in the absence of ATXR5/ATXR6-catalyzed histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation in plants depends on H3.1, TSK, and DNA polymerase theta (Pol θ). This work reveals an H3.1-specific function during replication and a common strategy used in multicellular eukaryotes for regulating post-replicative chromatin maturation and TSK, which relies on histone monomethyltransferases and reading of the H3.1 variant.

+view abstract Science, PMID: 35298257 18 Mar 2022

Timimi L, Figueras-Novoa C, Marcassa E, Florey O, Baillie JK, Beale R, Ulferts R Signalling

Conjugation of the Atg8 (autophagy related 8) family of ubiquitin-like proteins to phospholipids of the phagophore is a hallmark of macroautophagy/autophagy. Consequently, Atg8 family members, especially LC3B, are commonly used as a marker of autophagosomes. However, the Atg8 family of proteins are not found solely attached to double-membrane autophagosomes. In non-canonical Atg8-family protein lipidation they become conjugated to single membranes. We have shown that this process is triggered by recruitment of ATG16L1 by the vacuolar-type H-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump, suggesting a role for pH sensing in recruitment of Atg8-family proteins to single membranes.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 35258397 08 Mar 2022

Malengier-Devlies B, Bernaerts E, Ahmadzadeh K, Filtjens J, Vandenhaute J, Boeckx B, Burton O, De Visscher A, Mitera T, Berghmans N, Verbeke G, Liston A, Lambrechts D, Proost P, Wouters C, Matthys P Immunology

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease of childhood-onset. sJIA is associated with neutrophilia, including immature granulocytes, potentially driven by the growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This study aimed to unravel the role of G-CSF in the pathology of sJIA.

+view abstract Arthritis & Rheumatology, PMID: 35243819 03 Mar 2022

Cabral-Dias R, Lucarelli S, Zak K, Rahmani S, Judge G, Abousawan J, DiGiovanni LF, Vural D, Anderson KE, Sugiyama MG, Genc G, Hong W, Botelho RJ, Fairn GD, Kim PK, Antonescu CN Signalling

The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) controls many aspects of cell physiology. EGF binding to EGFR elicits the membrane recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, leading to Akt phosphorylation and activation. Concomitantly, EGFR is recruited to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), eventually leading to receptor endocytosis. Previous work uncovered that clathrin, but not receptor endocytosis, is required for EGF-stimulated Akt activation, and that some EGFR signals are enriched in CCPs. Here, we examine how CCPs control EGFR signaling. The signaling adaptor TOM1L1 and the Src-family kinase Fyn are enriched within a subset of CCPs with unique lifetimes and protein composition. Perturbation of TOM1L1 or Fyn impairs EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt2 but not Akt1. EGF stimulation also triggered the TOM1L1- and Fyn-dependent recruitment of the phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase SHIP2 to CCPs. Thus, the recruitment of TOM1L1 and Fyn to a subset of CCPs underlies a role for these structures in the support of EGFR signaling leading to Akt activation.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 35238864 04 Apr 2022

Chondronasiou D, Gill D, Mosteiro L, Urdinguio RG, Berenguer-Llergo A, Aguilera M, Durand S, Aprahamian F, Nirmalathasan N, Abad M, Martin-Herranz DE, Stephan-Otto Attolini C, Prats N, Kroemer G, Fraga MF, Reik W, Serrano M Epigenetics

The expression of the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC (OSKM) can convert somatic differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells in a process known as reprogramming. Notably, partial and reversible reprogramming does not change cell identity but can reverse markers of aging in cells, improve the capacity of aged mice to repair tissue injuries, and extend longevity in progeroid mice. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Here, we have studied changes in the DNA methylome, transcriptome, and metabolome in naturally aged mice subject to a single period of transient OSKM expression. We found that this is sufficient to reverse DNA methylation changes that occur upon aging in the pancreas, liver, spleen, and blood. Similarly, we observed reversion of transcriptional changes, especially regarding biological processes known to change during aging. Finally, some serum metabolites and biomarkers altered with aging were also restored to young levels upon transient reprogramming. These observations indicate that a single period of OSKM expression can drive epigenetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic changes toward a younger configuration in multiple tissues and in the serum.

+view abstract Aging cell, PMID: 35235716 02 Mar 2022

O'Donnell VB Signalling

The Lands Pathway is a fundamental biochemical process named for its discovery by William EM Lands and revealed in a series of seminal papers published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry between 1958-65. It describes the selective placement in phospholipids of acyl chains, by phospholipid acyltransferases. This pathway has formed a core component of our knowledge of phospholipid and also diglyceride metabolism in mammalian tissues for over 60 years now. Our understanding of how the Lands pathways are enzymatically mediated via large families of related gene products that display both substrate and tissue specificity has grown exponentially since. Recent studies building on this are starting to reveal key roles for the Lands pathway in specific scenarios, in particular inflammation, immunity and inflammation. This review will cover the Lands cycle from historical perspectives first, then present new information on how this important cycle forms a central regulatory node connecting fatty acyl and phospholipid metabolism and how its altered regulation may present new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in human disease.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 35225335 28 Feb 2022

Taubenschmid-Stowers J, Rostovskaya M, Santos F, Ljung S, Argelaguet R, Krueger F, Nichols J, Reik W Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

The activation of the embryonic genome marks the first major wave of transcription in the developing organism. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in mouse 2-cell embryos and 8-cell embryos in humans is crucial for development. Here, we report the discovery of human 8-cell-like cells (8CLCs) among naive embryonic stem cells, which transcriptionally resemble the 8-cell human embryo. They express ZGA markers, including ZSCAN4 and LEUTX, and transposable elements, such as HERVL and MLT2A1. 8CLCs show reduced SOX2 levels and can be identified using TPRX1 and H3.Y marker proteins in vitro. Overexpression of the transcription factor DUX4 and spliceosome inhibition increase human ZGA-like transcription. Excitingly, the 8CLC markers TPRX1 and H3.Y are also expressed in ZGA-stage 8-cell human embryos and may thus be relevant in vivo. 8CLCs provide a unique opportunity to characterize human ZGA-like transcription and might provide critical insights into early events in embryogenesis in humans.

+view abstract Cell stem cell, PMID: 35216671 15 Feb 2022

Robinson EL, Drawnel FM, Mehdi S, Archer CR, Liu W, Okkenhaug H, Alkass K, Aronsen JM, Nagaraju CK, Sjaastad I, Sipido KR, Bergmann O, Arthur JSC, Wang X, Roderick HL Signalling, Imaging

Heart failure is a leading cause of death that develops subsequent to deleterious hypertrophic cardiac remodelling. MAPK pathways play a key role in coordinating the induction of gene expression during hypertrophy. Induction of the immediate early gene (IEG) response including activator protein 1 (AP-1) complex factors is a necessary and early event in this process. How MAPK and IEG expression are coupled during cardiac hypertrophy is not resolved. Here, in vitro, in rodent models and in human samples, we demonstrate that MAPK-stimulated IEG induction depends on the mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) and its phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 28 (pH3S28). pH3S28 in IEG promoters in turn recruits Brg1, a BAF60 ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex component, initiating gene expression. Without MSK activity and IEG induction, the hypertrophic response is suppressed. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into the role of MAPK pathways in signalling to the epigenome and regulation of gene expression during cardiac hypertrophy.

+view abstract Cells, PMID: 35203255 09 Feb 2022

Ciraku L, Bacigalupa ZA, Ju J, Moeller RA, Le Minh G, Lee RH, Smith MD, Ferrer CM, Trefely S, Izzo LT, Doan MT, Gocal WA, D'Agostino L, Shi W, Jackson JG, Katsetos CD, Wellen KE, Snyder NW, Reginato MJ Epigenetics

Glioblastomas (GBMs) preferentially generate acetyl-CoA from acetate as a fuel source to promote tumor growth. O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to be elevated by increasing O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in many cancers and reduced O-GlcNAcylation can block cancer growth. Here, we identify a novel mechanism whereby OGT regulates acetate-dependent acetyl-CoA and lipid production by regulating phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). OGT is required and sufficient for GBM cell growth and regulates acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA and lipids. Elevating O-GlcNAcylation in GBM cells increases phosphorylation of ACSS2 on Ser-267 in a CDK5-dependent manner. Importantly, we show that ACSS2 Ser-267 phosphorylation regulates its stability by reducing polyubiquitination and degradation. ACSS2 Ser-267 is critical for OGT-mediated GBM growth as overexpression of ACSS2 Ser-267 phospho-mimetic rescues growth in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we show that pharmacologically targeting OGT and CDK5 reduces GBM growth ex vivo. Thus, the OGT/CDK5/ACSS2 pathway may be a way to target altered metabolic dependencies in brain tumors.

+view abstract Oncogene, PMID: 35190642 22 Feb 2022

Li J, Bergmann L, Rafael de Almeda A, Webb KM, Gogol MM, Voigt P, Liu Y, Liang H, Smolle MM Epigenetics

The Isw1b chromatin-remodeling complex is specifically recruited to gene bodies to help retain pre-existing histones during transcription by RNA polymerase II. Recruitment is dependent on H3K36 methylation and the Isw1b subunit Ioc4, which contains an N-terminal PWWP domain. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ioc4-PWWP domain, including a detailed functional characterization of the domain on its own as well as in the context of full-length Ioc4 and the Isw1b remodeler. The Ioc4-PWWP domain preferentially binds H3K36me3-containing nucleosomes. Its ability to bind DNA is required for nucleosome binding. It is also furthered by the unique insertion motif present in Ioc4-PWWP. The ability to bind H3K36me3 and DNA promotes the interaction of full-length Ioc4 with nucleosomes in vitro and they are necessary for its recruitment to gene bodies in vivo. Furthermore, a fully functional Ioc4-PWWP domain promotes efficient remodeling by Isw1b and the maintenance of ordered chromatin in vivo, thereby preventing the production of non-coding RNAs.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 35188579 21 Feb 2022

Ronsmans S, Sørig Hougaard K, Nawrot TS, Plusquin M, Huaux F, Jesús Cruz M, Moldovan H, Verpaele S, Jayapala M, Tunney M, Humblet-Baron S, Dirven H, Cecilie Nygaard U, Lindeman B, Duale N, Liston A, Meulengracht Flachs E, Kastaniegaard K, Ketzel M, Goetz J, Vanoirbeek J, Ghosh M, Hoet PHM Immunology

Immune-mediated, noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases-are chronic disorders, in which the interaction between environmental exposures and the immune system plays an important role. The prevalence and societal costs of these diseases are rising in the European Union. The EXIMIOUS consortium-gathering experts in immunology, toxicology, occupational health, clinical medicine, exposure science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and sensor development-will study eleven European study populations, covering the entire lifespan, including prenatal life. Innovative ways of characterizing and quantifying the exposome will be combined with high-dimensional immunophenotyping and -profiling platforms to map the immune effects (immunome) induced by the exposome. We will use two main approaches that "meet in the middle"-one starting from the exposome, the other starting from health effects. Novel bioinformatics tools, based on systems immunology and machine learning, will be used to integrate and analyze these large datasets to identify immune fingerprints that reflect a person's lifetime exposome or that are early predictors of disease. This will allow researchers, policymakers, and clinicians to grasp the impact of the exposome on the immune system at the level of individuals and populations.

+view abstract Environmental Epidemiology, PMID: 35169671 Feb 2022

Hanna CW, Huang J, Belton C, Reinhardt S, Dahl A, Andrews S, Stewart AF, Kranz A, Kelsey G Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is an epigenetic mark found at gene promoters and CpG islands. H3K4me3 is essential for mammalian development, yet mechanisms underlying its genomic targeting are poorly understood. H3K4me3 methyltransferases SETD1B and MLL2 (KMT2B) are essential for oogenesis. We investigated changes in H3K4me3 in Setd1b conditional knockout (cKO) oocytes using ultra-low input ChIP-seq, with comparisons to DNA methylation and gene expression analyses. H3K4me3 was redistributed in Setd1b cKO oocytes showing losses at active gene promoters associated with downregulated gene expression. Remarkably, many regions also gained H3K4me3, in particular those that were DNA hypomethylated, transcriptionally inactive and CpG-rich, which are hallmarks of MLL2 targets. Consequently, loss of SETD1B disrupts the balance between MLL2 and de novo DNA methyltransferases in determining the epigenetic landscape during oogenesis. Our work reveals two distinct, complementary mechanisms of genomic targeting of H3K4me3 in oogenesis, with SETD1B linked to gene expression and MLL2 to CpG content.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 35137160 07 Feb 2022

Yurchenko AA, Pop OT, Ighilahriz M, Padioleau I, Rajabi F, Sharpe HJ, Poulalhon N, Dreno B, Khammari A, Delord M, Alberdi A, Soufir N, Battistella M, Mourah S, Bouquet F, Savina A, Besse A, Mendez-Lopez M, Grange F, Monestier S, Mortier L, Meyer N, Dutriaux C, Robert C, Saïag P, Herms F, Lambert J, de Sauvage F, Dumaz N, Flatz L, Basset-Seguin N, Nikolaev SI Signalling

Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC), but some cases demonstrate intrinsic resistance (IR) to the drug. We sought to assess the frequency of IR to vismodegib in laBCC and its underlying genomic mechanisms.

+view abstract Clinical Cancer Research, PMID: 35078858 25 Jan 2022

Suriyalaksh M, Raimondi C, Mains A, Segonds-Pichon A, Mukhtar S, Murdoch S, Aldunate R, Krueger F, Guimerà R, Andrews S, Sales-Pardo M, Casanueva O Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

We design a "wisdom-of-the-crowds" GRN inference pipeline and couple it to complex network analysis to understand the organizational principles governing gene regulation in long-lived /Notch . The GRN has three layers (input, core, and output) and is topologically equivalent to bow-tie/hourglass structures prevalent among metabolic networks. To assess the functional importance of structural layers, we screened 80% of regulators and discovered 50 new aging genes, 86% with human orthologues. Genes essential for longevity-including ones involved in insulin-like signaling (ILS)-are at the core, indicating that GRN's structure is predictive of functionality. We used reporters and a novel functional network covering 5,497 genetic interactions to make mechanistic predictions. We used genetic epistasis to test some of these predictions, uncovering a novel transcriptional regulator, , that works alongside DAF-16/FOXO. We present a framework with predictive power that can accelerate discovery in and potentially humans.

+view abstract iScience, PMID: 35036864 21 Jan 2022

Prescott JA, Balmanno K, Mitchell JP, Okkenhaug H, Cook SJ Signalling, Imaging

Inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) has long been viewed as the dominant IKK in the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway, with IKKα being more important in non-canonical NF-κB activation. Here we have investigated the role of IKKα and IKKβ in canonical NF-κB activation in colorectal cells using CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out cell lines, siRNA and selective IKKβ inhibitors. IKKα and IKKβ were redundant for IκBα phosphorylation and turnover since loss of IKKα or IKKβ alone had little (SW620 cells) or no (HCT116 cells) effect. However, in HCT116 cells IKKα was the dominant IKK required for basal phosphorylation of p65 at S536, stimulated phosphorylation of p65 at S468, nuclear translocation of p65 and the NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response to both TNFα and IL-1α. In these cells IKKβ was far less efficient at compensating for the loss of IKKα than IKKα was able to compensate for the loss of IKKβ. This was confirmed when siRNA was used to knock-down the non-targeted kinase in single KO cells. Critically, the selective IKKβ inhibitor BIX02514 confirmed these observations in WT cells and similar results were seen in SW620 cells. Notably, whilst IKKα loss strongly inhibited TNFα-dependent p65 nuclear translocation, IKKα and IKKβ contributed equally to c-Rel nuclear translocation indicating that different NF-κB subunits exhibit different dependencies on these IKKs. These results demonstrate a major role for IKKα in canonical NF-κB signalling in colorectal cells and may be relevant to efforts to design IKK inhibitors, which have focused largely on IKKβ to date.

+view abstract The Biochemical journal, PMID: 35029639 14 Jan 2022

Velten B, Braunger JM, Argelaguet R, Arnol D, Wirbel J, Bredikhin D, Zeller G, Stegle O Epigenetics

Factor analysis is a widely used method for dimensionality reduction in genome biology, with applications from personalized health to single-cell biology. Existing factor analysis models assume independence of the observed samples, an assumption that fails in spatio-temporal profiling studies. Here we present MEFISTO, a flexible and versatile toolbox for modeling high-dimensional data when spatial or temporal dependencies between the samples are known. MEFISTO maintains the established benefits of factor analysis for multimodal data, but enables the performance of spatio-temporally informed dimensionality reduction, interpolation, and separation of smooth from non-smooth patterns of variation. Moreover, MEFISTO can integrate multiple related datasets by simultaneously identifying and aligning the underlying patterns of variation in a data-driven manner. To illustrate MEFISTO, we apply the model to different datasets with spatial or temporal resolution, including an evolutionary atlas of organ development, a longitudinal microbiome study, a single-cell multi-omics atlas of mouse gastrulation and spatially resolved transcriptomics.

+view abstract Nature methods, PMID: 35027765 13 Jan 2022

Whale AJ, King M, Hull RM, Krueger F, Houseley J Epigenetics

Adaptive mutations can cause drug resistance in cancers and pathogens, and increase the tolerance of agricultural pests and diseases to chemical treatment. When and how adaptive mutations form is often hard to discern, but we have shown that adaptive copy number amplification of the copper resistance gene CUP1 occurs in response to environmental copper due to CUP1 transcriptional activation. Here we dissect the mechanism by which CUP1 transcription in budding yeast stimulates copy number variation (CNV). We show that transcriptionally stimulated CNV requires TREX-2 and Mediator, such that cells lacking TREX-2 or Mediator respond normally to copper but cannot acquire increased resistance. Mediator and TREX-2 can cause replication stress by tethering transcribed loci to nuclear pores, a process known as gene gating, and transcription at the CUP1 locus causes a TREX-2-dependent accumulation of replication forks indicative of replication fork stalling. TREX-2-dependent CUP1 gene amplification occurs by a Rad52 and Rad51-mediated homologous recombination mechanism that is enhanced by histone H3K56 acetylation and repressed by Pol32 and Pif1. CUP1 amplification is also critically dependent on late-firing replication origins present in the CUP1 repeats, and mutations that remove or inactivate these origins strongly suppress the acquisition of copper resistance. We propose that replicative stress imposed by nuclear pore association causes replication bubbles from these origins to collapse soon after activation, leaving a tract of H3K56-acetylated chromatin that promotes secondary recombination events during elongation after replication fork re-start events. The capacity for inefficient replication origins to promote copy number variation renders certain genomic regions more fragile than others, and therefore more likely to undergo adaptive evolution through de novo gene amplification.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 35018465 08 Jan 2022

Misheva M, Kotzamanis K, Davies LC, Tyrrell VJ, Rodrigues PRS, Benavides GA, Hinz C, Murphy RC, Kennedy P, Taylor PR, Rosas M, Jones SA, McLaren JE, Deshpande S, Andrews R, Schebb NH, Czubala MA, Gurney M, Aldrovandi M, Meckelmann SW, Ghazal P, Darley-Usmar V, White DA, O'Donnell VB Signalling

Oxylipins are potent biological mediators requiring strict control, but how they are removed en masse during infection and inflammation is unknown. Here we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dynamically enhances oxylipin removal via mitochondrial β-oxidation. Specifically, genetic or pharmacological targeting of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), a mitochondrial importer of fatty acids, reveal that many oxylipins are removed by this protein during inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Using stable isotope-tracing lipidomics, we find secretion-reuptake recycling for 12-HETE and its intermediate metabolites. Meanwhile, oxylipin β-oxidation is uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation, thus not contributing to energy generation. Testing for genetic control checkpoints, transcriptional interrogation of human neonatal sepsis finds upregulation of many genes involved in mitochondrial removal of long-chain fatty acyls, such as ACSL1,3,4, ACADVL, CPT1B, CPT2 and HADHB. Also, ACSL1/Acsl1 upregulation is consistently observed following the treatment of human/murine macrophages with LPS and IFN-γ. Last, dampening oxylipin levels by β-oxidation is suggested to impact on their regulation of leukocyte functions. In summary, we propose mitochondrial β-oxidation as a regulatory metabolic checkpoint for oxylipins during inflammation.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 35013270 10 Jan 2022

Crainiciuc G, Palomino-Segura M, Molina-Moreno M, Sicilia J, Aragones DG, Li JLY, Madurga R, Adrover JM, Aroca-Crevillén A, Martin-Salamanca S, Del Valle AS, Castillo SD, Welch HCE, Soehnlein O, Graupera M, Sánchez-Cabo F, Zarbock A, Smithgall TE, Di Pilato M, Mempel TR, Tharaux PL, González SF, Ayuso-Sacido A, Ng LG, Calvo GF, González-Díaz I, Díaz-de-María F, Hidalgo A

Transcriptional and proteomic profiling of individual cells have revolutionized interpretation of biological phenomena by providing cellular landscapes of healthy and diseased tissues. These approaches, however, do not describe dynamic scenarios in which cells continuously change their biochemical properties and downstream 'behavioural' outputs. Here we used 4D live imaging to record tens to hundreds of morpho-kinetic parameters describing the dynamics of individual leukocytes at sites of active inflammation. By analysing more than 100,000 reconstructions of cell shapes and tracks over time, we obtained behavioural descriptors of individual cells and used these high-dimensional datasets to build behavioural landscapes. These landscapes recognized leukocyte identities in the inflamed skin and trachea, and uncovered a continuum of neutrophil states inside blood vessels, including a large, sessile state that was embraced by the underlying endothelium and associated with pathogenic inflammation. Behavioural screening in 24 mouse mutants identified the kinase Fgr as a driver of this pathogenic state, and interference with Fgr protected mice from inflammatory injury. Thus, behavioural landscapes report distinct properties of dynamic environments at high cellular resolution.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 34987220 05 Jan 2022

Lozano T, Conde E, Martín-Otal C, Navarro F, Lasarte-Cia A, Nasrallah R, Alignani D, Gorraiz M, Sarobe P, Romero JP, Vilas A, Roychoudhuri R, Hervás-Stubbs S, Casares N, Lasarte JJ Immunology

Adoptive cell transfer therapy using CD8 T lymphocytes showed promising results eradicating metastatic malignancies. However, several regulatory mechanisms limit its efficacy. We studied the role of the expression of the transcription factor FOXP3 on CD8 T cell function and anti-tumor immunity. Here we show that suboptimal T cell receptor stimulation of CD8 T cells upregulates FOXP3 in vitro. Similarly, CD8 T cells transferred into tumor-bearing mice upregulate FOXP3 in vivo. Cell-intrinsic loss of FOXP3 by CD8 T cells resulted in improved functionality after TCR stimulation and better antitumor responses in vivo. Inhibition of the FOXP3/NFAT interaction likewise improved CD8 T cell functionality. Transcriptomic analysis of cells after TCR stimulation revealed an enrichment of genes implicated in the response to IFN-γ, IFN-α, inflammatory response, IL-6/JAK/STAT, G2M checkpoint and IL-2/STAT signaling in FOXP3-deficient CD8 T cells with respect to FOXP3-wt CD8 T cells. Our results suggest that transient expression of FOXP3 by CD8 T cells in the tumor microenvironment restrains their anti-tumor activity, with clear implications for improving T cell responses during immunotherapy.

+view abstract Cancer letters, PMID: 34973390 29 Dec 2021

Sandovici I, Georgopoulou A, Pérez-García V, Hufnagel A, López-Tello J, Lam BYH, Schiefer SN, Gaudreau C, Santos F, Hoelle K, Yeo GSH, Burling K, Reiterer M, Fowden AL, Burton GJ, Branco CM, Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Constância M Epigenetics

In all eutherian mammals, growth of the fetus is dependent upon a functional placenta, but whether and how the latter adapts to putative fetal signals is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate, through fetal, endothelial, hematopoietic, and trophoblast-specific genetic manipulations in the mouse, that endothelial and fetus-derived IGF2 is required for the continuous expansion of the feto-placental microvasculature in late pregnancy. The angiocrine effects of IGF2 on placental microvasculature expansion are mediated, in part, through IGF2R and angiopoietin-Tie2/TEK signaling. Additionally, IGF2 exerts IGF2R-ERK1/2-dependent pro-proliferative and angiogenic effects on primary feto-placental endothelial cells ex vivo. Endothelial and fetus-derived IGF2 also plays an important role in trophoblast morphogenesis, acting through Gcm1 and Synb. Thus, our study reveals a direct role for the imprinted Igf2-Igf2r axis on matching placental development to fetal growth and establishes the principle that hormone-like signals from the fetus play important roles in controlling placental microvasculature and trophoblast morphogenesis.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 34963058 21 Dec 2021

Runfola M, Perni M, Yang X, Marchese M, Bacci A, Mero S, Santorelli FM, Polini B, Chiellini G, Giuliani D, Vilella A, Bodria M, Daini E, Vandini E, Rudge S, Gul S, Wakelam MOJ, Vendruscolo M, Rapposelli S Signalling

The identification of effective pharmacological tools for Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one of the main challenges for therapeutic discovery. Due to the variety of pathological processes associated with AD, a promising route for pharmacological intervention involves the development of new chemical entities that can restore cellular homeostasis. To investigate this strategy, we designed and synthetized SG2, a compound related to the thyroid hormone thyroxine, that shares a pleiotropic activity with its endogenous parent compound, including autophagic flux promotion, neuroprotection, and metabolic reprogramming. We demonstrate herein that SG2 acts in a pleiotropic manner to induce recovery in a model of AD based on the overexpression of Aβ42 and improves learning abilities in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD. Further, in vitro ADME-Tox profiling and toxicological studies in zebrafish confirmed the low toxicity of this compound, which represents a chemical starting point for AD drug development.

+view abstract Pharmaceuticals, PMID: 34959730 19 Dec 2021

Rivera Del Alamo MM, Reilas T, Lukasik K, Galvão AM, Yeste M, Katila T Epigenetics

Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used in mares to suppress oestrous behaviour, but the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The presence of an embryo or an IUD prevents cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and, subsequently, prostaglandin (PG) release and luteolysis. However, inflammation may also be involved. Endometrial inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluid were measured on Day 10 (EXP 1, = 25) and Day 15 (EXP 2, = 27) after ovulation in inseminated mares, non-pregnant or pregnant, and in mares in which a small plastic sphere had been inserted into the uterus 4 (EXP 1) or 3 days (EXP 2) after ovulation. Uterine lavage fluid samples were analysed for nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E (PGE) (only EXP 1), prostaglandin F (PGF), inhibin A and cytokines, and blood samples for progesterone and oestradiol. On Day 10, the concentration of PGF was lower ( < 0.05) in the IUD group than in pregnant mares. The concentration of the modulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in the IUD group in comparison to non-pregnant mares, and inhibin A was significantly higher in IUD mares than in the pregnant counterparts on Day 15. The results suggest that the presence of IUD causes endometrial inflammation which is at a resolution stage on Day 15.

+view abstract Animals, PMID: 34944269 08 Dec 2021

Mikulasova A, Kent D, Trevisan-Herraz M, Karataraki N, Fung KTM, Ashby C, Cieslak A, Yaccoby S, van Rhee F, Zangari M, Thanendrarajan S, Schinke C, Morgan GJ, Asnafi V, Spicuglia S, Brackley CA, Corcoran AE, Hambleton S, Walker BA, Rico D, Russell LJ Immunology

Chromosomal translocations are important drivers of hematological malignancies whereby proto-oncogenes are activated by juxtaposition with super-enhancers, often called enhancer hijacking. We analysed the epigenomic consequences of rearrangements between the super-enhancers of the immunoglobulin heavy locus () and proto-oncogene that are common in B cell malignancies. By integrating BLUEPRINT epigenomic data with DNA breakpoint detection, we characterised the normal chromatin landscape of the human locus and its dynamics after pathological genomic rearrangement. We detected an H3K4me3 broad domain (BD) within the locus of healthy B cells that was absent in samples with translocations. The appearance of H3K4me3-BD over in the latter was associated with overexpression and extensive chromatin accessibility of its gene body. We observed similar cancer-specific H3K4me3-BDs associated with super-enhancer hijacking of other common oncogenes in B cell (, and /) and in T-cell malignancies (, and ). Our analysis suggests that H3K4me3-BDs can be created by super-enhancers and supports the new concept of epigenomic translocation, where the relocation of H3K4me3-BDs from cell identity genes to oncogenes accompanies the translocation of super-enhancers.

+view abstract Genome research, PMID: 34933939 21 Dec 2021

Kubinyecz O, Santos F, Drage D, Reik W, Eckersley-Maslin MA Epigenetics

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) represents the initiation of transcription following fertilisation. Despite its importance, we know little of the molecular events that initiate mammalian ZGA in vivo. Recent in vitro studies in mouse embryonic stem cells have revealed developmental pluripotency associated 2 and 4 (Dppa2/4) as key regulators of ZGA-associated transcription. However, their roles in initiating ZGA in vivo remain unexplored. We reveal that Dppa2/4 proteins are present in the nucleus at all stages of preimplantation development and associate with mitotic chromatin. We generated conditional single and double maternal knockout mouse models to deplete maternal stores of Dppa2/4. Importantly, Dppa2/4 maternal knockout mice were fertile when mated with wild-type males. Immunofluorescence and transcriptome analyses of two-cell embryos revealed that, although ZGA took place, there were subtle defects in embryos that lacked maternal Dppa2/4. Strikingly, heterozygous offspring that inherited the null allele maternally had higher preweaning lethality than those that inherited the null allele paternally. Together, our results show that although Dppa2/4 are dispensable for ZGA transcription, maternal stores have an important role in offspring survival, potentially via epigenetic priming of developmental genes.

+view abstract Development, PMID: 34931676 15 Dec 2021

Gould SA, Gilley J, Ling K, Jafar-Nejad P, Rigo F, Coleman M

Activation of the pro-degenerative protein SARM1 after diverse physical and disease-relevant injuries causes programmed axon degeneration. Original studies indicate that substantially decreased SARM1 levels are required for neuroprotection. However, we demonstrate, in Sarm1 haploinsufficient mice, that lowering SARM1 levels by 50% delays programmed axon degeneration in vivo after sciatic nerve transection and partially prevents neurite outgrowth defects in mice lacking the pro-survival factor NMNAT2. In vitro, the rate of degeneration in response to traumatic, neurotoxic, and genetic triggers of SARM1 activation is also slowed. Finally, we demonstrate that Sarm1 antisense oligonucleotides decrease SARM1 levels by more than 50% in vitro, which delays or prevents programmed axon degeneration. Combining Sarm1 haploinsufficiency with antisense oligonucleotides further decreases SARM1 levels and prolongs protection after neurotoxic injury. These data demonstrate that axon protection occurs in a Sarm1 gene dose-responsive manner and that SARM1-lowering agents have therapeutic potential, making Sarm1-targeting antisense oligonucleotides a promising therapeutic strategy.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34910914 14 Dec 2021

Huang TC, Wang YF, Vazquez-Ferrer E, Theofel I, Requena CE, Hanna CW, Kelsey G, Hajkova P Epigenetics

Stability of the epigenetic landscape underpins maintenance of the cell-type-specific transcriptional profile. As one of the main repressive epigenetic systems, DNA methylation has been shown to be important for long-term gene silencing; its loss leads to ectopic and aberrant transcription in differentiated cells and cancer. The developing mouse germ line endures global changes in DNA methylation in the absence of widespread transcriptional activation. Here, using an ultra-low-input native chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we show that following DNA demethylation the gonadal primordial germ cells undergo remodelling of repressive histone modifications, resulting in a sex-specific signature in mice. We further demonstrate that Polycomb has a central role in transcriptional control in the newly hypomethylated germline genome as the genetic loss of Ezh2 leads to aberrant transcriptional activation, retrotransposon derepression and dramatic loss of developing female germ cells. This sex-specific effect of Ezh2 deletion is explained by the distinct landscape of repressive modifications observed in male and female germ cells. Overall, our study provides insight into the dynamic interplay between repressive chromatin modifications in the context of a developmental reprogramming system.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 34880491 08 Dec 2021

Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics

Cell-surface proteins provide excellent biomarkers to identify specific cell types and resolve heterogeneous cell populations. The analysis of cell-surface proteins by flow cytometry produces robust and quantitative information with single-cell resolution, and allows live target cells to be purified and characterized or re-cultured. Studies using antibody screens, proteomics, and candidate analysis have identified a comprehensive set of proteins that are expressed on the surface of naïve and primed human pluripotent stem cells. These findings have led to the development of suitable protein markers and antibodies to accurately distinguish between these two cell types. Here, a detailed protocol is provided that uses multi-color flow cytometry to analyze cell-surface protein expression in naïve and primed human pluripotent stem cells. This method enables the unambiguous identification of pluripotent cell types and the opportunity to sort target cells including during cell state transitions. The protocol can be combined to additionally investigate the expression of reporter genes and other informative features, such as DNA content.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 34870841 2022

Bendall A, Semprich CI Epigenetics

Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-sequencing) facilitates the genome-wide mapping of DNA sequences that are enriched for specific chromatin-binding proteins or histone post-translational modifications. More recently developed chromatin profiling methods called Cleavage Under Targets and Release Using Nuclease (CUT&RUN) and Cleavage Under Targets and Tagmentation (CUT&Tag) have adapted the ChIP-sequencing approach to produce similar data from a smaller amount of starting material, and while overcoming many of the conventional drawbacks of ChIP-sequencing. Here, we present detailed protocols for ChIP-seq, CUT&RUN, and CUT&Tag to profile genome-wide protein-DNA interactions in naïve human pluripotent stem cells.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 34870837 2022

Rostovskaya M Epigenetics

Naïve and primed pluripotent stem cells resemble epiblast cells of the pre-implantation and post-implantation embryo, respectively. This chapter describes a simple experimental system for the efficient and consistent transition of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) from the naïve to the primed state, which is a process called capacitation. Naïve hPSCs after capacitation can be differentiated further to somatic lineages, thus reproducing the order of developmental events in the embryo. Protocols for the induction of neuroectoderm, definitive endoderm, and paraxial mesoderm from hPSCs after capacitation and also from conventionally derived primed hPSCs are included in the chapter. Importantly, hPSC capacitation closely recapitulates transcriptional, metabolic, signaling, and cell polarity changes in the epiblast of primate embryos, and therefore offers a unique in vitro model of human peri-implantation development.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 34870834 2022

Rostovskaya M Epigenetics

Naïve pluripotent stem cells are the in vitro counterparts of pre-implantation embryonic epiblast. During the last few years, several protocols for establishing and maintaining human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) with naïve features have been reported, and many of these protocols result in cell populations with different molecular characteristics. As such, choosing the most appropriate method for naïve hPSC maintenance can pose a significant challenge. This chapter presents an optimized system called PXGL for culturing naïve hPSCs. Naïve hPSCs robustly self-renew while retaining a normal karyotype in PXGL, and the protocol is reproducible across different cell lines and independent laboratories.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 34870831 2022

Loreto A, Angeletti C, Gu W, Osborne A, Nieuwenhuis B, Gilley J, Arthur-Farraj P, Merlini E, Amici A, Luo Z, Hartley-Tassell L, Ve T, Desrochers LM, Wang Q, Kobe B, Orsomando G, Coleman MP

Axon loss underlies symptom onset and progression in many neurodegenerative disorders. Axon degeneration in injury and disease is promoted by activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-consuming enzyme SARM1. Here, we report a novel activator of SARM1, a metabolite of the pesticide and neurotoxin vacor. Removal of SARM1 completely rescues mouse neurons from vacor-induced neuron and axon death and . We present the crystal structure the SARM1 regulatory domain complexed with this activator, the vacor metabolite VMN, which as the most potent activator yet know is likely to support drug development for human SARM1 and NMNAT2 disorders. This study indicates the mechanism of neurotoxicity and pesticide action by vacor, raises important questions about other pyridines in wider use today, provides important new tools for drug discovery, and demonstrates that removing SARM1 can robustly block programmed axon death induced by toxicity as well as genetic mutation.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34870595 06 Dec 2021

Staels F, Collignon T, Betrains A, Gerbaux M, Willemsen M, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Vanderschueren S, Schrijvers R Immunology

Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a heterogenous group of disorders driven by genetic defects that functionally impact the development and/or function of the innate and/or adaptive immune system. The majority of these disorders are thought to have polygenic background. However, the use of next-generation sequencing in patients with IEI has led to an increasing identification of monogenic causes, unravelling the exact pathophysiology of the disease and allowing the development of more targeted treatments. Monogenic IEI are not only seen in a pediatric population but also in adulthood, either due to the lack of awareness preventing childhood diagnosis or due to a delayed onset where (epi)genetic or environmental factors can play a role. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms accounting for adult-onset presentations and provide an overview of monogenic causes associated with adult-onset IEI.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 34867986 2021

Trefely S, Huber K, Liu J, Noji M, Stransky S, Singh J, Doan MT, Lovell CD, von Krusenstiern E, Jiang H, Bostwick A, Pepper HL, Izzo L, Zhao S, Xu JP, Bedi KC, Rame JE, Bogner-Strauss JG, Mesaros C, Sidoli S, Wellen KE, Snyder NW Epigenetics

Quantitative subcellular metabolomic measurements can explain the roles of metabolites in cellular processes but are subject to multiple confounding factors. We developed stable isotope labeling of essential nutrients in cell culture-subcellular fractionation (SILEC-SF), which uses isotope-labeled internal standard controls that are present throughout fractionation and processing to quantify acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesters in subcellular compartments by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We tested SILEC-SF in a range of sample types and examined the compartmentalized responses to oxygen tension, cellular differentiation, and nutrient availability. Application of SILEC-SF to the challenging analysis of the nuclear compartment revealed a nuclear acyl-CoA profile distinct from that of the cytosol, with notable nuclear enrichment of propionyl-CoA. Using isotope tracing, we identified the branched chain amino acid isoleucine as a major metabolic source of nuclear propionyl-CoA and histone propionylation, thus revealing a new mechanism of crosstalk between metabolism and the epigenome.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 34856123 22 Nov 2021

Merlini E, Coleman MP, Loreto A

Mitochondrial failure has long been associated with programmed axon death (Wallerian degeneration, WD), a widespread and potentially preventable mechanism of axon degeneration. While early findings in axotomised axons indicated that mitochondria are involved during the execution steps of this pathway, recent studies suggest that in addition, mitochondrial dysfunction can initiate programmed axon death without physical injury. As mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with disorders involving early axon loss, including Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, and multiple sclerosis, the findings that programmed axon death is activated by mitochondrial impairment could indicate the involvement of druggable mechanisms whose disruption may protect axons in such diseases. Here, we review the latest developments linking mitochondrial dysfunction to programmed axon death and discuss their implications for injury and disease.

+view abstract Trends in neurosciences, PMID: 34852932 29 Nov 2021

Campbell S, Mesaros C, Izzo L, Affronti H, Noji M, Schaffer BE, Tsang T, Sun K, Trefely S, Kruijning S, Blenis J, Blair IA, Wellen KE Epigenetics

Tumors frequently exhibit aberrant glycosylation, which can impact cancer progression and therapeutic responses. The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) produces uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a major substrate for glycosylation in the cell. Prior studies have identified the HBP as a promising therapeutic target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). The HBP requires both glucose and glutamine for its initiation. The PDA tumor microenvironment is nutrient poor, however, prompting us to investigate how nutrient limitation impacts hexosamine synthesis. Here, we identify that glutamine limitation in PDA cells suppresses de novo hexosamine synthesis but results in increased free GlcNAc abundance. GlcNAc salvage via N-acetylglucosamine kinase (NAGK) is engaged to feed UDP-GlcNAc pools. expression is elevated in human PDA, and deletion from PDA cells impairs tumor growth in mice. Together, these data identify an important role for NAGK-dependent hexosamine salvage in supporting PDA tumor growth.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34844667 30 11 2021

Hsu CC, George JH, Waller S, Besnard C, Nagel DA, Hill EJ, Coleman MD, Korsunsky AM, Cui Z, Ye H

To reflect human development, it is critical to create a substrate that can support long-term cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. Hydrogels are promising materials for 3D cultures. However, a bulk structure consisting of dense polymer networks often leads to suboptimal microenvironments that impedes nutrient exchange and cell-to-cell interaction. Herein, granular hydrogel-based scaffolds were used to support 3D human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural networks. A custom designed 3D printed toolset was developed to extrude hyaluronic acid hydrogel through a porous nylon fabric to generate hydrogel granules. Cells and hydrogel granules were combined using a weaker secondary gelation step, forming self-supporting cell laden scaffolds. At three and seven days, granular scaffolds supported higher cell viability compared to bulk hydrogels, whereas granular scaffolds supported more neurite bearing cells and longer neurite extensions (65.52 ± 11.59 μm) after seven days compared to bulk hydrogels (22.90 ± 4.70 μm). Long-term (three-month) cultures of clinically relevant hiPSC-derived neural cells in granular hydrogels supported well established neuronal and astrocytic colonies and a high level of neurite extension both inside and beyond the scaffold. This approach is significant as it provides a simple, rapid and efficient way to achieve a tissue-relevant granular structure within hydrogel cultures.

+view abstract Bioactive materials, PMID: 34820576 Mar 2022

Joffrin AM, Saunders AM, Barneda D, Flemington V, Thompson AL, Sanganee HJ, Conway SJ Signalling

Synthetic phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PtdIns ) derivatives play a pivotal role in broadening our understanding of PtdIns metabolism. However, the development of such tools is reliant on efficient enantioselective and regioselective synthetic strategies. Here we report the development of a divergent synthetic route applicable to the synthesis of deuterated PtdIns4 and PtdIns5 derivatives. The synthetic strategy developed involves a key enzymatic desymmetrisation step using Lipozyme TL-IM®. In addition, we optimised the large-scale synthesis of deuterated -inositol, allowing for the preparation of a series of saturated and unsaturated deuterated PtdIns4 and PtdIns5 derivatives. Experiments in MCF7 cells demonstrated that these deuterated probes enable quantification of the corresponding endogenous phospholipids in a cellular setting. Overall, these deuterated probes will be powerful tools to help improve our understanding of the role played by PtdIns in physiology and disease.

+view abstract Chemical science, PMID: 34820112 21 Feb 2021

Adamowski M, Wołodko K, Oliveira J, Castillo-Fernandez J, Murta D, Kelsey G, Galvão AM Epigenetics

Obesity leads to ovarian dysfunction and the establishment of local leptin resistance. The aim of our study was to characterize the levels of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in ovaries and liver of mice during obesity progression. Furthermore, we tested the putative role of leptin on NLRP3 regulation in those organs. C57BL/6J female mice were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for estrous cycle synchronization and ovary collection. In diet-induced obesity (DIO) protocol, mice were fed chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 or 16 weeks, whereas in the hyperleptinemic model (LEPT), mice were injected with leptin for 16 days (16 L) or saline (16 C). Finally, the genetic obese leptin-deficient (+/? and -/-) mice were fed CD for 4 week. Either ovaries and liver were collected, as well as cumulus cells (CCs) after superovulation from DIO and LEPT. The estrus cycle synchronization protocol showed increased protein levels of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-18 in diestrus, with this stage used for further sample collections. In DIO, protein expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components was increased in 4 week HFD, but decreased in 16 week HFD. Moreover, NLRP3 and IL-1β were upregulated in 16 L and downregulated in Transcriptome analysis of CC showed common genes between LEPT and 4 week HFD modulating NLRP3 inflammasome. Liver analysis showed NLRP3 protein upregulation after 16 week HFD in DIO, but also its downregulation in . We showed the link between leptin signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the ovary throughout obesity progression in mice, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underpinning ovarian failure in maternal obesity.

+view abstract Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, PMID: 34805147 2021

Gilley J, Jackson O, Pipis M, Estiar MA, Al-Chalabi A, Danzi MC, van Eijk KR, Goutman SA, Harms MB, Houlden H, Iacoangeli A, Kaye J, Lima L, , Ravits J, Rouleau GA, Schüle R, Xu J, Zuchner S, Cooper-Knock J, Gan-Or Z, Reilly MM, Coleman MP

SARM1, a protein with critical NADase activity, is a central executioner in a conserved programme of axon degeneration. We report seven rare missense or in-frame microdeletion human variant alleles in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or other motor nerve disorders that alter the SARM1 auto-inhibitory ARM domain and constitutively hyperactivate SARM1 NADase activity. The constitutive NADase activity of these seven variants is similar to that of SARM1 lacking the entire ARM domain and greatly exceeds the activity of wild-type SARM1, even in the presence of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), its physiological activator. This rise in constitutive activity alone is enough to promote neuronal degeneration in response to otherwise non-harmful, mild stress. Importantly, these strong gain-of-function alleles are completely patient-specific in the cohorts studied and show a highly significant association with disease at the single gene level. These findings of disease-associated coding variants that alter SARM1 function build on previously reported genome-wide significant association with ALS for a neighbouring, more common intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to support a contributory role of SARM1 in these disorders. A broad phenotypic heterogeneity and variable age-of-onset of disease among patients with these alleles also raises intriguing questions about the pathogenic mechanism of hyperactive SARM1 variants.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34796871 19 Nov 2021

Liston A, Humblet-Baron S, Duffy D, Goris A Immunology

The extreme diversity of the human immune system, forged and maintained throughout evolutionary history, provides a potent defense against opportunistic pathogens. At the same time, this immune variation is the substrate upon which a plethora of immune-associated diseases develop. Genetic analysis suggests that thousands of individually weak loci together drive up to half of the observed immune variation. Intense selection maintains this genetic diversity, even selecting for the introgressed Neanderthal or Denisovan alleles that have reintroduced variation lost during the out-of-Africa migration. Variations in age, sex, diet, environmental exposure, and microbiome each potentially explain the residual variation, with proof-of-concept studies demonstrating both plausible mechanisms and correlative associations. The confounding interaction of many of these variables currently makes it difficult to assign definitive contributions. Here, we review the current state of play in the field, identify the key unknowns in the causality of immune variation, and identify the multidisciplinary pathways toward an improved understanding.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 34795445 18 Nov 2021

Garcia KKS, Abrahão AA

High-quality clinical research is dependent on adequate design, methodology, and data collection. The utilization of electronic data capture (EDC) systems is recommended to optimize research data through proper management. This paper's objective is to present the procedures of REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture), which supports research development, and to promote the utilization of this software among the scientific community.

+view abstract Healthcare informatics research, PMID: 34788915 Oct 2021

Holoch D, Wassef M, Lövkvist C, Zielinski D, Aflaki S, Lombard B, Héry T, Loew D, Howard M, Margueron R

Epigenetic inheritance of gene expression states enables a single genome to maintain distinct cellular identities. How histone modifications contribute to this process remains unclear. Using global chromatin perturbations and local, time-controlled modulation of transcription, we establish the existence of epigenetic memory of transcriptional activation for genes that can be silenced by the Polycomb group. This property emerges during cell differentiation and allows genes to be stably switched after a transient transcriptional stimulus. This transcriptional memory state at Polycomb targets operates in cis; however, rather than relying solely on read-and-write propagation of histone modifications, the memory is also linked to the strength of activating inputs opposing Polycomb proteins, and therefore varies with the cellular context. Our data and computational simulations suggest a model whereby transcriptional memory arises from double-negative feedback between Polycomb-mediated silencing and active transcription. Transcriptional memory at Polycomb targets thus depends not only on histone modifications but also on the gene-regulatory network and underlying identity of a cell.

+view abstract Nature genetics, PMID: 34782763 15 Nov 2021

MacKenzie G, Subramaniam S, Caldwell LJ, Fitzgerald D, Harrison NA, Hong S, Irani SR, Khandaker GM, Liston A, Miron VE, Mondelli V, Morgan BP, Pariante C, Shah DK, Taams LS, Teeling JL, Upthegrove R Immunology

Neuroimmunology in the broadest sense is the study of interactions between the nervous and the immune systems. These interactions play important roles in health from supporting neural development, homeostasis and plasticity to modifying behaviour. Neuroimmunology is increasingly recognised as a field with the potential to deliver a significant positive impact on human health and treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, translation to the clinic is hindered by fundamental knowledge gaps on the underlying mechanisms of action or the optimal timing of an intervention, and a lack of appropriate tools to visualise and modulate both systems. Here we propose ten key disease-agnostic research questions that, if addressed, could lead to significant progress within neuroimmunology in the short to medium term. We also discuss four cross-cutting themes to be considered when addressing each question: i) bi-directionality of neuroimmune interactions; ii) the biological context in which the questions are addressed (e.g. health vs disease vs across the lifespan); iii) tools and technologies required to fully answer the questions; and iv) translation into the clinic. We acknowledge that these ten questions cannot represent the full breadth of gaps in our understanding; rather they focus on areas which, if addressed, may have the most broad and immediate impacts. By defining these neuroimmunology priorities, we hope to unite existing and future research teams, who can make meaningful progress through a collaborative and cross-disciplinary effort.

+view abstract Wellcome open research, PMID: 34778569 2021

Osma-Garcia IC, Capitan-Sobrino D, Mouysset M, Bell SE, Lebeurrier M, Turner M, Diaz-Muñoz MD Immunology

The germinal centre (GC) is required for the generation of high affinity antibodies and immunological memory. Here we show that the RNA binding protein HuR has an essential function in GC B cells to sustain the GC response. In its absence, the GC reaction and production of high-affinity antibody is severely impaired. Mechanistically, HuR affects the transcriptome qualitatively and quantitatively. The expression and splicing patterns of hundreds of genes are altered in the absence of HuR. Among these genes, HuR is required for the expression of Myc and a Myc-dependent transcriptional program that controls GC B cell proliferation and Ig somatic hypermutation. Additionally, HuR regulates the splicing and abundance of mRNAs required for entry into and transition through the S phase of the cell cycle, and it modulates a gene signature associated with DNA deamination protecting GC B cells from DNA damage and cell death.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34772950 12 Nov 2021

Lee JL, Linterman M Immunology

Vaccines are a highly effective intervention for conferring protection against infections and reducing the associated morbidity and mortality in vaccinated individuals. However, ageing is often associated with a functional decline in the immune system that results in poor antibody production in older individuals after vaccination. A key contributing factor of this age-related decline in vaccine efficacy is the reduced size and function of the germinal centre (GC) response. GCs are specialised microstructures where B cells undergo affinity maturation and diversification of their antibody genes, before differentiating into long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. The GC response requires the coordinated interaction of many different cell types, including B cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells and stromal cell subsets like follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). This review discusses how ageing affects different components of the GC reaction that contribute to its limited output and ultimately impaired antibody responses in older individuals after vaccination. An understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the age-related decline in the GC response is crucial in informing strategies to improve vaccine efficacy and extend the healthy lifespan among older people.

+view abstract Immunology letters, PMID: 34767859 09 Nov 2021

Jacobs L, Yshii L, Junius S, Geukens N, Liston A, Hollevoet K, Declerck P Immunology

To improve the anti-tumor efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors, numerous combination therapies are under clinical evaluation, including with IL-12 gene therapy. The current study evaluated the simultaneous delivery of the cytokine and checkpoint-inhibiting antibodies by intratumoral DNA electroporation in mice. In the MC38 tumor model, combined administration of plasmids encoding IL-12 and an anti-PD-1 antibody induced significant anti-tumor responses, yet similar to the monotherapies. When treatment was expanded with a DNA-based anti-CTLA-4 antibody, this triple combination significantly delayed tumor growth compared to IL-12 alone and the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Despite low drug plasma concentrations, the triple combination enabled significant abscopal effects in contralateral tumors, which was not the case for the other treatments. The DNA-based immunotherapies increased T cell infiltration in electroporated tumors, especially of CD8 T cells, and upregulated the expression of CD8 effector markers. No general immune activation was detected in spleens following either intratumoral treatment. In B16F10 tumors, evaluation of the triple combination was hampered by a high sensitivity to control plasmids. In conclusion, intratumoral gene electrotransfer allowed effective combined delivery of multiple immunotherapeutics. This approach induced responses in treated and contralateral tumors, while limiting systemic drug exposure and potentially detrimental systemic immunological effects.

+view abstract Cancer gene therapy, PMID: 34754076 09 Nov 2021

Garrison H, Agostinho M, Alvarez L, Bekaert S, Bengtsson L, Broglio E, Couso D, Araújo Gomes R, Ingram Z, Martinez E, Mena AL, Nickel D, Norman M, Pinheiro I, Solís-Mateos M, Bertero MG

Open Science calls for transparent science and involvement of various stakeholders. Here are examples of and advice for meaningful stakeholder engagement.

+view abstract EMBO reports, PMID: 34734669 04 Nov 2021

Monkley S, Overed-Sayer C, Parfrey H, Rassl D, Crowther D, Escudero-Ibarz L, Davis N, Carruthers A, Berks R, Coetzee M, Kolosionek E, Karlsson M, Griffin LR, Clausen M, Belfield G, Hogaboam CM, Murray LA

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a direct consequence of cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and a key disease driving mechanism in IPF. The resolution of the UPR is directed by PPP1R15A (GADD34) and leads to the restoration of normal ribosomal activity. While the role of PPP1R15A has been explored in lung epithelial cells, the role of this UPR resolving factor has yet to be explored in lung mesenchymal cells. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression and role of PPP1R15A in IPF fibroblasts and in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model. A survey of IPF lung tissue revealed that PPP1R15A expression was markedly reduced. Targeting PPP1R15A in primary fibroblasts modulated TGF-β-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation and exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Interestingly, the loss of PPP1R15A appeared to promote lung fibroblast senescence. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the major role of PPP1R15A in the regulation of lung mesenchymal cells, and regulation of PPP1R15A may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in IPF.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 34732748 03 Nov 2021

Cummings TFM, Gori K, Sanchez-Pulido L, Gavriilidis G, Moi D, Wilson AR, Murchison E, Dessimoz C, Ponting CP, Christophorou MA Epigenetics

Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) add great sophistication to biological systems. Citrullination, a key regulatory mechanism in human physiology and pathophysiology, is enigmatic from an evolutionary perspective. Although the citrullinating enzymes peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) are ubiquitous across vertebrates, they are absent from yeast, worms and flies. Based on this distribution PADIs were proposed to have been horizontally transferred, but this has been contested. Here, we map the evolutionary trajectory of PADIs into the animal lineage. We present strong phylogenetic support for a clade encompassing animal and cyanobacterial PADIs that excludes fungal and other bacterial homologues. The animal and cyanobacterial PADI proteins share functionally relevant primary and tertiary synapomorphic sequences that are distinct from a second PADI type present in fungi and actinobacteria. Molecular clock calculations and sequence divergence analyses using the fossil record estimate the last common ancestor of the cyanobacterial and animal PADIs to be less than one billion years old. Additionally, under an assumption of vertical descent, PADI sequence change during this evolutionary time frame is anachronistically low, even when compared to products of likely endosymbiont gene transfer, mitochondrial proteins and some of the most highly conserved sequences in life. The consilience of evidence indicates that PADIs were introduced from cyanobacteria into animals by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The ancestral cyanobacterial PADI is enzymatically active and can citrullinate eukaryotic proteins, suggesting that the PADI HGT event introduced a new catalytic capability into the regulatory repertoire of animals. This study reveals the unusual evolution of a pleiotropic protein modification.

+view abstract Molecular biology and evolution, PMID: 34730808 03 Nov 2021

Hill DL, Whyte CE, Innocentin S, Lee JL, Dooley J, Wang J, James EA, Lee JC, Kwok WW, Zand MS, Liston A, Carr EJ, Linterman MA Immunology

Antibody production following vaccination can provide protective immunity to subsequent infection by pathogens such as influenza viruses. However, circumstances where antibody formation is impaired after vaccination, such as in older people, require us to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin successful vaccination in order to improve vaccine design for at-risk groups. Here, by studying the breadth of anti-haemagglutinin (HA) IgG, serum cytokines, and B and T cell responses by flow cytometry before and after influenza vaccination, we show that formation of circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) cells was associated with high-titre antibody responses. Using Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II tetramers, we demonstrate that HA-specific cTfh cells can derive from pre-existing memory CD4 T cells and have a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. In older people, the differentiation of HA-specific cells into cTfh cells was impaired. This age-dependent defect in cTfh cell formation was not due to a contraction of the TCR repertoire, but rather was linked with an increased inflammatory gene signature in cTfh cells. Together, this suggests that strategies that temporarily dampen inflammation at the time of vaccination may be a viable strategy to boost optimal antibody generation upon immunisation of older people.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34726156 02 11 2021

Chauve L, Hodge F, Murdoch S, Masoudzadeh F, Mann HJ, Lopez-Clavijo A, Okkenhaug H, West G, Sousa BC, Segonds-Pichon A, Li C, Wingett S, Kienberger H, Kleigrewe K, De Bono M, Wakelam M, Casanueva O Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

To survive elevated temperatures, ectotherms adjust the fluidity of membranes by fine-tuning lipid desaturation levels in a process previously described to be cell autonomous. We have discovered that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, neuronal heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), the conserved master regulator of the heat shock response (HSR), causes extensive fat remodeling in peripheral tissues. These changes include a decrease in fat desaturase and acid lipase expression in the intestine and a global shift in the saturation levels of plasma membrane's phospholipids. The observed remodeling of plasma membrane is in line with ectothermic adaptive responses and gives worms a cumulative advantage to warm temperatures. We have determined that at least 6 TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) gated channel expressing sensory neurons, and transforming growth factor ß (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) are required for signaling across tissues to modulate fat desaturation. We also find neuronal hsf-1 is not only sufficient but also partially necessary to control the fat remodeling response and for survival at warm temperatures. This is the first study to show that a thermostat-based mechanism can cell nonautonomously coordinate membrane saturation and composition across tissues in a multicellular animal.

+view abstract PLoS biology, PMID: 34723964 01 Nov 2021

Ridnik M, Schoenfelder S, Gonen N Epigenetics

Sex determination is the process by which an initial bipotential gonad adopts either a testicular or ovarian cell fate. The inability to properly complete this process leads to a group of developmental disorders classified as disorders of sex development (DSD). To date, dozens of genes were shown to play roles in mammalian sex determination, and mutations in these genes can cause DSD in humans or gonadal sex reversal/dysfunction in mice. However, exome sequencing currently provides genetic diagnosis for only less than half of DSD patients. This points towards a major role for the non-coding genome during sex determination. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of non-coding, cis-acting gene regulatory elements and discuss how they may control transcriptional programmes that underpin sex determination in the context of the 3-dimensional folding of chromatin. As a paradigm, we focus on the Sox9 gene, a prominent pro-male factor and one of the most extensively studied genes in gonadal cell fate determination.

+view abstract Sexual development, PMID: 34710870 28 Oct 2021

Ulferts R, Marcassa E, Timimi L, Lee LC, Daley A, Montaner B, Turner SD, Florey O, Baillie JK, Beale R Signalling

Although commonly associated with autophagosomes, LC3 can also be recruited to membranes by covalent lipidation in a variety of non-canonical contexts. These include responses to ionophores such as the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus. We report a subtractive CRISPR screen that identifies factors required for non-canonical LC3 lipidation. As well as the enzyme complexes directly responsible for LC3 lipidation in all contexts, we show the RALGAP complex is important for M2-induced, but not ionophore drug-induced, LC3 lipidation. In contrast, ATG4D is responsible for LC3 recycling in M2-induced and basal LC3 lipidation. Identification of a vacuolar ATPase subunit in the screen suggests a common mechanism for non-canonical LC3 recruitment. Influenza-induced and ionophore drug-induced LC3 lipidation lead to association of the vacuolar ATPase and ATG16L1 and can be antagonized by Salmonella SopF. LC3 recruitment to erroneously neutral compartments may therefore represent a response to damage caused by diverse invasive pathogens.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34706226 26 Oct 2021

Canti L, Humblet-Baron S, Desombere I, Neumann J, Pannus P, Heyndrickx L, Henry A, Servais S, Willems E, Ehx G, Goriely S, Seidel L, Michiels J, Willems B, Liston A, Ariën KK, Beguin Y, Goossens ME, Marchant A, Baron F Immunology

Factors affecting response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients remain to be elucidated.

+view abstract Journal of hematology & oncology, PMID: 34689821 24 10 2021

Ktistakis NT Signalling

The pathway of mitochondrial-specific autophagy (mitophagy, defined here as the specific elimination of mitochondria following distinct mitochondrial injuries or developmental/metabolic alterations) is important in health and disease. This review will be focussed on the earliest steps of the pathway concerning the mechanisms and requirements for initiating autophagosome formation on a mitochondrial target. More specifically, and in view of the fact that we understand the basic mechanism of non-selective autophagy and are beginning to reshape this knowledge towards the pathways of selective autophagy, two aspects of mitophagy will be covered: (i) How does a machinery normally working in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to make an autophagosome can also do so at a site distinct from the ER such as on the surface of the targeted cargo? and (ii) how does the machinery deal with cargo of multiple sizes?

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 34665253 19 Oct 2021

Lea RA, McCarthy A, Boeing S, Fallesen T, Elder K, Snell P, Christie L, Adkins S, Shaikly V, Taranissi M, Niakan KK Epigenetics

Current knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of human pluripotency is incomplete, with lack of interspecies conservation observed. Single-cell transcriptomics analysis of human embryos previously enabled us to identify transcription factors, including the zinc-finger protein KLF17, that are enriched in the human epiblast and naïve human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we show that KLF17 is expressed coincident with the known pluripotency-associated factors NANOG and SOX2 across human blastocyst development. We investigate the function of KLF17 using primed and naïve hESCs for gain- and loss-of-function analyses. We find that ectopic expression of KLF17 in primed hESCs is sufficient to induce a naïve-like transcriptome and that KLF17 can drive transgene-mediated resetting to naïve pluripotency. This implies a role for KLF17 in establishing naïve pluripotency. However, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout studies reveal that KLF17 is not required for naïve pluripotency acquisition in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of naïve hESCs identifies subtle effects on metabolism and signalling pathways following KLF17 loss of function, and possible redundancy with other KLF paralogues. Overall, we show that KLF17 is sufficient, but not necessary, for naïve pluripotency under the given in vitro conditions.

+view abstract Development, PMID: 34661235 15 11 2021

Richard AC, Frazer GL, Ma CY, Griffiths GM Immunology

How T lymphocytes tune their responses to different strengths of stimulation is a fundamental question in immunology. Recent work using new optogenetic, single-cell genomic, and live-imaging approaches has revealed that stimulation strength controls the rate of individual cell responses within a population. Moreover, these responses have been found to use shared molecular programs, regardless of stimulation strength. However, additional data indicate that stimulation duration or cytokine feedback can impact later gene expression phenotypes of activated cells. In-depth molecular studies have suggested mechanisms by which stimulation strength might modulate the probability of T cell activation. This emerging model allows activating T cells to achieve a wide range of population responses through probabilistic control within individual cells.

+view abstract Trends in immunology, PMID: 34649777 Nov 2021

Diskin C, Corcoran SE, Tyrrell VJ, McGettrick AF, Zaslona Z, O'Donnell VB, Nolan DP, O'Neill LAJ Signalling

The protozoan parasite is the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease human African trypanosomiasis, otherwise known as sleeping sickness. Trypanosomes have evolved many immune-evasion mechanisms to facilitate their own survival, as well as prolonging host survival to ensure completion of the parasitic life cycle. A key feature of the bloodstream form of is the secretion of aromatic keto acids, which are metabolized from tryptophan. In this study, we describe an immunomodulatory role for one of these keto acids, indole-3-pyruvate (I3P). We demonstrate that I3P inhibits the production of PGs in activated macrophages. We also show that, despite the reduction in downstream PGs, I3P augments the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX2). This increase in COX2 expression is mediated in part via inhibition of PGs relieving a negative-feedback loop on COX2. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor also participates in this effect. However, the increase in COX2 expression is of little functionality, as we also provide evidence to suggest that I3P targets COX activity. This study therefore details an evasion strategy by which a trypanosome-secreted metabolite potently inhibits macrophage-derived PGs, which might promote host and trypanosome survival.

+view abstract Journal of immunology, PMID: 34635586 11 Oct 2021

Diskin C, Zotta A, Tyrrell VJ, Zaslona Z, O'Donnell VB, O'Neill LAJ Signalling

PGs are important proinflammatory lipid mediators, the significance of which is highlighted by the widespread and efficacious use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of inflammation. 4-Octyl itaconate (4-OI), a derivative of the Krebs cycle-derived metabolite itaconate, has recently garnered much interest as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this article, we show that 4-OI limits PG production in murine macrophages stimulated with the TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4. This decrease in PG secretion is due to a robust suppression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression by 4-OI, with both mRNA and protein levels decreased. Dimethyl fumarate, a fumarate derivative used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, with properties similar to itaconate, replicated the phenotype observed with 4-OI. We also demonstrate that the decrease in COX2 expression and inhibition of downstream PG production occurs in an NRF2-independent manner. Our findings provide a new insight into the potential of 4-OI as an anti-inflammatory agent and also identifies a novel anti-inflammatory function of dimethyl fumarate.

+view abstract Journal of immunology, PMID: 34635585 11 Oct 2021

Nieto-Torres JL, Durgan J, Franco-Romero A, Grumati P, Guardia CM, Leidal AM, Mandell MA, Towers CG, Wang F Signalling

The Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism (AIM) Center organized a globally accessible, virtual eSymposium during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The conference included presentations from scientific leaders, as well as a career discussion panel, and provided a much-needed platform for early-career investigators (ECIs) to showcase their research in autophagy. This Perspective summarizes the science presented by the ECIs during the event and discusses the lessons learned from a virtual meeting of this kind during the pandemic. The meeting was a learning experience for all involved, and the ECI participants herein offer their thoughts on the pros and cons of virtual meetings as a modality, either as standalone or hybrid events, with a view towards the post-pandemic world.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 34622922 01 Oct 2021

Ross SH, Rollings CM, Cantrell DA Immunology

Metabolic and nutrient-sensing pathways play an important role in controlling the efficacy of effector T cells. Oxygen is a critical regulator of cellular metabolism. However, during immune responses T cells must function in oxygen-deficient, or hypoxic, environments. Here, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to investigate how the proteome of primary murine CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is reconfigured in response to hypoxia . We identified and quantified over 7,600 proteins and discovered that hypoxia increased the abundance of a selected number of proteins in CTLs. This included glucose transporters, metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, cytolytic effector molecules, checkpoint receptors and adhesion molecules. While some of these proteins may augment the effector functions of CTLs, others may limit their cytotoxicity. Moreover, we determined that hypoxia could inhibit IL-2-induced proliferation cues and antigen-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in CTLs. These data provide a comprehensive resource for understanding the magnitude of the CTL response to hypoxia and emphasise the importance of oxygen-sensing pathways for controlling CD8 T cells. Additionally, this study provides new understanding about how hypoxia may promote the effector function of CTLs, while contributing to their dysfunction in some contexts.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 34603285 2021

Bleckwehl T, Crispatzu G, Schaaf K, Respuela P, Bartusel M, Benson L, Clark SJ, Dorighi KM, Barral A, Laugsch M, van IJcken WFJ, Manzanares M, Wysocka J, Reik W, Rada-Iglesias Á Epigenetics

Germline specification in mammals occurs through an inductive process whereby competent cells in the post-implantation epiblast differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGC). The intrinsic factors that endow epiblast cells with the competence to respond to germline inductive signals remain unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing across multiple stages of an in vitro PGC-like cells (PGCLC) differentiation system shows that PGCLC genes initially expressed in the naïve pluripotent stage become homogeneously dismantled in germline competent epiblast like-cells (EpiLC). In contrast, the decommissioning of enhancers associated with these germline genes is incomplete. Namely, a subset of these enhancers partly retain H3K4me1, accumulate less heterochromatic marks and remain accessible and responsive to transcriptional activators. Subsequently, as in vitro germline competence is lost, these enhancers get further decommissioned and lose their responsiveness to transcriptional activators. Importantly, using H3K4me1-deficient cells, we show that the loss of this histone modification reduces the germline competence of EpiLC and decreases PGCLC differentiation efficiency. Our work suggests that, although H3K4me1 might not be essential for enhancer function, it can facilitate the (re)activation of enhancers and the establishment of gene expression programs during specific developmental transitions.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34599190 01 Oct 2021

Goodwin JM, Walkup WG, Hooper K, Li T, Kishi-Itakura C, Ng A, Lehmberg T, Jha A, Kommineni S, Fletcher K, Garcia-Fortanet J, Fan Y, Tang Q, Wei M, Agrawal A, Budhe SR, Rouduri SR, Baird D, Saunders J, Kiselar J, Chance MR, Ballabio A, Appleton BA, Brumell JH, Florey O, Murphy LO Signalling

[Figure: see text].

+view abstract Science advances, PMID: 34597140 Oct 2021

Arthur-Farraj P, Coleman MP

Since Waller and Cajal in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, laboratory traumatic peripheral nerve injury studies have provided great insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms governing axon degeneration and the responses of Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. It is now evident that pathways underlying injury-induced axon degeneration and the Schwann cell injury-specific state, the repair Schwann cell, are relevant to many inherited and acquired disorders of peripheral nerves. This review provides a timely update on the molecular understanding of axon degeneration and formation of the repair Schwann cell. We discuss how nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) and sterile alpha TIR motif containing protein 1 (SARM1) are required for axon survival and degeneration, respectively, how transcription factor c-JUN is essential for the Schwann cell response to nerve injury and what each tells us about disease mechanisms and potential therapies. Human genetic association with NMNAT2 and SARM1 strongly suggests aberrant activation of programmed axon death in polyneuropathies and motor neuron disorders, respectively, and animal studies suggest wider involvement including in chemotherapy-induced and diabetic neuropathies. In repair Schwann cells, cJUN is aberrantly expressed in a wide variety of human acquired and inherited neuropathies. Animal models suggest it limits axon loss in both genetic and traumatic neuropathies, whereas in contrast, Schwann cell secreted Neuregulin-1 type 1 drives onion bulb pathology in CMT1A. Finally, we discuss opportunities for drug-based and gene therapies to prevent axon loss or manipulate the repair Schwann cell state to treat acquired and inherited neuropathies and neuronopathies.

+view abstract Neurotherapeutics, PMID: 34595734 30 Sep 2021

Hampson E, Tsonou E, Baker MJ, Hornigold DC, Hubbard RE, Massey A, Welch HCE Signalling

P-Rex1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rac-type small G proteins in response to the stimulation of a range of receptors, particularly G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to control cytoskeletal dynamics and other Rac-dependent cell responses. P-Rex1 is mainly expressed in leukocytes and neurons. Whereas its roles in leukocytes have been studied extensively, relatively little is known about its functions in neurons. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated P-Rex1 deficiency in neuronal PC12 cells that stably overexpress the GPCR S1PR1, a receptor for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), to investigate the role of P-Rex1 in neuronal GPCR signalling and cell responses. We show that P-Rex1 is required for the S1P-stimulated activation of Rac1 and Akt, basal Rac3 activity, and constitutive cAMP production in PC12-S1PR1 cells. The constitutive cAMP production was not due to increased expression levels of major neuronal adenylyl cyclases, suggesting that P-Rex1 may regulate adenylyl cyclase activity. P-Rex1 was required for maintenance of neurite protrusions and spreading in S1P-stimulated PC12-S1PR1 cells, as well as for cell-cycle progression and proliferation. In summary, we identified novel functional roles of P-Rex1 in neuronal Rac, Akt and cAMP signalling, as well as in neuronal cell-cycle progression and proliferation.

+view abstract Cells, PMID: 34572121 18 Sep 2021

Fiancette R, Finlay CM, Willis C, Bevington SL, Soley J, Ng STH, Baker SM, Andrews S, Hepworth MR, Withers DR Bioinformatics

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are guardians of mucosal immunity, yet the transcriptional networks that support their function remain poorly understood. We used inducible combinatorial deletion of key transcription factors (TFs) required for ILC development (RORγt, RORα and T-bet) to determine their necessity in maintaining ILC3 identity and function. Both RORγt and RORα were required to preserve optimum effector functions; however, RORα was sufficient to support robust interleukin-22 production among the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-like ILC3 subset, but not natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) ILC3s. Lymphoid tissue inducer-like ILC3s persisted with only selective loss of phenotype and effector functions even after the loss of both TFs. In contrast, continued RORγt expression was essential to restrain transcriptional networks associated with type 1 immunity within NCR ILC3s, which coexpress T-bet. Full differentiation to an ILC1-like population required the additional loss of RORα. Together, these data demonstrate how TF networks integrate within mature ILCs after development to sustain effector functions, imprint phenotype and restrict alternative differentiation programs.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 34556884 23 Sep 2021

Yun H, Narayan N, Vohra S, Giotopoulos G, Mupo A, Madrigal P, Sasca D, Lara-Astiaso D, Horton SJ, Agrawal-Singh S, Meduri E, Basheer F, Marando L, Gozdecka M, Dovey OM, Castillo-Venzor A, Wang X, Gallipoli P, Müller-Tidow C, Osborne CS, Vassiliou GS, Huntly BJP Epigenetics

Altered transcription is a cardinal feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, exactly how mutations synergize to remodel the epigenetic landscape and rewire three-dimensional DNA topology is unknown. Here, we apply an integrated genomic approach to a murine allelic series that models the two most common mutations in AML: Flt3-ITD and Npm1c. We then deconvolute the contribution of each mutation to alterations of the epigenetic landscape and genome organization, and infer how mutations synergize in the induction of AML. Our studies demonstrate that Flt3-ITD signals to chromatin to alter the epigenetic environment and synergizes with mutations in Npm1c to alter gene expression and drive leukemia induction. These analyses also allow the identification of long-range cis-regulatory circuits, including a previously unknown superenhancer of Hoxa locus, as well as larger and more detailed gene-regulatory networks, driven by transcription factors including PU.1 and IRF8, whose importance we demonstrate through perturbation of network members.

+view abstract Nature genetics, PMID: 34556857 23 Sep 2021

Floerchinger A, Murphy KJ, Latham SL, Warren SC, McCulloch AT, Lee YK, Stoehr J, Mélénec P, Guaman CS, Metcalf XL, Lee V, Zaratzian A, Da Silva A, Tayao M, Rolo S, Phimmachanh M, Sultani G, McDonald L, Mason SM, Ferrari N, Ooms LM, Johnsson AE, Spence HJ, Olson MF, Machesky LM, Sansom OJ, Morton JP, Mitchell CA, Samuel MS, Croucher DR, Welch HCE, Blyth K, Caldon CE, Herrmann D, Anderson KI, Timpson P, Nobis M Signalling

Assessing drug response within live native tissue provides increased fidelity with regards to optimizing efficacy while minimizing off-target effects. Here, using longitudinal intravital imaging of a Rac1-Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor mouse coupled with in vivo photoswitching to track intratumoral movement, we help guide treatment scheduling in a live breast cancer setting to impair metastatic progression. We uncover altered Rac1 activity at the center versus invasive border of tumors and demonstrate enhanced Rac1 activity of cells in close proximity to live tumor vasculature using optical window imaging. We further reveal that Rac1 inhibition can enhance tumor cell vulnerability to fluid-flow-induced shear stress and therefore improves overall anti-metastatic response to therapy during transit to secondary sites such as the lung. Collectively, this study demonstrates the utility of single-cell intravital imaging in vivo to demonstrate that Rac1 inhibition can reduce tumor progression and metastases in an autochthonous setting to improve overall survival.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34525350 14 Sep 2021

Haniffa M, Taylor D, Linnarsson S, Aronow BJ, Bader GD, Barker RA, Camara PG, Camp JG, Chédotal A, Copp A, Etchevers HC, Giacobini P, Göttgens B, Guo G, Hupalowska A, James KR, Kirby E, Kriegstein A, Lundeberg J, Marioni JC, Meyer KB, Niakan KK, Nilsson M, Olabi B, Pe'er D, Regev A, Rood J, Rozenblatt-Rosen O, Satija R, Teichmann SA, Treutlein B, Vento-Tormo R, Webb S, Epigenetics

The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 34497388 09 2021

Lohoff T, Ghazanfar S, Missarova A, Koulena N, Pierson N, Griffiths JA, Bardot ES, Eng CL, Tyser RCV, Argelaguet R, Guibentif C, Srinivas S, Briscoe J, Simons BD, Hadjantonakis AK, Göttgens B, Reik W, Nichols J, Cai L, Marioni JC Epigenetics

Molecular profiling of single cells has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of development. However, current approaches mostly rely on dissociating cells from tissues, thereby losing the crucial spatial context of regulatory processes. Here, we apply an image-based single-cell transcriptomics method, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (seqFISH), to detect mRNAs for 387 target genes in tissue sections of mouse embryos at the 8-12 somite stage. By integrating spatial context and multiplexed transcriptional measurements with two single-cell transcriptome atlases, we characterize cell types across the embryo and demonstrate that spatially resolved expression of genes not profiled by seqFISH can be imputed. We use this high-resolution spatial map to characterize fundamental steps in the patterning of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and the developing gut tube. We uncover axes of cell differentiation that are not apparent from single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, such as early dorsal-ventral separation of esophageal and tracheal progenitor populations in the gut tube. Our method provides an approach for studying cell fate decisions in complex tissues and development.

+view abstract Nature biotechnology, PMID: 34489600 06 Sep 2021

Lövkvist C, Mikulski P, Reeck S, Hartley M, Dean C, Howard M Epigenetics

The histone modification H3K27me3 plays a central role in Polycomb-mediated epigenetic silencing. H3K27me3 recruits and allosterically activates Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which adds this modification to nearby histones, providing a read/write mechanism for inheritance through DNA replication. However, for some PRC2 targets, a purely histone-based system for epigenetic inheritance may be insufficient. We address this issue at the Polycomb target in , as a narrow nucleation region of only ~three nucleosomes within mediates epigenetic state switching and subsequent memory over many cell cycles. To explain the memory's unexpected persistence, we introduce a mathematical model incorporating extra protein memory storage elements with positive feedback that persist at the locus through DNA replication, in addition to histone modifications. Our hybrid model explains many features of epigenetic switching/memory at and encapsulates generic mechanisms that may be widely applicable.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34473050 02 09 2021

Osnato A, Brown S, Krueger C, Andrews S, Collier AJ, Nakanoh S, Quiroga Londoño M, Wesley BT, Muraro D, Brumm AS, Niakan KK, Vallier L, Ortmann D, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

The signalling pathways that maintain primed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been well characterised, revealing a critical role for TGFβ/Activin/Nodal signalling. In contrast, the signalling requirements of naive human pluripotency have not been fully established. Here, we demonstrate that TGFβ signalling is required to maintain naive hPSCs. The downstream effector proteins - SMAD2/3 - bind common sites in naive and primed hPSCs, including shared pluripotency genes. In naive hPSCs, SMAD2/3 additionally bind to active regulatory regions near to naive pluripotency genes. Inhibiting TGFβ signalling in naive hPSCs causes the downregulation of SMAD2/3-target genes and pluripotency exit. Single-cell analyses reveal that naive and primed hPSCs follow different transcriptional trajectories after inhibition of TGFβ signalling. Primed hPSCs differentiate into neuroectoderm cells, whereas naive hPSCs transition into trophectoderm. These results establish that there is a continuum for TGFβ pathway function in human pluripotency spanning a developmental window from naive to primed states.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34463252 31 08 2021

Klionsky DJ, Petroni G, Amaravadi RK, Baehrecke EH, Ballabio A, Boya P, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Cadwell K, Cecconi F, Choi AMK, Choi ME, Chu CT, Codogno P, Colombo MI, Cuervo AM, Deretic V, Dikic I, Elazar Z, Eskelinen EL, Fimia GM, Gewirtz DA, Green DR, Hansen M, Jäättelä M, Johansen T, Juhász G, Karantza V, Kraft C, Kroemer G, Ktistakis NT, Kumar S, Lopez-Otin C, Macleod KF, Madeo F, Martinez J, Meléndez A, Mizushima N, Münz C, Penninger JM, Perera RM, Piacentini M, Reggiori F, Rubinsztein DC, Ryan KM, Sadoshima J, Santambrogio L, Scorrano L, Simon HU, Simon AK, Simonsen A, Stolz A, Tavernarakis N, Tooze SA, Yoshimori T, Yuan J, Yue Z, Zhong Q, Galluzzi L, Pietrocola F Signalling

Autophagy is a core molecular pathway for the preservation of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Pharmacological and genetic interventions impairing autophagy responses promote or aggravate disease in a plethora of experimental models. Consistently, mutations in autophagy-related processes cause severe human pathologies. Here, we review and discuss preclinical data linking autophagy dysfunction to the pathogenesis of major human disorders including cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, pulmonary, renal, infectious, musculoskeletal, and ocular disorders.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 34459017 30 Aug 2021

Anvar Z, Chakchouk I, Demond H, Sharif M, Kelsey G, Van den Veyver IB Epigenetics

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic marking process that results in the monoallelic expression of a subset of genes. Many of these 'imprinted' genes in mice and humans are involved in embryonic and extraembryonic growth and development, and some have life-long impacts on metabolism. During mammalian development, the genome undergoes waves of (re)programming of DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks. Disturbances in these events can cause imprinting disorders and compromise development. Multi-locus imprinting disturbance (MLID) is a condition by which imprinting defects touch more than one locus. Although most cases with MLID present with clinical features characteristic of one imprinting disorder. Imprinting defects also occur in 'molar' pregnancies-which are characterized by highly compromised embryonic development-and in other forms of reproductive compromise presenting clinically as infertility or early pregnancy loss. Pathogenic variants in some of the genes encoding proteins of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC), a multi-protein complex in the mammalian oocyte, are responsible for a rare subgroup of moles, biparental complete hydatidiform mole (BiCHM), and other adverse reproductive outcomes which have been associated with altered imprinting status of the oocyte, embryo and/or placenta. The finding that defects in a cytoplasmic protein complex could have severe impacts on genomic methylation at critical times in gamete or early embryo development has wider implications beyond these relatively rare disorders. It signifies a potential for adverse maternal physiology, nutrition, or assisted reproduction to cause epigenetic defects at imprinted or other genes. Here, we review key milestones in DNA methylation patterning in the female germline and the embryo focusing on humans. We provide an overview of recent findings regarding DNA methylation deficits causing BiCHM, MLID, and early embryonic arrest. We also summarize identified SCMC mutations with regard to early embryonic arrest, BiCHM, and MLID.

+view abstract Genes, PMID: 34440388 06 Aug 2021

Brajon S, Morello GM, Capas-Peneda S, Hultgren J, Gilbert C, Olsson A

Perinatal mortality is a major issue in laboratory mouse breeding. We compared a counting method using daily checks (DAILY_CHECK) with a method combining daily checks with detailed video analyses to detect cannibalisms (VIDEO_TRACK) for estimating the number of C57BL/6 pups that were born, that died and that were weaned in 193 litters from trios with (TRIO-OVERLAP) or without (TRIO-NO_OVERLAP) the presence of another litter. Linear mixed models were used at litter level. To understand whether cannibalism was associated with active killing (infanticide), we analysed VIDEO_TRACK recordings of 109 litters from TRIO-OVERLAP, TRIO-NO_OVERLAP or SOLO (single dams). We used Kaplan-Meier method and logistic regression at pup level. For DAILY_CHECK, the mean litter size was 35% smaller than for VIDEO_TRACK ( < 0.0001) and the number of dead pups was twice lower ( < 0.0001). The risk of pup loss was higher for TRIO-OVERLAP than TRIO-NO_OVERLAP ( < 0.0001). A high number of pup losses occurred between birth and the first cage check. Analyses of VIDEO_TRACK data indicated that pups were clearly dead at the start of most of the cannibalism events and infanticide was rare. As most pups die and disappear before the first cage check, many breeding facilities are likely to be unaware of their real rates of mouse pup mortality.

+view abstract Animals, PMID: 34438784 06 Aug 2021

Gong C, Krupka JA, Gao J, Grigoropoulos NF, Giotopoulos G, Asby R, Screen M, Usheva Z, Cucco F, Barrans S, Painter D, Zaini NBM, Haupl B, Bornelöv S, Ruiz De Los Mozos I, Meng W, Zhou P, Blain AE, Forde S, Matthews J, Khim Tan MG, Burke GAA, Sze SK, Beer P, Burton C, Campbell P, Rand V, Turner SD, Ule J, Roman E, Tooze R, Oellerich T, Huntly BJ, Turner M, Du MQ, Samarajiwa SA, Hodson DJ Immunology

DDX3X is a ubiquitously expressed RNA helicase involved in multiple stages of RNA biogenesis. DDX3X is frequently mutated in Burkitt lymphoma, but the functional basis for this is unknown. Here, we show that loss-of-function DDX3X mutations are also enriched in MYC-translocated diffuse large B cell lymphoma and reveal functional cooperation between mutant DDX3X and MYC. DDX3X promotes the translation of mRNA encoding components of the core translational machinery, thereby driving global protein synthesis. Loss-of-function DDX3X mutations moderate MYC-driven global protein synthesis, thereby buffering MYC-induced proteotoxic stress during early lymphomagenesis. Established lymphoma cells restore full protein synthetic capacity by aberrant expression of DDX3Y, a Y chromosome homolog, the expression of which is normally restricted to the testis. These findings show that DDX3X loss of function can buffer MYC-driven proteotoxic stress and highlight the capacity of male B cell lymphomas to then compensate for this loss by ectopic DDX3Y expression.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 34437837 18 Aug 2021

Cao KL, Abadi AJ, Davis-Marcisak EF, Hsu L, Arora A, Coullomb A, Deshpande A, Feng Y, Jeganathan P, Loth M, Meng C, Mu W, Pancaldi V, Sankaran K, Righelli D, Singh A, Sodicoff JS, Stein-O'Brien GL, Subramanian A, Welch JD, You Y, Argelaguet R, Carey VJ, Dries R, Greene CS, Holmes S, Love MI, Ritchie ME, Yuan GC, Culhane AC, Fertig E Bioinformatics

n/a

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 34433496 25 Aug 2021

Groves IJ, Drane ELA, Michalski M, Monahan JM, Scarpini CG, Smith SP, Bussotti G, Várnai C, Schoenfelder S, Fraser P, Enright AJ, Coleman N Epigenetics

Development of cervical cancer is directly associated with integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes into host chromosomes and subsequent modulation of HPV oncogene expression, which correlates with multi-layered epigenetic changes at the integrated HPV genomes. However, the process of integration itself and dysregulation of host gene expression at sites of integration in our model of HPV16 integrant clone natural selection has remained enigmatic. We now show, using a state-of-the-art 'HPV integrated site capture' (HISC) technique, that integration likely occurs through microhomology-mediated repair (MHMR) mechanisms via either a direct process, resulting in host sequence deletion (in our case, partially homozygously) or via a 'looping' mechanism by which flanking host regions become amplified. Furthermore, using our 'HPV16-specific Region Capture Hi-C' technique, we have determined that chromatin interactions between the integrated virus genome and host chromosomes, both at short- (<500 kbp) and long-range (>500 kbp), appear to drive local host gene dysregulation through the disruption of host:host interactions within (but not exceeding) host structures known as topologically associating domains (TADs). This mechanism of HPV-induced host gene expression modulation indicates that integration of virus genomes near to or within a 'cancer-causing gene' is not essential to influence their expression and that these modifications to genome interactions could have a major role in selection of HPV integrants at the early stage of cervical neoplastic progression.

+view abstract PLoS pathogens, PMID: 34432858 25 Aug 2021

Bower OJ, McCarthy A, Lea RA, Alanis-Lobato G, Zohren J, Gerri C, Turner JMA, Niakan KK Epigenetics

CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis facilitates the investigation of gene function in a number of developmental and cellular contexts. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), either embryonic or induced, are a tractable cellular model to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in early human development and cell fate decisions. hPSCs also have broad potential in regenerative medicine to model, investigate, and ameliorate diseases. Here, we provide an optimized protocol for efficient CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of hPSCs to investigate the functional role of genes by engineering null mutations. We emphasize the importance of screening single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to identify those with high targeting efficiency for generation of clonally derived null mutant hPSC lines. We provide important considerations for targeting genes that may have a role in hPSC maintenance. We also present methods to evaluate the on-target mutation spectrum and unintended karyotypic changes. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Selecting and ligating sgRNAs into expression plasmids Basic Protocol 2: Validation of sgRNA via in vitro transcription and cleavage assay Basic Protocol 3: Nucleofection of primed human embryonic stem cells Basic Protocol 4: MiSeq analysis of indel mutations Basic Protocol 5: Single cell cloning of targeted hPSCs Basic Protocol 6: Karyotyping of targeted hPSCs.

+view abstract Current protocols, PMID: 34432381 Aug 2021

Contursi A, Schiavone S, Dovizio M, Hinz C, Fullone R, Tacconelli S, Tyrrell VJ, Grande R, Lanuti P, Marchisio M, Zucchelli M, Ballerini P, Lanas A, O'Donnell VB, Patrignani P Signalling

Platelets promote tumor metastasis by inducing promalignant phenotypes in cancer cells and directly contributing to cancer-related thrombotic complications. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, which confers high-grade malignancy. 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) generated by platelet type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis through unknown mechanisms. In platelets, 12-HETE can be esterified into plasma membrane phospholipids (PLs), which drive thrombosis. Using cocultures of human platelets and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (line HT29) and LC-MS/MS, we investigated the impact of platelets on cancer cell biosynthesis of 12S-HETE and its esterification into PLs and whether platelet ability to transfer its molecular cargo might play a role. To this aim, we performed coculture experiments with CFSE[5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester]-loaded platelets. HT29 cells did not generate 12S-HETE or express 12-LOX. However, they acquired the capacity to produce 12S-HETE mainly esterified in plasmalogen phospholipid forms following the uptake of platelet-derived medium-sized EVs (mEVs) expressing 12-LOX. 12-LOX was detected in plasma mEV of patients with adenomas/adenocarcinomas, implying their potential to deliver the protein to cancer cells in vivo. In cancer cells exposed to platelets, endogenous but not exogenous 12S-HETE contributed to changes in EMT gene expression, mitigated by three structurally unrelated 12-LOX inhibitors. In conclusion, we showed that platelets induce the generation of primarily esterified 12-HETE in colon cancer cells following mEV-mediated delivery of 12-LOX. The modification of cancer cell phospholipids by 12-HETE may functionally impact cancer cell biology and represent a novel target for anticancer agent development.

+view abstract Journal of lipid research, PMID: 34428433 21 Aug 2021

Hall BS, Dos Santos SJ, Hsieh LT, Manifava M, Ruf MT, Pluschke G, Ktistakis N, Simmonds RE Signalling

The exotoxin, mycolactone, is responsible for the immunosuppression and tissue necrosis that characterizes Buruli ulcer. Mycolactone inhibits SEC61-dependent co-translational translocation of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum and the resultant cytosolic translation triggers degradation of mislocalized proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of SEC61 by mycolactone also activates multiple EIF2S1/eIF2α kinases in the integrated stress response (ISR). Here we show mycolactone increased canonical markers of selective macroautophagy/autophagy LC3B-II, ubiquitin and SQSTM1/p62 in diverse disease-relevant primary cells and cell lines. Increased formation of puncta positive for the early autophagy markers WIPI2, RB1CC1/FIP200 and ATG16L1 indicates increased initiation of autophagy. The mycolactone response was SEC61A1-dependent and involved a pathway that required RB1CC1 but not ULK. Deletion of reduced cell survival in the presence of mycolactone, suggesting this response protects against the increased cytosolic protein burden caused by the toxin. However, reconstitution of baseline SQSTM1 expression in cells lacking all autophagy receptor proteins could not rescue viability. Translational regulation by EIF2S1 in the ISR plays a key role in the autophagic response to mycolactone. Mycolactone-dependent induction of SQSTM1 was reduced in cells while the p-EIF2S1 antagonist ISRIB reversed the upregulation of SQSTM1 and reduced RB1CC1, WIPI2 and LC3B puncta formation. Increased SQSTM1 staining could be seen in Buruli ulcer patient skin biopsy samples, reinforcing genetic data that suggests autophagy is relevant to disease pathology. Since selective autophagy and the ISR are both implicated in neurodegeneration, cancer and inflammation, the pathway uncovered here may have a broad relevance to human disease. ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; ATG: autophagy related; BAF: bafilomycin A; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; BU: Buruli ulcer; CQ: chloroquine; EIF2AK3: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; EIF2S1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HDMEC: human dermal microvascular endothelial cells; HFFF: human fetal foreskin fibroblasts; ISR: integrated stress response; ISRIB: integrated stress response inhibitor; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; Myco: mycolactone; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; NFE2L2: nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2; OPTN: optineurin; PFA: paraformaldehyde; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; RB1CC1: RB1-inducible coiled coil 1; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TAX1BP1: Tax1 binding protein 1; ULK: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system; WIPI: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting; WT: wild type.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 34424124 23 Aug 2021

Linterman MA, Denton AE Immunology

Inhibition of ferroptosis via selenium supplementation promotes the survival of follicular helper T cells, boosting the germinal center and antibody response following vaccination in mice and people.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 34413522 19 Aug 2021

Pantarelli C, Pan D, Chetwynd S, Stark AK, Hornigold K, Machin P, Crossland L, Cleary SJ, Baker MJ, Hampson E, Mandel A, Segonds-Pichon A, Walker R, van 't Veer C, Riffo-Vasquez Y, Okkenhaug K, Pitchford S, Welch HCE Signalling, Bioinformatics

Streptococcal pneumonia is a worldwide health problem that kills ∼2 million people each year, particularly young children, the elderly, and immunosuppressed individuals. Alveolar macrophages and neutrophils provide the early innate immune response to clear pneumococcus from infected lungs. However, the level of neutrophil involvement is context dependent, both in humans and in mouse models of the disease, influenced by factors such as bacterial load, age, and coinfections. Here, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) adaptor protein norbin (neurochondrin, NCDN), which was hitherto known as a regulator of neuronal function, is a suppressor of neutrophil-mediated innate immunity. Myeloid norbin deficiency improved the immunity of mice to pneumococcal infection by increasing the involvement of neutrophils in clearing the bacteria, without affecting neutrophil recruitment or causing autoinflammation. It also improved immunity during Escherichia coli-induced septic peritonitis. It increased the responsiveness of neutrophils to a range of stimuli, promoting their ability to kill bacteria in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, enhancing degranulation, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, raising the cell surface levels of selected GPCRs, and increasing GPCR-dependent Rac and Erk signaling. The Rac guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Prex1, a known effector of norbin, was dispensable for most of these effects, which suggested that norbin controls additional downstream targets. We identified the Rac guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Vav as one of these effectors. In summary, our study presents the GPCR adaptor protein norbin as an immune suppressor that limits the ability of neutrophils to clear bacterial infections.

+view abstract Blood advances, PMID: 34402884 24 Aug 2021

Freire-Pritchett P, Ray-Jones H, Della Rosa M, Eijsbouts CQ, Orchard WR, Wingett SW, Wallace C, Cairns J, Spivakov M, Malysheva V Bioinformatics

Capture Hi-C is widely used to obtain high-resolution profiles of chromosomal interactions involving, at least on one end, regions of interest such as gene promoters. Signal detection in Capture Hi-C data is challenging and cannot be adequately accomplished with tools developed for other chromosome conformation capture methods, including standard Hi-C. Capture Hi-C Analysis of Genomic Organization (CHiCAGO) is a computational pipeline developed specifically for Capture Hi-C analysis. It implements a statistical model accounting for biological and technical background components, as well as bespoke normalization and multiple testing procedures for this data type. Here we provide a step-by-step guide to the CHiCAGO workflow that is aimed at users with basic experience of the command line and R. We also describe more advanced strategies for tuning the key parameters for custom experiments and provide guidance on data preprocessing and downstream analysis using companion tools. In a typical experiment, CHiCAGO takes ~2-3 h to run, although pre- and postprocessing steps may take much longer.

+view abstract Nature protocols, PMID: 34373652 09 Aug 2021

Köfeler HC, Eichmann TO, Ahrends R, Bowden JA, Danne-Rasche N, Dennis EA, Fedorova M, Griffiths WJ, Han X, Hartler J, Holčapek M, Jirásko R, Koelmel JP, Ejsing CS, Liebisch G, Ni Z, O'Donnell VB, Quehenberger O, Schwudke D, Shevchenko A, Wakelam MJO, Wenk MR, Wolrab D, Ekroos K Signalling, Lipidomics

n/a

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34362906 06 Aug 2021

Lê Cao KA, Abadi AJ, Davis-Marcisak EF, Hsu L, Arora A, Coullomb A, Deshpande A, Feng Y, Jeganathan P, Loth M, Meng C, Mu W, Pancaldi V, Sankaran K, Singh A, Sodicoff JS, Stein-O'Brien GL, Subramanian A, Welch JD, You Y, Argelaguet R, Carey VJ, Dries R, Greene CS, Holmes S, Love MI, Ritchie ME, Yuan GC, Culhane AC, Fertig E Epigenetics

n/a

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 34353350 05 Aug 2021

Rayon T, Maizels RJ, Barrington C, Briscoe J Epigenetics

The spinal cord receives input from peripheral sensory neurons and controls motor output by regulating muscle innervating motor neurons. These functions are carried out by neural circuits comprising molecularly distinct neuronal subtypes generated in a characteristic spatiotemporal arrangement from progenitors in the embryonic neural tube. To gain insight into the diversity and complexity of cells in the developing human neural tube, we used single-cell mRNA sequencing to profile cervical and thoracic regions in four human embryos of Carnegie stages (CS) CS12, CS14, CS17 and CS19 from gestational weeks 4-7. Analysis of progenitor and neuronal populations from the neural tube and dorsal root ganglia identified dozens of distinct cell types and facilitated the reconstruction of the differentiation pathways of specific neuronal subtypes. Comparison with mouse revealed overall similarity of mammalian neural tube development while highlighting some human-specific features. These data provide a catalogue of gene expression and cell type identity in the human neural tube that will support future studies of sensory and motor control systems. The data can be explored at https://shiny.crick.ac.uk/scviewer/neuraltube/.

+view abstract Development, PMID: 34351410 01 Aug 2021

Li Z, Ktistakis NT Signalling

Selective elimination of damaged mitochondria via macroautophagy (mitophagy) is a conserved cellular process that plays an important role in organismal health. In recent years mitophagy has been studied in parallel to the more general, non-selective autophagy pathway induced in response to amino acid starvation with important similarities and differences noted between the two. The elaborate sequence of membrane rearrangements that give rise to autophagosomes in the non-selective pathway have their counterpart in mitophagy, but with the addition of other factors, such as a ubiquitin mark and mitophagy receptors, which mediate cargo recognition. In some types of mitophagy such as the one induced by ivermectin, the forming autophagosomal structure contains six different elements: the targeted mitochondrial fragment, a section of endoplasmic reticulum that provides a cradle, a ubiquitin layer, the mitophagy receptors and the early and late autophagosomal proteins/membranes. Super-resolution microscopy is ideally suited to investigate the spatial relationships between these elements that converge together but retain some distinctive localization, and we provide here a general protocol that can be used for mammalian cells.

+view abstract Methods in cell biology, PMID: 34311864 2021

Hopkins EL, Gu W, Kobe B, Coleman MP

Axon degeneration represents a pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease where axons die before the neuronal soma, and axonopathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Over the last two decades, it has slowly emerged that a central signaling pathway forms the basis of this process in many circumstances. This is an axonal NAD-related signaling mechanism mainly regulated by the two key proteins with opposing roles: the NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2, and SARM1, a protein with NADase and related activities. The crosstalk between the axon survival factor NMNAT2 and pro-degenerative factor SARM1 has been extensively characterized and plays an essential role in maintaining the axon integrity. This pathway can be activated in necroptosis and in genetic, toxic or metabolic disorders, physical injury and neuroinflammation, all leading to axon pathology. SARM1 is also known to be involved in regulating innate immunity, potentially linking axon degeneration to the response to pathogens and intercellular signaling. Understanding this NAD-related signaling mechanism enhances our understanding of the process of axon degeneration and enables a path to the development of drugs for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases.

+view abstract Frontiers in molecular biosciences, PMID: 34307460 2021

Hopkins EL, Gu W, Kobe B, Coleman MP

Axon degeneration represents a pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease where axons die before the neuronal soma, and axonopathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Over the last two decades, it has slowly emerged that a central signaling pathway forms the basis of this process in many circumstances. This is an axonal NAD-related signaling mechanism mainly regulated by the two key proteins with opposing roles: the NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2, and SARM1, a protein with NADase and related activities. The crosstalk between the axon survival factor NMNAT2 and pro-degenerative factor SARM1 has been extensively characterized and plays an essential role in maintaining the axon integrity. This pathway can be activated in necroptosis and in genetic, toxic or metabolic disorders, physical injury and neuroinflammation, all leading to axon pathology. SARM1 is also known to be involved in regulating innate immunity, potentially linking axon degeneration to the response to pathogens and intercellular signaling. Understanding this NAD-related signaling mechanism enhances our understanding of the process of axon degeneration and enables a path to the development of drugs for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases.

+view abstract Frontiers in molecular biosciences, PMID: 34307460 2021

Calderón L, Schindler K, Malin SG, Schebesta A, Sun Q, Schwickert T, Alberti C, Fischer M, Jaritz M, Tagoh H, Ebert A, Minnich M, Liston A, Cochella L, Busslinger M Immunology

The transcription factor Pax5 controls B cell development, but its role in mature B cells is largely enigmatic. Here, we demonstrated that the loss of Pax5 by conditional mutagenesis in peripheral B lymphocytes led to the strong reduction of B-1a, marginal zone (MZ), and germinal center (GC) B cells as well as plasma cells. Follicular (FO) B cells tolerated the loss of Pax5 but had a shortened half-life. The Pax5-deficient FO B cells failed to proliferate upon B cell receptor or Toll-like receptor stimulation due to impaired PI3K-AKT signaling, which was caused by increased expression of PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway. Pax5 restrained PTEN protein expression at the posttranscriptional level, likely involving -targeting microRNAs. Additional PTEN loss in double-mutant mice rescued FO B cell numbers and the development of MZ B cells but did not restore GC B cell formation. Hence, the posttranscriptional down-regulation of PTEN expression is an important function of Pax5 that facilitates the differentiation and survival of mature B cells, thereby promoting humoral immunity.

+view abstract Science immunology, PMID: 34301800 23 Jul 2021

Junius S, Mavrogiannis AV, Lemaitre P, Gerbaux M, Staels F, Malviya V, Burton O, Gergelits V, Singh K, Tito Tadeo RY, Raes J, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Schlenner SM Immunology

Regulatory T cells (T) are indispensable for the control of immune homeostasis and have clinical potential as a cell therapy for treating autoimmunity. T can lose expression of the lineage-defining Foxp3 transcription factor and acquire effector T cell (T) characteristics, a process referred to as T plasticity. The extent and reversibility of such plasticity during immune responses remain unknown. Here, using a murine genetic fate-mapping system, we show that T stability is maintained even during exposure to a complex microbial/antigenic environment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the observed plasticity of T after adoptive transfer into a lymphopenic environment is a property limited to only a subset of the T population, with the nonconverting majority of T being resistant to plasticity upon secondary stability challenge. The unstable T fraction is a complex mixture of phenotypically distinct T, enriched for naïve and neuropilin-1-negative T, and includes peripherally induced T and recent thymic emigrant T These results suggest that a "purging" process can be used to purify stable T that are capable of robust fate retention, with potential implications for improving cell transfer therapy.

+view abstract Science immunology, PMID: 34301799 23 Jul 2021

Prescott JA, Mitchell JP, Cook SJ Signalling

Cells must adapt to changes in their environment to maintain cell, tissue and organismal integrity in the face of mechanical, chemical or microbiological stress. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is one of the most important transcription factors that controls inducible gene expression as cells attempt to restore homeostasis. It plays critical roles in the immune system, from acute inflammation to the development of secondary lymphoid organs, and also has roles in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Given its role in such critical processes, NF-κB signalling must be subject to strict spatiotemporal control to ensure measured and context-specific cellular responses. Indeed, deregulation of NF-κB signalling can result in debilitating and even lethal inflammation and also underpins some forms of cancer. In this review, we describe the homeostatic feedback mechanisms that limit and 're-set' inducible activation of NF-κB. We first describe the key components of the signalling pathways leading to activation of NF-κB, including the prominent role of protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitylation, before briefly introducing the key features of feedback control mechanisms. We then describe the array of negative feedback loops targeting different components of the NF-κB signalling cascade including controls at the receptor level, post-receptor signalosome complexes, direct regulation of the critical 'inhibitor of κB kinases' (IKKs) and inhibitory feedforward regulation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses. We also review post-transcriptional feedback controls affecting RNA stability and translation. Finally, we describe the deregulation of these feedback controls in human disease and consider how feedback may be a challenge to the efficacy of inhibitors.

+view abstract The Biochemical journal, PMID: 34269817 16 Jul 2021

Capatina N, Hemberger M, Burton GJ, Watson ED, Yung HW

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes placental dysmorphogenesis and is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. We show that unfolded protein response signalling pathways located in the ER drive differentiation of mouse trophoblast stem cells into trophoblast subtypes involved in development of the placental labyrinth zone and trophoblast invasion. In a mouse model of chronic ER stress (Eif2s1 ), higher ER stress in homozygous blastocysts is accompanied by reduced trophectoderm cell number, developmental delay, and is associated with an increased incidence of early pregnancy loss. Administration of the chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, to Eif2s1 heterozygous females during pregnancy alleviated ER stress in the mutant placenta, restored normal trophoblast populations and reduced the frequency of early pregnancy loss. Our results suggest that alleviation of intrauterine ER stress could provide a potential therapeutic target to improve pregnancy outcome in women with pre-gestational metabolic or gynaecologic conditions. ABSTRACT: Women with pre-gestational health conditions (e.g., obesity, diabetes) or gynaecological problems (e.g., endometriosis) are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Increasing evidence suggests that unfavourable intrauterine conditions leading to poor implantation and/or defective placentation are a possible causative factor. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR ) signalling pathways are a convergence point of various physiological stress stimuli that can be triggered by an unfavourable intrauterine environment. Therefore, we explored the impact of ER stress on mouse trophoblast differentiation in vitro, mouse blastocyst formation and early placenta development in the Eif2s1 mutant mouse model of chronic ER stress. Chemically-manipulated ER stress or activation of UPR pathways in a mouse trophoblast stem cell line promoted lineage-specific differentiation. Co-treatment with specific UPR pathway inhibitors rescued this effect. While the inner cell mass was unaffected, the trophectoderm of homozygous Eif2s1 blastocysts exhibited ER stress associated with a reduced cell number. Furthermore, one-third of Eif2s1 homozygous blastocysts exhibited severe developmental defects. We have previously reported a reduced trophoblast population and premature trophoblast differentiation in Eif2s1 homozygous placentas at mid-gestation. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of Eif2s1 heterozygous pregnant females with the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress, restored the trophoblast population, and reduced the frequency of embryonic lethality. Our data suggest that therapeutic targeting of ER stress may improve pregnancy outcome in women with pre-gestational metabolic or gynaecologic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract The Journal of physiology, PMID: 34269420 16 Jul 2021

Kumari R, Roy U, Desai S, Nilavar NM, Van Nieuwenhuijze A, Paranjape A, Radha G, Bawa P, Srivastava M, Nambiar M, Balaji KN, Liston A, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC Immunology

Recombination activating genes (RAGs), consisting of RAG1 and RAG2, are stringently regulated lymphoid-specific genes, which initiate V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes. We report the regulation of RAG1 through a microRNA (miRNA), miR-29c, in a B cell stage-specific manner in mice and humans. Various lines of experimentation, including CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, demonstrate the target specificity and direct interaction of miR-29c to RAG1. Modulation of miR-29c levels leads to change in V(D)J recombination efficiency in pre-B cells. The miR-29c expression is inversely proportional to RAG1 in a B cell developmental stage-specific manner, and miR-29c null mice exhibit a reduction in mature B cells. A negative correlation of miR-29c and RAG1 levels is also observed in leukemia patients, suggesting the potential use of miR-29c as a biomarker and a therapeutic target. Thus, our results reveal the role of miRNA in the regulation of RAG1 and its relevance in cancer.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34260911 13 Jul 2021

Baizan-Edge A, Stubbs BA, Stubbington MJT, Bolland DJ, Tabbada K, Andrews S, Corcoran AE Immunology, Bioinformatics

Generation of the primary antibody repertoire requires V(D)J recombination of hundreds of gene segments in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. The role of interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) signaling in Igh recombination has been difficult to partition from its role in B cell survival and proliferation. With a detailed description of the Igh repertoire in murine IL-7Rα bone marrow B cells, we demonstrate that IL-7R signaling profoundly influences V gene selection during V-to-DJ recombination. We find skewing toward 3' V genes during de novo V-to-DJ recombination more severe than the fetal liver (FL) repertoire and uncover a role for IL-7R signaling in D-to-J recombination. Transcriptome and accessibility analyses suggest reduced expression of B lineage transcription factors (TFs) and targets and loss of D and V antisense transcription in IL-7Rα B cells. Thus, in addition to its roles in survival and proliferation, IL-7R signaling shapes the Igh repertoire by activating underpinning mechanisms.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 34260907 13 Jul 2021

Durgan J, Florey O Signalling

Atg8-family protein lipidation is the most commonly used marker for monitoring autophagy. During macroautophagy, Atg8-family proteins are specifically conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in forming, double-membrane autophagosomes. A distinct, non-canonical autophagy pathway also operates, characterized by the Conjugation of ATG8s to endolysosomal Single Membranes (CASM). In our new study, we show that CASM is associated with the alternative conjugation of Atg8-family proteins to phosphatidylserine (PS), and PE, in response to various cellular stimuli. We also discover differences in the regulation of conjugation to PE and PS by ATG4s, and altered dynamics between the two species. The identification of alternative Atg8-family protein PS lipidation opens up exciting new questions on the roles, regulation and biology of Atg8-family proteins during non-canonical autophagy.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 34251968 12 Jul 2021

Eisenbarth SC, Baumjohann D, Craft J, Fazilleau N, Ma CS, Tangye SG, Vinuesa CG, Linterman MA Immunology

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells cognately guide differentiation of antigen-primed B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. 'Tfh-like' populations not expressing the canonical Tfh cell transcription factor BCL6 have also been described, which can aid particular aspects of B cell differentiation. Tfh and Tfh-like cells are essential for protective and pathological humoral immunity. These CD4 T cells that help B cells are polarized to produce diverse combinations of cytokines and chemokine receptors and can be grouped into distinct subsets that promote antibodies of different isotype, affinity, and duration, according to the nature of immune challenge. However, unified nomenclature to describe the distinct functional Tfh and Tfh-like cells does not exist. While explicitly acknowledging cellular plasticity, we propose categorizing these cell states into three groups based on phenotype and function, paired with their anatomical site of action.

+view abstract Trends in immunology, PMID: 34244056 06 Jul 2021

Vanderbeke L, Van Mol P, Van Herck Y, De Smet F, Humblet-Baron S, Martinod K, Antoranz A, Arijs I, Boeckx B, Bosisio FM, Casaer M, Dauwe D, De Wever W, Dooms C, Dreesen E, Emmaneel A, Filtjens J, Gouwy M, Gunst J, Hermans G, Jansen S, Lagrou K, Liston A, Lorent N, Meersseman P, Mercier T, Neyts J, Odent J, Panovska D, Penttila PA, Pollet E, Proost P, Qian J, Quintelier K, Raes J, Rex S, Saeys Y, Sprooten J, Tejpar S, Testelmans D, Thevissen K, Van Buyten T, Vandenhaute J, Van Gassen S, Velásquez Pereira LC, Vos R, Weynand B, Wilmer A, Yserbyt J, Garg AD, Matthys P, Wouters C, Lambrechts D, Wauters E, Wauters J Immunology

Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 virulence hinges upon the triggering of an aberrant host immune response, more so than on direct virus-induced cellular damage. To elucidate the immunopathology underlying COVID-19 severity, we perform cytokine and multiplex immune profiling in COVID-19 patients. We show that hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 differs from the interferon-gamma-driven cytokine storm in macrophage activation syndrome, and is more pronounced in critical versus mild-moderate COVID-19. Systems modelling of cytokine levels paired with deep-immune profiling shows that classical monocytes drive this hyper-inflammatory phenotype and that a reduction in T-lymphocytes correlates with disease severity, with CD8+ cells being disproportionately affected. Antigen presenting machinery expression is also reduced in critical disease. Furthermore, we report that neutrophils contribute to disease severity and local tissue damage by amplification of hypercytokinemia and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Together our findings suggest a myeloid-driven immunopathology, in which hyperactivated neutrophils and an ineffective adaptive immune system act as mediators of COVID-19 disease severity.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34226537 05 07 2021

Monzón-Casanova E, Bates KJ, Smith CWJ, Turner M

The maturation of immature B cells and the survival of mature B cells is stringently controlled to maintain a diverse repertoire of antibody specificities while avoiding self-reactivity. At the molecular level this is regulated by signalling from membrane immunoglobulin and the BAFF-receptor which sustain a pro-survival programme of gene expression. Whether and how posttranscriptional mechanisms contribute to B cell maturation and survival remains poorly understood. Here we show that the polypyrimidine tract binding proteins (PTBP) PTBP1 and PTBP3 bind to a large and overlapping set of transcripts in B cells. Both PTBP1 and PTBP3 bind to introns and exons where they are predicted to regulate alternative splicing. Moreover, they also show high-density of binding to 3' untranslated regions suggesting they influence the transcriptome in diverse ways. We show that PTBP1 and PTBP3 are required in B cells beyond the immature cell stage to sustain transitional B cells and the B1, marginal zone and follicular B cell lineages. Therefore, PTBP1 and PTBP3 promote the maturation of quiescent B cells by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract European journal of immunology, PMID: 34214192 02 Jul 2021

Canovas S, Ivanova E, Hamdi M, Perez-Sanz F, Rizos D, Kelsey G, Coy P Epigenetics

Assisted reproductive technologies impact transcriptome and epigenome of embryos and can result in long-term phenotypic consequences. Whole-genome DNA methylation profiles from individual bovine blastocysts in vivo- and in vitro-derived (using three sources of protein: reproductive fluids, blood serum and bovine serum albumin) were generated. The impact of in vitro culture on DNA methylation was analyzed, and sex-specific methylation differences at blastocyst stage were uncovered. In vivo embryos showed the highest levels of methylation (29.5%), close to those produced in vitro with serum, whilst embryos produced in vitro with reproductive fluids or albumin showed less global methylation (25-25.4%). During repetitive element analysis, the serum group was the most affected. DNA methylation differences between in vivo and in vitro groups were more frequent in the first intron than in CpGi in promoters. Moreover, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that sex produced a stronger bias in the results than embryo origin. For each group, distance between male and female embryos varied, with in vivo blastocyst showing a lesser distance. Between the sexually dimorphic methylated tiles, which were biased to X-chromosome, critical factors for reproduction, developmental process, cell proliferation and DNA methylation machinery were included. These results support the idea that blastocysts show sexually-dimorphic DNA methylation patterns, and the known picture about the blastocyst methylome should be reconsidered.

+view abstract International journal of molecular sciences, PMID: 34204008 15 Jun 2021

Fra-Bido S, Walker SA, Innocentin S, Linterman MA Immunology, Imaging

Location of immune cells that form the germinal center reaction within secondary lymphoid tissues can be characterized using confocal microscopy. Here, we present an optimized immunofluorescence staining protocol to image germinal center structures in fixed/frozen spleen sections from ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 immunized mice. This protocol can be adapted to identify other cell types within secondary lymphoid tissues. For complete information on the generation and use of this protocol to examine immune responses to the COVID vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, please refer to Silva-Cayetano et al. (2020).

+view abstract STAR protocols, PMID: 34195671 17 Sep 2021

Collier DA, Ferreira IATM, Kotagiri P, Datir R, Lim E, Touizer E, Meng B, Abdullahi A, , Elmer A, Kingston N, Graves B, Le Gresley E, Caputo D, Bergamaschi L, Smith KGC, Bradley JR, Ceron-Gutierrez L, Cortes-Acevedo P, Barcenas-Morales G, Linterman MA, McCoy L, Davis C, Thomson E, Lyons PA, McKinney E, Doffinger R, Wills M, Gupta RK Immunology

Although two-dose mRNA vaccination provides excellent protection against SARS-CoV-2, data are scarce on vaccine efficacy against variants of concern (VOC) in individuals above 80 years of age. Here we analysed immune responses following vaccination with mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in elderly participants and younger health care workers. Serum neutralisation and binding IgG/IgA after the first vaccine dose diminished with increasing age, with a marked drop in participants over 80 years old. Sera from participants above 80 showed significantly lower neutralisation potency against B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1. variants of concern as compared to wild type and were more likely to lack any neutralisation against VOC following the first dose. However, following the second dose, neutralisation against VOC was detectable regardless of age. Frequency of SARS-CoV-2 Spike specific B-memory cells was higher in elderly responders versus non-responders after first dose. Elderly participants demonstrated clear reduction in somatic hypermutation of class switched cells. SARS-CoV-2 Spike specific T- cell IFNγ and IL-2 responses decreased with increasing age, and both cytokines were secreted primarily by CD4 T cells. We conclude that the elderly are a high risk population that warrant specific measures to boost vaccine responses, particularly where variants of concern are circulating.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 34192737 30 Jun 2021

Naillat F, Saadeh H, Nowacka-Woszuk J, Gahurova L, Santos F, Tomizawa SI, Kelsey G Epigenetics

Reproductive biology methods rely on in vitro follicle cultures from mature follicles obtained by hormonal stimulation for generating metaphase II oocytes to be fertilised and developed into a healthy embryo. Such techniques are used routinely in both rodent and human species. DNA methylation is a dynamic process that plays a role in epigenetic regulation of gametogenesis and development. In mammalian oocytes, DNA methylation establishment regulates gene expression in the embryos. This regulation is particularly important for a class of genes, imprinted genes, whose expression patterns are crucial for the next generation. The aim of this work was to establish an in vitro culture system for immature mouse oocytes that will allow manipulation of specific factors for a deeper analysis of regulatory mechanisms for establishing transcription regulation-associated methylation patterns.

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 34183052 28 Jun 2021

Perez-Garcia V, Lea G, Lopez-Jimenez P, Okkenhaug H, Burton GJ, Moffett A, Turco MY, Hemberger M Epigenetics

Normal function of the placenta depends on the earliest developmental stages when trophoblast cells differentiate and invade into the endometrium to establish the definitive maternal-fetal interface. Previously, we identified the ubiquitously expressed tumour suppressor BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) as a central factor of a novel molecular node controlling early mouse placentation. However, functional insights into how BAP1 regulates trophoblast biology are still missing. Using CRISPR/Cas9 knockout and overexpression technology in mouse trophoblast stem cells, here we demonstrate that the downregulation of BAP1 protein is essential to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during trophoblast differentiation associated with a gain of invasiveness. Moreover, we show that the function of BAP1 in suppressing EMT progression is dependent on the binding of BAP1 to additional sex comb-like (ASXL1/2) proteins to form the polycomb repressive deubiquitinase (PR-DUB) complex. Finally, both endogenous expression patterns and BAP1 overexpression experiments in human trophoblast stem cells suggest that the molecular function of BAP1 in regulating trophoblast differentiation and EMT progression is conserved in mice and humans. Our results reveal that the physiological modulation of BAP1 determines the invasive properties of the trophoblast, delineating a new role of the BAP1 PR-DUB complex in regulating early placentation.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 34170818 25 Jun 2021

Collier MP, Moreira KB, Li KH, Chen YC, Itzhak D, Samant R, Leitner A, Burlingame A, Frydman J Signalling

The eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT is a large ATP-dependent complex essential for cellular protein folding. Its subunit arrangement into two stacked eight-membered hetero-oligomeric rings is conserved from yeast to man. A recent breakthrough enables production of functional human TRiC (hTRiC) from insect cells. Here, we apply a suite of mass spectrometry techniques to characterize recombinant hTRiC. We find all subunits CCT1-8 are N-terminally processed by combinations of methionine excision and acetylation observed in native human TRiC. Dissociation by organic solvents yields primarily monomeric subunits with a small population of CCT dimers. Notably, some dimers feature non-canonical inter-subunit contacts absent in the initial hTRiC. This indicates individual CCT monomers can promiscuously re-assemble into dimers, and lack the information to assume the specific interface pairings in the holocomplex. CCT5 is consistently the most stable subunit and engages in the greatest number of non-canonical dimer pairings. These findings confirm physiologically relevant post-translational processing and function of recombinant hTRiC and offer quantitative insight into the relative stabilities of TRiC subunits and interfaces, a key step toward reconstructing its assembly mechanism. Our results also highlight the importance of assigning contacts identified by native mass spectrometry after solution dissociation as canonical or non-canonical when investigating multimeric assemblies.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 34158536 22 Jun 2021

Smets I, Prezzemolo T, Imbrechts M, Mallants K, Mitera T, Humblet-Baron S, Dubois B, Matthys P, Liston A, Goris A Immunology

Although fingolimod and interferon-β are two mechanistically different multiple sclerosis (MS) treatments, they both induce B cell activating factor (BAFF) and shift the B cell pool towards a regulatory phenotype. However, whether there is a shared mechanism between both treatments in how they influence the B cell compartment remains elusive. In this study, we collected a cross-sectional study population of 112 MS patients (41 untreated, 42 interferon-β, 29 fingolimod) and determined B cell subsets, cell-surface and RNA expression of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) and transmembrane activator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) as well as plasma and/or RNA levels of BAFF, BAFF splice forms and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and -35 (IL-35). We added an B cell culture with four stimulus conditions (Medium, CpG, BAFF and CpG+BAFF) for untreated and interferon-β treated patients including measurement of intracellular IL-10 levels. Our flow experiments showed that interferon-β and fingolimod induced BAFF protein and mRNA expression (P ≤ 3.15 x 10) without disproportional change in the antagonizing splice form. Protein BAFF correlated with an increase in transitional B cells (P = 5.70 x 10), decrease in switched B cells (P = 3.29 x 10), and reduction in B cell-surface BAFF-R expression (P = 2.70 x 10), both on TACI-positive and -negative cells. TACI and BAFF-R RNA levels remained unaltered. RNA, plasma and experiments demonstrated that BAFF was not associated with increased IL-10 and IL-35 levels. In conclusion, treatment-induced BAFF correlates with a shift towards transitional B cells which are enriched for cells with an immunoregulatory function. However, BAFF does not directly influence the expression of the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-35. Furthermore, the post-translational mechanism of BAFF-induced BAFF-R cell surface loss was TACI-independent. These observations put the failure of pharmaceutical anti-BAFF strategies in perspective and provide insights for targeted B cell therapies.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 34122439 2021

Liston A, Lesage S Immunology

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+view abstract Stroke, PMID: 34107733 10 Jun 2021

Furlan-Magaril M, Ando-Kuri M, Arzate-Mejía RG, Morf J, Cairns J, Román-Figueroa A, Tenorio-Hernández L, Poot-Hernández AC, Andrews S, Várnai C, Virk B, Wingett SW, Fraser P Bioinformatics

Circadian gene expression is essential for organisms to adjust their physiology and anticipate daily changes in the environment. The molecular mechanisms controlling circadian gene transcription are still under investigation. In particular, how chromatin conformation at different genomic scales and regulatory elements impact rhythmic gene expression has been poorly characterized.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 34099014 08 Jun 2021

Turner DJ, Turner M Immunology

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome editing system has been broadly adopted for high-throughput genetic screens. However, the application of genome-wide single guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries can be challenging. We generated a custom sgRNA library, an order of magnitude smaller than genome-wide alternatives, to facilitate the genetic screening of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We demonstrated the utility of our reagent in a genetic screen for RBPs that conveyed cellular resistance or sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by paraquat. This identified that CSDE1 and STRAP, proteins that interact with each other, convey sensitivity to oxidative stress and that Pumilio homologues (PUM1 and PUM2) convey resistance. Targeting eIF4-E1 and -A1 protected cells from high-dose paraquat, whereas eIF4E2 targeted cells did less well. We also found that G3BP1 promoted sensitivity to a low dose of paraquat but protected cells at a higher dose. Our study highlights the use of genetic screens to identify roles of RBPs and identifies novel genes regulating sensitivity to oxidative stress.

+view abstract The CRISPR journal, PMID: 34096786 04 Jun 2021

Hanna CW, Kelsey G Epigenetics

Genomic imprinting is the monoallelic expression of a gene based on parent of origin and is a consequence of differential epigenetic marking between the male and female germlines. Canonically, genomic imprinting is mediated by allelic DNA methylation. However, recently it has been shown that maternal H3K27me3 can result in DNA methylation-independent imprinting, termed "noncanonical imprinting." In this review, we compare and contrast what is currently known about the underlying mechanisms, the role of endogenous retroviral elements, and the conservation of canonical and noncanonical genomic imprinting.

+view abstract Genes & development, PMID: 34074696 Jun 2021

Rayon T, Briscoe J Epigenetics

Time is inherent to biological processes. It determines the order of events and the speed at which they take place. However, we still need to refine approaches to measure the course of time in biological systems and understand what controls the pace of development. Here, we argue that the comparison of biological processes across species provides molecular insight into the timekeeping mechanisms in biology. We discuss recent findings and the open questions in the field and highlight the use of systems as tools to investigate cell-autonomous control as well as the coordination of temporal mechanisms within tissues. Further, we discuss the relevance of studying tempo for tissue transplantation, homeostasis and lifespan.

+view abstract Interface focus, PMID: 34055305 06 Jun 2021

Alanis-Lobato G, Zohren J, McCarthy A, Fogarty NME, Kubikova N, Hardman E, Greco M, Wells D, Turner JMA, Niakan KK Epigenetics

CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing is a promising technique for clinical applications, such as the correction of disease-associated alleles in somatic cells. The use of this approach has also been discussed in the context of heritable editing of the human germ line. However, studies assessing gene correction in early human embryos report low efficiency of mutation repair, high rates of mosaicism, and the possibility of unintended editing outcomes that may have pathologic consequences. We developed computational pipelines to assess single-cell genomics and transcriptomics datasets from OCT4 () CRISPR-Cas9-targeted and control human preimplantation embryos. This allowed us to evaluate on-target mutations that would be missed by more conventional genotyping techniques. We observed loss of heterozygosity in edited cells that spanned regions beyond the on-target locus, as well as segmental loss and gain of chromosome 6, on which the gene is located. Unintended genome editing outcomes were present in ∼16% of the human embryo cells analyzed and spanned 4-20 kb. Our observations are consistent with recent findings indicating complexity at on-target sites following CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. Our work underscores the importance of further basic research to assess the safety of genome editing techniques in human embryos, which will inform debates about the potential clinical use of this technology.

+view abstract PNAS, PMID: 34050011 01 06 2021

Lovell-Badge R, Anthony E, Barker RA, Bubela T, Brivanlou AH, Carpenter M, Charo RA, Clark A, Clayton E, Cong Y, Daley GQ, Fu J, Fujita M, Greenfield A, Goldman SA, Hill L, Hyun I, Isasi R, Kahn J, Kato K, Kim JS, Kimmelman J, Knoblich JA, Mathews D, Montserrat N, Mosher J, Munsie M, Nakauchi H, Naldini L, Naughton G, Niakan K, Ogbogu U, Pedersen R, Rivron N, Rooke H, Rossant J, Round J, Saitou M, Sipp D, Steffann J, Sugarman J, Surani A, Takahashi J, Tang F, Turner L, Zettler PJ, Zhai X Epigenetics

The International Society for Stem Cell Research has updated its Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation in order to address advances in stem cell science and other relevant fields, together with the associated ethical, social, and policy issues that have arisen since the last update in 2016. While growing to encompass the evolving science, clinical applications of stem cells, and the increasingly complex implications of stem cell research for society, the basic principles underlying the Guidelines remain unchanged, and they will continue to serve as the standard for the field and as a resource for scientists, regulators, funders, physicians, and members of the public, including patients. A summary of the key updates and issues is presented here.

+view abstract Stem cell reports, PMID: 34048692 08 06 2021

Clark AT, Brivanlou A, Fu J, Kato K, Mathews D, Niakan KK, Rivron N, Saitou M, Surani A, Tang F, Rossant J Epigenetics

The ISSCR Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation were last revised in 2016. Since then, rapid progress has been made in research areas related to in vitro culture of human embryos, creation of stem cell-based embryo models, and in vitro gametogenesis. Therefore, a working group of international experts was convened to review the oversight process and provide an update to the guidelines. This report captures the discussion and summarizes the major recommendations made by this working group, with a specific emphasis on updating the categories of review and engagement with the specialized scientific and ethical oversight process.

+view abstract Stem cell reports, PMID: 34048690 08 06 2021

Deng J, Chen Q, Chen Z, Liang K, Gao X, Wang X, Makota FV, Ong HS, Wan Y, Luo K, Gong D, Yu X, Camuglia S, Zeng Q, Zhou T, Xue F, He J, Wei Y, Xiao F, Ma J, Hill DL, Pierson W, Nguyen THO, Zhou H, Wang Y, Shen W, Sun L, Li Z, Xia Q, Qian K, Ye L, Rockman S, Linterman MA, Kedzierska K, Shen N, Lu L, Yu D Immunology

Follicular helper T (T) cells control antibody responses by supporting antibody affinity maturation and memory formation. Inadequate T function has been found in individuals with ineffective responses to vaccines, but the mechanism underlying T regulation in vaccination is not understood. Here, we report that lower serum levels of the metabolic hormone leptin associate with reduced vaccine responses to influenza or hepatitis B virus vaccines in healthy populations. Leptin promotes mouse and human T differentiation and IL-21 production via STAT3 and mTOR pathways. Leptin receptor deficiency impairs T generation and antibody responses in immunisation and infection. Similarly, leptin deficiency induced by fasting reduces influenza vaccination-mediated protection for the subsequent infection challenge, which is mostly rescued by leptin replacement. Our results identify leptin as a regulator of T cell differentiation and function and indicate low levels of leptin as a risk factor for vaccine failure.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34031386 24 May 2021

Olova NN Epigenetics

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique has been developed half a century ago, and yet its role in molecular biology remains significant. Among the most sensitive of immunoassays, it offers high throughput, combined with affordability and ease of use. This chapter provides the procedure of a highly reproducible indirect sandwich ELISA protocol, which can be applied to a variety of semi-quantitative assays for the investigation of the molecular biology of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) or TET enzymes. Three variations of this protocol are described: assessment and validation of 5hmC-binding proteins, screening and validation of anti-5hmC antibodies, or a readout of TET catalytic activity in in vitro experiments. The assay principle is based on the use of a high affinity avidin-biotin system for efficient immobilization of DNA fragments for further detection by high specificity antibodies. A colorimetric enzymatic reaction is ultimately developed with intensity correlating with the amount of attached antigen.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 34009609 2021

Olova NN Epigenetics

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an abundant DNA modification in human and mouse brain, as well as in embryonic stem cells, while severely depleted in multiple types of cancer. Assays for 5hmC detection and quantification, both on a locus-specific and global level, are limited in number and often resource-intensive. Immunodetection of 5hmC through antibodies remains a cost-effective and widely accessible approach. This chapter describes an ELISA-based protocol for 5hmC detection and quantification in genomic or in vitro modified DNA. It is based on the passive adsorption of DNA onto a solid polystyrene surface and the specific detection of 5hmC, which generates a measurable chemiluminescent signal, proportional to the amount of immobilized 5hmC. The assay utilizes a standard curve for interpolation of 5hmC percentage and a loading standard for monitoring loading precision.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), PMID: 34009608 2021

Dolezalova N, Gruszczyk A, Barkan K, Gamble JA, Galvin S, Moreth T, O'Holleran K, Mahbubani KT, Higgins JA, Gribble FM, Reimann F, Surmacki J, Andrews S, Casey JJ, Pampaloni F, Murphy MP, Ladds G, Slater NKH, Saeb-Parsy K Bioinformatics

Cryopreservation offers the potential to increase the availability of pancreatic islets for treatment of diabetic patients. However, current protocols, which use dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), lead to poor cryosurvival of islets. We demonstrate that equilibration of mouse islets with small molecules in aqueous solutions can be accelerated from > 24 to 6 h by increasing incubation temperature to 37 °C. We utilize this finding to demonstrate that current viability staining protocols are inaccurate and to develop a novel cryopreservation method combining DMSO with trehalose pre-incubation to achieve improved cryosurvival. This protocol resulted in improved ATP/ADP ratios and peptide secretion from β-cells, preserved cAMP response, and a gene expression profile consistent with improved cryoprotection. Our findings have potential to increase the availability of islets for transplantation and to inform the design of cryopreservation protocols for other multicellular aggregates, including organoids and bioengineered tissues.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 34001961 17 May 2021

Roca CP, Burton OT, Gergelits V, Prezzemolo T, Whyte CE, Halpert R, Kreft Ł, Collier J, Botzki A, Spidlen J, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A Immunology

Compensating in flow cytometry is an unavoidable challenge in the data analysis of fluorescence-based flow cytometry. Even the advent of spectral cytometry cannot circumvent the spillover problem, with spectral unmixing an intrinsic part of such systems. The calculation of spillover coefficients from single-color controls has remained essentially unchanged since its inception, and is increasingly limited in its ability to deal with high-parameter flow cytometry. Here, we present AutoSpill, an alternative method for calculating spillover coefficients. The approach combines automated gating of cells, calculation of an initial spillover matrix based on robust linear regression, and iterative refinement to reduce error. Moreover, autofluorescence can be compensated out, by processing it as an endogenous dye in an unstained control. AutoSpill uses single-color controls and is compatible with common flow cytometry software. AutoSpill allows simpler and more robust workflows, while reducing the magnitude of compensation errors in high-parameter flow cytometry.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 34001872 17 05 2021

Turner M, Hu F, Lu J, Matheson LS, Díaz-Muñoz MD, Saveliev A Immunology

The annotation of small open reading frames (smORFs) of less than 100 codons (<300 nucleotides) is challenging due to the large number of such sequences in the genome.

+view abstract Bioinformatics, PMID: 33970232 10 May 2021

Michael M, McCormick B, Anderson KE, Karmakar U, Vermeren M, Schurmans S, Amour A, Vermeren S Signalling

Neutrophils, the most abundant circulating leukocytes in humans have key roles in host defense and in the inflammatory response. Agonist-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important regulators of many facets of neutrophil biology. PIP3 is subject to dephosphorylation by several 5' phosphatases, including SHIP family phosphatases, which convert the PI3K product and lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) into PI(3,4)P2, a lipid second messenger in its own right. In addition to the leukocyte restricted SHIP1, neutrophils express the ubiquitous SHIP2. This study analyzed mice and isolated neutrophils carrying a catalytically inactive SHIP2, identifying an important regulatory function in neutrophil chemotaxis and directionality and in neutrophil recruitment to sites of sterile inflammation , in the absence of major defects of any other neutrophil functions analyzed, including, phagocytosis and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Mechanistically, this is explained by a subtle effect on global 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositide species. This work identifies a non-redundant role for the hitherto overlooked SHIP2 in the regulation of neutrophils, and specifically, neutrophil chemotaxis/trafficking. It completes an emerging wider understanding of the complexity of PI3K signaling in the neutrophil, and the roles played by individual kinases and phosphatases within.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 33953730 2021

Giblin W, Bringman-Rodenbarger L, Guo AH, Kumar S, Monovich AC, Mostafa AM, Skinner ME, Azar M, Mady AS, Chung CH, Kadambi N, Melong KA, Lee HJ, Zhang L, Sajjakulnukit P, Trefely S, Varner EL, Iyer S, Wang M, Wilmott JS, Soyer HP, Sturm RA, Pritchard AL, Andea AA, Scolyer RA, Stark MS, Scott DA, Fullen DR, Bosenberg MW, Chandrasekaran S, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Verhaegen ME, Snyder NW, Rivera MN, Osterman AL, Lyssiotis CA, Lombard DB Epigenetics

Cutaneous melanoma remains the most lethal skin cancer, and ranks third among all malignancies in terms of years of life lost. Despite the advent of immune checkpoint and targeted therapies, only roughly half of patients with advanced melanoma achieve a durable remission. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacylases that regulates metabolism and other biological processes. Germline Sirt5 deficiency is associated with mild phenotypes in mice. Here we showed that SIRT5 was required for proliferation and survival across all cutaneous melanoma genotypes tested, as well as uveal melanoma, a genetically distinct melanoma subtype that arises in the eye and is incurable once metastatic. Likewise, SIRT5 was required for efficient tumor formation by melanoma xenografts and in an autochthonous mouse Braf Pten-driven melanoma model. Via metabolite and transcriptomic analyses, we found that SIRT5 was required to maintain histone acetylation and methylation levels in melanoma cells, thereby promoting proper gene expression. SIRT5-dependent genes notably included MITF, a key lineage-specific survival oncogene in melanoma, and the c-MYC proto-oncogene. SIRT5 may represent a druggable genotype-independent addiction in melanoma.

+view abstract The Journal of clinical investigation, PMID: 33945506 15 06 2021

Argelaguet R, Cuomo ASE, Stegle O, Marioni JC Epigenetics

The development of single-cell multimodal assays provides a powerful tool for investigating multiple dimensions of cellular heterogeneity, enabling new insights into development, tissue homeostasis and disease. A key challenge in the analysis of single-cell multimodal data is to devise appropriate strategies for tying together data across different modalities. The term 'data integration' has been used to describe this task, encompassing a broad collection of approaches ranging from batch correction of individual omics datasets to association of chromatin accessibility and genetic variation with transcription. Although existing integration strategies exploit similar mathematical ideas, they typically have distinct goals and rely on different principles and assumptions. Consequently, new definitions and concepts are needed to contextualize existing methods and to enable development of new methods.

+view abstract Nature biotechnology, PMID: 33941931 03 May 2021

Carinci M, Testa B, Bordi M, Milletti G, Bonora M, Antonucci L, Ferraina C, Carro M, Kumar M, Ceglie D, Eck F, Nardacci R, le Guerroué F, Petrini S, Soriano ME, Caruana I, Doria V, Manifava M, Peron C, Lambrughi M, Tiranti V, Behrends C, Papaleo E, Pinton P, Giorgi C, Ktistakis NT, Locatelli F, Nazio F, Cecconi F Signalling

The early secretory pathway and autophagy are two essential and evolutionarily conserved endomembrane processes that are finely interlinked. Although growing evidence suggests that intracellular trafficking is important for autophagosome biogenesis, the molecular regulatory network involved is still not fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial effect of the COPII vesicle-related protein TFG (Trk-fused gene) on ULK1 puncta number and localization during autophagy induction. This, in turn, affects formation of the isolation membrane, as well as the correct dynamics of association between LC3B and early ATG proteins, leading to the proper formation of both omegasomes and autophagosomes. Consistently, fibroblasts derived from a hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) patient carrying mutated TFG (R106C) show defects in both autophagy and ULK1 puncta accumulation. In addition, we demonstrate that TFG activity in autophagy depends on its interaction with the ATG8 protein LC3C through a canonical LIR motif, thereby favouring LC3C-ULK1 binding. Altogether, our results uncover a link between TFG and autophagy and identify TFG as a molecular scaffold linking the early secretion pathway to autophagy.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 33932238 01 May 2021

Wołodko K, Castillo-Fernandez J, Kelsey G, Galvão A Epigenetics

The complex nature of folliculogenesis regulation accounts for its susceptibility to maternal physiological fitness. In obese mothers, progressive expansion of adipose tissue culminates with severe hyperestrogenism and hyperleptinemia with detrimental effects for ovarian performance. Indeed, maternal obesity is associated with the establishment of ovarian leptin resistance. This review summarizes current knowledge on potential effects of impaired leptin signaling throughout folliculogenesis and oocyte developmental competence in mice and women.

+view abstract International journal of molecular sciences, PMID: 33924072 20 Apr 2021

Machin PA, Tsonou E, Hornigold DC, Welch HCE Signalling

Dysregulation of glucose homeostasis leading to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is the cause of an increasing world health crisis. New intriguing roles have emerged for Rho family GTPases and their Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activators in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. This review summates the current knowledge, focusing in particular on the roles of Rho GEFs in the processes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. We discuss the ten Rho GEFs that are known so far to regulate glucose homeostasis, nine of which are in mammals, and one is in yeast. Among the mammalian Rho GEFs, P-Rex1, Vav2, Vav3, Tiam1, Kalirin and Plekhg4 were shown to mediate the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and/or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. The Rho GEFs P-Rex1, Vav2, Tiam1 and β-PIX were found to control the glucose-stimulated release of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In vivo studies demonstrated the involvement of the Rho GEFs P-Rex2, Vav2, Vav3 and PDZ-RhoGEF in glucose tolerance and/or insulin sensitivity, with deletion of these GEFs either contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome or protecting from it. This research is in its infancy. Considering that over 80 Rho GEFs exist, it is likely that future research will identify more roles for Rho GEFs in glucose homeostasis.

+view abstract Cells, PMID: 33923452 16 Apr 2021

Angiolini E, Sandovici I, Coan PM, Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Fowden AL, Constância M Epigenetics

Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic phenomenon that causes the expression of a small set of genes in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, is thought to have co-evolved with placentation. Many imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta, where they play diverse roles related to development and nutrient supply function. However, only a small number of imprinted genes have been functionally tested for a role in nutrient transfer capacity in relation to the structural characteristics of the exchange labyrinthine zone. Here, we examine the transfer capacity in a mouse model deficient for the maternally expressed gene, which results in placental overgrowth and a transient reduction in fetal growth. Using stereology, we show that the morphology of the labyrinthine zone in mutants is normal at E16 and E19. In vivo placental transfer of radiolabeled solutes C-methyl-D-glucose and C-MeAIB remains unaffected at both gestational time points. However, placental passive permeability, as measured using two inert hydrophilic solutes (C-mannitol; C-inulin), is significantly higher in mutants. Importantly, this increase in passive permeability is associated with fetal catch-up growth. Our findings uncover a key role played by the imprinted gene in modifying placental passive permeability that may be important for determining fetal growth.

+view abstract Genes, PMID: 33922969 25 Apr 2021

Durgan J, Lystad AH, Sloan K, Carlsson SR, Wilson MI, Marcassa E, Ulferts R, Webster J, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Wakelam MJ, Beale R, Simonsen A, Oxley D, Florey O Signalling, Mass Spectrometry, Lipidomics

Autophagy is a fundamental catabolic process that uses a unique post-translational modification, the conjugation of ATG8 protein to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). ATG8 lipidation also occurs during non-canonical autophagy, a parallel pathway involving conjugation of ATG8 to single membranes (CASM) at endolysosomal compartments, with key functions in immunity, vision, and neurobiology. It is widely assumed that CASM involves the same conjugation of ATG8 to PE, but this has not been formally tested. Here, we discover that all ATG8s can also undergo alternative lipidation to phosphatidylserine (PS) during CASM, induced pharmacologically, by LC3-associated phagocytosis or influenza A virus infection, in mammalian cells. Importantly, ATG8-PS and ATG8-PE adducts are differentially delipidated by the ATG4 family and bear different cellular dynamics, indicating significant molecular distinctions. These results provide important insights into autophagy signaling, revealing an alternative form of the hallmark ATG8 lipidation event. Furthermore, ATG8-PS provides a specific "molecular signature" for the non-canonical autophagy pathway.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 33909989 16 Apr 2021

Hirschberger C, Sleight VA, Criswell KE, Clark SJ, Gillis JA Biological Chemistry

The origin of the jaw is a long-standing problem in vertebrate evolutionary biology. Classical hypotheses of serial homology propose that the upper and lower jaw evolved through modifications of dorsal and ventral gill arch skeletal elements, respectively. If the jaw and gill arches are derived members of a primitive branchial series, we predict that they would share common developmental patterning mechanisms. Using candidate and RNAseq/differential gene expression analyses, we find broad conservation of dorsoventral patterning mechanisms within the developing mandibular, hyoid and gill arches of a cartilaginous fish, the skate (Leucoraja erinacea). Shared features include expression of genes encoding members of the ventralising BMP and endothelin signalling pathways and their effectors, the joint markers nkx3.2 and gdf5 and pro-chondrogenic transcription factor barx1, and the dorsal territory marker pou3f3. Additionally, we find that mesenchymal expression of eya1/six1 is an ancestral feature of the mandibular arch of jawed vertebrates, while differences in notch signalling distinguish the mandibular and gill arches in skate. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of mandibular and gill arch tissues reveal additional genes differentially expressed along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches, including scamp5 as a novel marker of the dorsal mandibular arch, as well as distinct transcriptional features of mandibular and gill arch muscle progenitors and developing gill buds. Taken together, our findings reveal conserved patterning mechanisms in the pharyngeal arches of jawed vertebrates, consistent with serial homology of their skeletal derivatives, as well as unique transcriptional features that may underpin distinct jaw and gill arch morphologies.

+view abstract Molecular biology and evolution, PMID: 33905525 27 Apr 2021

Alda-Catalinas C, Eckersley-Maslin MA, Reik W Epigenetics

CRISPR/Cas9 screens are a powerful approach to identify key regulators of biological processes. By combining pooled CRISPR/Cas9 screening with single-cell RNA-sequencing readout, individual perturbations can be assessed in parallel both comprehensively and at scale. Importantly, this allows gene function and regulation to be interrogated at a cellular level in an unbiased manner. Here, we present a protocol to perform pooled CRISPR-activation screens in mouse embryonic stem cells using 10× Genomics scRNA-seq as a readout. For complete information on the generation and use of this protocol, please refer to Alda-Catalinas et al. (2020).

+view abstract STAR protocols, PMID: 33899013 18 Jun 2021

De Clercq K, Pérez-García V, Van Bree R, Pollastro F, Peeraer K, Voets T, Vriens J Epigenetics

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play prominent roles in ion homeostasis by their ability to control cation influx. Mouse placentation is governed by the processes of trophoblast proliferation, invasion, differentiation, and fusion, all of which require calcium signaling. Although certain TRP channels have been shown to contribute to maternal-fetal transport of magnesium and calcium, a role for TRP channels in specific trophoblast functions has been disregarded. Using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridisation, the spatio-temporal expression pattern of TRP channels in the mouse placenta across gestation (E10.5-E18.5) was assessed. Prominent expression was observed for Trpv2, Trpm6, and Trpm7. Calcium microfluorimetry in primary trophoblast cells isolated at E14.5 of gestation further revealed the functional activity of TRPV2 and TRPM7. Finally, comparing TRP channels expression in mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) confirmed the specific expression of TRPV2 during placental development. Moreover, TRP channel expression was similar in mTSCs compared to primary trophoblasts and validate mTSC as a model to study TRP channels in placental development. Collectivity, our results identify a specific spatio-temporal TRP channel expression pattern in trophoblasts, suggesting a possible involvement in regulating the process of placentation.

+view abstract Cellular and molecular life sciences, PMID: 33884443 21 Apr 2021

Watt S, Vasquez L, Walter K, Mann AL, Kundu K, Chen L, Sims Y, Ecker S, Burden F, Farrow S, Farr B, Iotchkova V, Elding H, Mead D, Tardaguila M, Ponstingl H, Richardson D, Datta A, Flicek P, Clarke L, Downes K, Pastinen T, Fraser P, Frontini M, Javierre BM, Spivakov M, Soranzo N

Neutrophils play fundamental roles in innate immune response, shape adaptive immunity, and are a potentially causal cell type underpinning genetic associations with immune system traits and diseases. Here, we profile the binding of myeloid master regulator PU.1 in primary neutrophils across nearly a hundred volunteers. We show that variants associated with differential PU.1 binding underlie genetically-driven differences in cell count and susceptibility to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We integrate these results with other multi-individual genomic readouts, revealing coordinated effects of PU.1 binding variants on the local chromatin state, enhancer-promoter contacts and downstream gene expression, and providing a functional interpretation for 27 genes underlying immune traits. Collectively, these results demonstrate the functional role of PU.1 and its target enhancers in neutrophil transcriptional control and immune disease susceptibility.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 33863903 16 Apr 2021

Whiteside SK, Grant FM, Gyori DS, Conti AG, Imianowski CJ, Kuo P, Nasrallah R, Sadiyah F, Lira SA, Tacke F, Eil RL, Burton OT, Dooley J, Liston A, Okkenhaug K, Yang J, Roychoudhuri R Immunology

CD4 regulatory T (Treg) cells, dependent upon the transcription factor Foxp3, contribute to tumour immunosuppression but are also required for immune homeostasis. There is interest in developing therapies that selectively target the immunosuppressive function of Treg cells within tumours without disrupting their systemic anti-inflammatory function. High levels of expression of Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8) discriminate Treg cells within tumours from those found in systemic lymphoid tissues. It has recently been proposed that disruption of CCR8 function using blocking anti-CCR8 antibodies results in reduced accumulation of Treg cells within tumours and disruption of their immunosuppressive function. Here, using Ccr8 mice, we show that CCR8 function is not required for Treg cell accumulation or immunosuppression in the context of syngeneic MC38 colorectal adenocarcinoma and B16 melanoma tumours. We observed high levels of CCR8 expression on tumour-infiltrating Treg cells which was abolished in Ccr8 mice. High levels of CCR8 marked cells with high levels of suppressive function. However, whereas systemic ablation of Treg cells resulted in strikingly diminished tumour burden, growth of subcutaneously implanted tumours was unaffected by systemic CCR8 loss. Consistently, we observed minimal impact of systemic CCR8 ablation on the frequency, phenotype and function of tumour-infiltrating Treg cells and conventional T (Tconv) function. These findings suggest that CCR8 is not required for Treg cell accumulation and immunosuppressive function within tumours and that depletion of CCR8 Treg cells rather than blockade of CCR8 function is a more promising avenue for selective immunotherapy.

+view abstract Immunology, PMID: 33838058 10 Apr 2021

Helfinger V, Freiherr von Gall F, Henke N, Kunze MM, Schmid T, Rezende F, Heidler J, Wittig I, Radeke HH, Marschall V, Anderson K, Shah AM, Fulda S, Brüne B, Brandes RP, Schröder K Signalling

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause cellular damage and promote cancer development. Besides such harmful consequences of overproduction of ROS, all cells utilize ROS for signaling purposes and stabilization of cell homeostasis. In particular, the latter is supported by the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) that constitutively produces low amounts of HO By that mechanism, Nox4 forces differentiation of cells and prevents inflammation. We hypothesize a constitutive low level of HO maintains basal activity of cellular surveillance systems and is unlikely to be cancerogenic. Utilizing two different murine models of cancerogen-induced solid tumors, we found that deletion of Nox4 promotes tumor formation and lowers recognition of DNA damage. Nox4 supports phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a prerequisite of DNA damage recognition, by retaining a sufficiently low abundance of the phosphatase PP2A in the nucleus. The underlying mechanism is continuous oxidation of AKT by Nox4. Interaction of oxidized AKT and PP2A captures the phosphatase in the cytosol. Absence of Nox4 facilitates nuclear PP2A translocation and dephosphorylation of γH2AX. Simultaneously AKT is left phosphorylated. Thus, in the absence of Nox4, DNA damage is not recognized and the increased activity of AKT supports proliferation. The combination of both events results in genomic instability and promotes tumor formation. By identifying Nox4 as a protective source of ROS in cancerogen-induced cancer, we provide a piece of knowledge for understanding the role of moderate production of ROS in preventing the initiation of malignancies.

+view abstract PNAS, PMID: 33836590 16 Mar 2021

Chovanec P, Collier AJ, Krueger C, Várnai C, Semprich CI, Schoenfelder S, Corcoran AE, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics

The transition from naive to primed pluripotency is accompanied by an extensive reorganisation of transcriptional and epigenetic programmes. However, the role of transcriptional enhancers and three-dimensional chromatin organisation in coordinating these developmental programmes remains incompletely understood. Here, we generate a high-resolution atlas of gene regulatory interactions, chromatin profiles and transcription factor occupancy in naive and primed human pluripotent stem cells, and develop a network-graph approach to examine the atlas at multiple spatial scales. We uncover highly connected promoter hubs that change substantially in interaction frequency and in transcriptional co-regulation between pluripotent states. Small hubs frequently merge to form larger networks in primed cells, often linked by newly-formed Polycomb-associated interactions. We identify widespread state-specific differences in enhancer activity and interactivity that correspond with an extensive reconfiguration of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG binding and target gene expression. These findings provide multilayered insights into the chromatin-based gene regulatory control of human pluripotent states.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 33828098 07 04 2021

Drissi I, Fletcher E, Shaheen R, Nahorski M, Alhashem AM, Lisgo S, Fernández-Jaén A, Schon K, Tlili-Graiess K, Smithson SF, Lindsay S, J Sharpe H, Alkuraya FS, Woods G Signalling

Holoprosencephaly is a spectrum of developmental disorder of the embryonic forebrain in which there is failed or incomplete separation of the prosencephalon into two cerebral hemispheres. To date, dominant mutations in sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway genes are the predominant Mendelian causes, and have marked interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypical variabilities.

+view abstract Journal of medical genetics, PMID: 33820834 05 Apr 2021

Dong J, LeBlanc C, Poulet A, Mermaz B, Villarino G, Webb KM, Joly V, Mendez J, Voigt P, Jacob Y Epigenetics

Epigenetic mechanisms play diverse roles in the regulation of genome stability in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genome stability is maintained during DNA replication by the H3.1K27 methyltransferases ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED PROTEIN 5 (ATXR5) and ATXR6, which catalyze the deposition of K27me1 on replication-dependent H3.1 variants. The loss of H3.1K27me1 in atxr5 atxr6 double mutants leads to heterochromatin defects, including transcriptional de-repression and genomic instability, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the transcriptional co-activator and conserved histone acetyltransferase GCN5 as a mediator of transcriptional de-repression and genomic instability in the absence of H3.1K27me1. GCN5 is part of a SAGA-like complex in plants that requires the GCN5-interacting protein ADA2b and the chromatin remodeler CHR6 to mediate the heterochromatic defects in atxr5 atxr6 mutants. Our results also indicate that Arabidopsis GCN5 acetylates multiple lysine residues on H3.1 variants, but H3.1K27 and H3.1K36 play essential functions in inducing genomic instability in the absence of H3.1K27me1. Finally, we show that H3.1K36 acetylation by GCN5 is negatively regulated by H3.1K27me1 in vitro. Overall, this work reveals a key molecular role for H3.1K27me1 in maintaining transcriptional silencing and genome stability in heterochromatin by restricting GCN5-mediated histone acetylation in plants.

+view abstract The Plant cell, PMID: 33793815 31 05 2021

Luff DH, Wojdyla K, Oxley D, Chessa T, Hudson K, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR, Barry ST, Okkenhaug K Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a central role in adaptive immunity by transducing signals from the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) via production of PIP. PI3Kδ is a heterodimer composed of a p110δ catalytic subunit associated with a p85α or p85β regulatory subunit and is preferentially engaged by the TCR upon T cell activation. The molecular mechanisms leading to PI3Kδ recruitment and activation at the TCR signalosome remain unclear. In this study, we have used quantitative mass spectrometry, biochemical approaches and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to uncover the p110δ interactome in primary CD4 T cells. Moreover, we have determined how the PI3Kδ interactome changes upon the differentiation of small naïve T cells into T cell blasts expanded in the presence of IL-2. Our interactomic analyses identified multiple constitutive and inducible PI3Kδ-interacting proteins, some of which were common to naïve and previously-activated T cells. Our data reveals that PI3Kδ rapidly interacts with as many as seven adaptor proteins upon TCR engagement, including the Gab-family proteins, GAB2 and GAB3, a CD5-CBL signalosome and the transmembrane proteins ICOS and TRIM. Our results also suggest that PI3Kδ pre-forms complexes with the adaptors SH3KBP1 and CRKL in resting cells that could facilitate the localization and activation of p110δ at the plasma membrane by forming ternary complexes during early TCR signalling. Furthermore, we identify interactions that were not previously known to occur in CD4 T cells, involving BCAP, GAB3, IQGAP3 and JAML. We used CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout in primary T cells to confirm that BCAP is a positive regulator of PI3K-AKT signalling in CD4 T cell blasts. Overall, our results provide evidence for a large protein network that regulates the recruitment and activation of PI3Kδ in T cells. Finally, this work shows how the PI3Kδ interactome is remodeled as CD4 T cells differentiate from naïve T cells to activated T cell blasts. These activated T cells upregulate additional PI3Kδ adaptor proteins, including BCAP, GAB2, IQGAP3 and ICOS. This rewiring of TCR-PI3K signalling that occurs upon T cell differentiation may serve to reduce the threshold of activation and diversify the inputs for the PI3K pathway in effector T cells.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 33763075 2021

Kara N, Krueger F, Rugg-Gunn P, Houseley J Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Faithful replication of the entire genome requires replication forks to copy large contiguous tracts of DNA, and sites of persistent replication fork stalling present a major threat to genome stability. Understanding the distribution of sites at which replication forks stall, and the ensuing fork processing events, requires genome-wide methods that profile replication fork position and the formation of recombinogenic DNA ends. Here, we describe Transferase-Activated End Ligation sequencing (TrAEL-seq), a method that captures single-stranded DNA 3' ends genome-wide and with base pair resolution. TrAEL-seq labels both DNA breaks and replication forks, providing genome-wide maps of replication fork progression and fork stalling sites in yeast and mammalian cells. Replication maps are similar to those obtained by Okazaki fragment sequencing; however, TrAEL-seq is performed on asynchronous populations of wild-type cells without incorporation of labels, cell sorting, or biochemical purification of replication intermediates, rendering TrAEL-seq far simpler and more widely applicable than existing replication fork direction profiling methods. The specificity of TrAEL-seq for DNA 3' ends also allows accurate detection of double-strand break sites after the initiation of DNA end resection, which we demonstrate by genome-wide mapping of meiotic double-strand break hotspots in a dmc1Δ mutant that is competent for end resection but not strand invasion. Overall, TrAEL-seq provides a flexible and robust methodology with high sensitivity and resolution for studying DNA replication and repair, which will be of significant use in determining mechanisms of genome instability.

+view abstract PLoS biology, PMID: 33760805 24 Mar 2021

Rajewsky N, Almouzni G, Gorski SA, Aerts S, Amit I, Bertero MG, Bock C, Bredenoord AL, Cavalli G, Chiocca S, Clevers H, De Strooper B, Eggert A, Ellenberg J, Fernández XM, Figlerowicz M, Gasser SM, Hubner N, Kjems J, Knoblich JA, Krabbe G, Lichter P, Linnarsson S, Marine JC, Marioni JC, Marti-Renom MA, Netea MG, Nickel D, Nollmann M, Novak HR, Parkinson H, Piccolo S, Pinheiro I, Pombo A, Popp C, Reik W, Roman-Roman S, Rosenstiel P, Schultze JL, Stegle O, Tanay A, Testa G, Thanos D, Theis FJ, Torres-Padilla ME, Valencia A, Vallot C, van Oudenaarden A, Vidal M, Voet T, Epigenetics

n/a

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 33731935 17 Mar 2021

Gonzalez-Figueroa P, Roco JA, Papa I, Núñez Villacís L, Stanley M, Linterman MA, Dent A, Canete PF, Vinuesa CG Immunology

Regulatory T cells prevent the emergence of autoantibodies and excessive IgE, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that BCL6-expressing Tregs, known as follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells, produce abundant neuritin protein that targets B cells. Mice lacking Tfr cells or neuritin in Foxp3-expressing cells accumulated early plasma cells in germinal centers (GCs) and developed autoantibodies against histones and tissue-specific self-antigens. Upon immunization, these mice also produced increased plasma IgE and IgG1. We show that neuritin is taken up by B cells, causes phosphorylation of numerous proteins, and dampens IgE class switching. Neuritin reduced differentiation of mouse and human GC B cells into plasma cells, downregulated BLIMP-1, and upregulated BCL6. Administration of neuritin to Tfr-deficient mice prevented the accumulation of early plasma cells in GCs. Production of neuritin by Tfr cells emerges as a central mechanism to suppress B cell-driven autoimmunity and IgE-mediated allergies.

+view abstract Cell, PMID: 33711260 11 Mar 2021

Young KA, Biggins L, Sharpe HJ Signalling

Adhesive structures between cells and with the surrounding matrix are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. In addition to providing mechanical integrity, they are key signalling centres providing feedback on the extracellular environment to the cell interior, and vice versa. During development, mitosis and repair, cell adhesions must undergo extensive remodelling. Post-translational modifications of proteins within these complexes serve as switches for activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important modification in cell adhesion that is dynamically regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases. Several PTPs are implicated in the assembly and maintenance of cell adhesions, however, their signalling functions remain poorly defined. The PTPs can act by directly dephosphorylating adhesive complex components or function as scaffolds. In this review, we will focus on human PTPs and discuss their individual roles in major adhesion complexes, as well as Hippo signalling. We have collated PTP interactome and cell adhesome datasets, which reveal extensive connections between PTPs and cell adhesions that are relatively unexplored. Finally, we reflect on the dysregulation of PTPs and cell adhesions in disease.

+view abstract The Biochemical journal, PMID: 33710332 12 Mar 2021

Van Nieuwenhove E, De Langhe E, Dooley J, Van Den Oord J, Shahrooei M, Parvaneh N, Ziaee V, Savic S, Kacar M, Bossuyt X, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Wouters C Immunology

In 2016 specific heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in MEFV were reported causal for a distinct autoinflammatory disease coined pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND). We sought to provide an extended report on clinical manifestations in PAAND patients to date and evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with the IL-1-blocking agent anakinra.

+view abstract Rheumatology, PMID: 33693560 08 Mar 2021

Rogers CH, Mielczarek O, Corcoran AE Immunology

A functional adaptive immune system must generate enormously diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires from a limited number of AgR genes, using a common mechanism, V(D)J recombination. The AgR loci are among the largest in the genome, and individual genes must overcome huge spatial and temporal challenges to co-localize with optimum variability. Our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved has increased enormously, due in part to new technologies for high resolution mapping of AgR structure and dynamic movement, underpinning mechanisms, and resulting repertoires. This review will examine these advances using the paradigm of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. We will discuss the key regulatory elements implicated in Igh locus structure. Recent next generation repertoire sequencing methods have shown that local chromatin state at V genes contribute to recombination efficiency. Next on the multidimensional scale, we will describe imaging studies that provided the first picture of the large-scale dynamic looping and contraction the Igh locus undergoes during recombination. We will discuss chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based technologies that have provided higher resolution pictures of Igh locus structure, including the different models that have evolved. We will consider the key transcription factors (PAX5, YY1, E2A, Ikaros), and architectural factors, CTCF and cohesin, that regulate these processes. Lastly, we will discuss a plethora of recent exciting mechanistic findings. These include Rag recombinase scanning for convergent RSS sequences within DNA loops; identification of Igh loop extrusion, and its putative role in Rag scanning; the roles of CTCF, cohesin and cohesin loading factor, WAPL therein; a new phase separation model for Igh locus compartmentalization. We will draw these together and conclude with some horizon-scanning and unresolved questions.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 33679727 2020

Klionsky DJ, Ktistakis NT et al Signalling

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 33634751 08 Feb 2021

Betrains A, Staels F, Moens L, Delafontaine S, Hershfield MS, Blockmans D, Liston A, Humblet-Baron S, Meyts I, Schrijvers R, Vanderschueren S Immunology

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+view abstract Scandinavian journal of rheumatology, PMID: 33627040 25 Feb 2021

Van Damme H, Dombrecht B, Kiss M, Roose H, Allen E, Van Overmeire E, Kancheva D, Martens L, Murgaski A, Bardet PMR, Blancke G, Jans M, Bolli E, Martins MS, Elkrim Y, Dooley J, Boon L, Schwarze JK, Tacke F, Movahedi K, Vandamme N, Neyns B, Ocak S, Scheyltjens I, Vereecke L, Nana FA, Merchiers P, Laoui D, Van Ginderachter JA Immunology

Modulation and depletion strategies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitute valid approaches in antitumor immunotherapy but suffer from severe adverse effects due to their lack of selectivity for the tumor-infiltrating (ti-)Treg population, indicating the need for a ti-Treg specific biomarker.

+view abstract Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, PMID: 33589525 Feb 2021

Gaud C, C Sousa B, Nguyen A, Fedorova M, Ni Z, O Donnell VB, Wakelam MJO, Andrews S, Lopez-Clavijo AF Signalling, Bioinformatics

Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantitation using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample.  As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment.  Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways.  As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging.  BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways.  BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.

+view abstract F1000Research, PMID: 33564392 2021

Gaud C, C Sousa B, Nguyen A, Fedorova M, Ni Z, O'Donnell VB, Wakelam MJO, Andrews S, Lopez-Clavijo AF Signalling, Bioinformatics

Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantification using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample.  As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment.  Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways.  As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging.  BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways.  BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.

+view abstract F1000Research, PMID: 33564392 2021

Halsall JA, Andrews S, Krueger F, Rutledge CE, Ficz G, Reik W, Turner BM Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Chromatin configuration influences gene expression in eukaryotes at multiple levels, from individual nucleosomes to chromatin domains several Mb long. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of core histones seem to be involved in chromatin structural transitions, but how remains unclear. To explore this, we used ChIP-seq and two cell types, HeLa and lymphoblastoid (LCL), to define how changes in chromatin packaging through the cell cycle influence the distributions of three transcription-associated histone modifications, H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. We show that chromosome regions (bands) of 10-50 Mb, detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy of metaphase (M) chromosomes, are also present in G and G. They comprise 1-5 Mb sub-bands that differ between HeLa and LCL but remain consistent through the cell cycle. The same sub-bands are defined by H3K9ac and H3K4me3, while H3K27me3 spreads more widely. We found little change between cell cycle phases, whether compared by 5 Kb rolling windows or when analysis was restricted to functional elements such as transcription start sites and topologically associating domains. Only a small number of genes showed cell-cycle related changes: at genes encoding proteins involved in mitosis, H3K9 became highly acetylated in GM, possibly because of ongoing transcription. In conclusion, modified histone isoforms H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 exhibit a characteristic genomic distribution at resolutions of 1 Mb and below that differs between HeLa and lymphoblastoid cells but remains remarkably consistent through the cell cycle. We suggest that this cell-type-specific chromosomal bar-code is part of a homeostatic mechanism by which cells retain their characteristic gene expression patterns, and hence their identity, through multiple mitoses.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 33542322 04 Feb 2021

Gómez-Redondo I, Planells B, Cánovas S, Ivanova E, Kelsey G, Gutiérrez-Adán A Epigenetics

Prior work in mice has shown that some retrotransposed elements remain substantially methylated during DNA methylation reprogramming of germ cells. In the pig, however, information about this process is scarce. The present study was designed to examine the methylation profiles of porcine germ cells during the time course of epigenetic reprogramming.

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 33536045 03 Feb 2021

Silva-Cayetano A, Foster WS, Innocentin S, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Spencer AJ, Burton OT, Fra-Bidó S, Le Lee J, Thakur N, Conceicao C, Wright D, Barrett J, Evans-Bailey N, Noble C, Bailey D, Liston A, Gilbert SC, Lambe T, Linterman MA Immunology

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic that has affected almost every aspect of human life. The development of an effective COVID-19 vaccine could limit the morbidity and mortality caused by infection and may enable the relaxation of social-distancing measures. Age is one of the most significant risk factors for poor health outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection; therefore, it is desirable that any new vaccine candidates elicit a robust immune response in older adults.

+view abstract Med, PMID: 33521747 16 Dec 2020

Channathodiyil P, Houseley J Epigenetics

A simple method for extraction of high quality RNA from cells that have been fixed, stained and sorted by flow cytometry would allow routine transcriptome analysis of highly purified cell populations and single cells. However, formaldehyde fixation impairs RNA extraction and inhibits RNA amplification. Here we show that good quality RNA can be readily extracted from stained and sorted mammalian cells if formaldehyde is replaced by glyoxal-a well-characterised fixative that is widely compatible with immunofluorescent staining methods. Although both formaldehyde and glyoxal efficiently form protein-protein crosslinks, glyoxal does not crosslink RNA to proteins nor form stable RNA adducts, ensuring that RNA remains accessible and amenable to enzymatic manipulation after glyoxal fixation. We find that RNA integrity is maintained through glyoxal fixation, permeabilisation with methanol or saponin, indirect immunofluorescent staining and flow sorting. RNA can then be extracted by standard methods and processed into RNA-seq libraries using commercial kits; mRNA abundances measured by poly(A)+ RNA-seq correlate well between freshly harvested cells and fixed, stained and sorted cells. We validate the applicability of this approach to flow cytometry by staining MCF-7 cells for the intracellular G2/M-specific antigen cyclin B1 (CCNB1), and show strong enrichment for G2/M-phase cells based on transcriptomic data. Switching to glyoxal fixation with RNA-compatible staining methods requires only minor adjustments of most existing staining and sorting protocols, and should facilitate routine transcriptomic analysis of sorted cells.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 33481798 2021

Chicanne G, Bertrand-Michel J, Viaud J, Hnia K, Clark J, Payrastre B Biological Chemistry

Our knowledge of the role and biology of the different phosphoinositides has greatly expanded over recent years. Reversible phosphorylation by specific kinases and phosphatases of positions 3, 4, and 5 on the inositol ring is a highly dynamic process playing a critical role in the regulation of the spatiotemporal recruitment and binding of effector proteins. The specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases are key players in the control of many cellular functions, including proliferation, survival, intracellular trafficking, or cytoskeleton reorganization. Several of these enzymes are mutated in human diseases. The impact of the fatty acid composition of phosphoinositides in their function is much less understood. There is an important molecular diversity in the fatty acid side chains of PI. While stearic and arachidonic fatty acids are the major acyl species in PIP, PIP, and PIP, other fatty acid combinations are also found. The role of these different molecular species is still unknown, but it is important to quantify these different molecules and their potential changes during cell stimulation to better characterize this emerging field. Here, we describe a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method that we used for the first time to profile the changes in phosphoinositide molecular species (summed fatty acyl chain profiles) in human and mouse platelets under resting conditions and following stimulation. This method can be applied to other hematopoietic primary cells isolated from human or experimental animal models.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 33481230 2021

Gould SA, White M, Wilbrey AL, Pór E, Coleman MP, Adalbert R

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting side effect of cancer treatment, often associated with degeneration of sensory axons or their terminal regions. Presence of the slow Wallerian degeneration protein (WLD), or genetic deletion of sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein 1 (SARM1), which strongly protect axons from degeneration after injury or axonal transport block, alleviate pain in several CIPN models. However, oxaliplatin can cause an acute pain response, suggesting a different mechanism of pain generation. Here, we tested whether the presence of WLD or absence of SARM1 protects against acute oxaliplatin-induced pain in mice after a single oxaliplatin injection. In BL/6 and Wld mice, oxaliplatin induced significant mechanical and cold hypersensitivities which were absent in Sarm1 mice. Despite the presence of hypersensitivity there was no significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in the footpads of any mice after oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting that early stages of pain hypersensitivity could be independent of axon degeneration. To identify other changes that could underlie the pain response, RNA sequencing was carried out in DRGs from treated and control mice of each genotype. Sarm1 mice had fewer gene expression changes than either BL/6 or Wld mice. This is consistent with the pain measurements in demonstrating that Sarm1DRGs remain relatively unchanged after oxaliplatin treatment, unlike those in BL/6 and Wld mice. Changes in levels of four transcripts - Alas2, Hba-a1, Hba-a2, and Tfrc - correlated with oxaliplatin-induced pain, or absence thereof, across the three genotypes. Our findings suggest that targeting SARM1 could be a viable therapeutic approach to prevent oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathic pain.

+view abstract Experimental neurology, PMID: 33460644 15 Jan 2021

Tinarelli F, Ivanova E, Colombi I, Barini E, Balzani E, Garcia CG, Gasparini L, Chiappalone M, Kelsey G, Tucci V Epigenetics

DNA methylation has emerged as an important epigenetic regulator of brain processes, including circadian rhythms. However, how DNA methylation intervenes between environmental signals, such as light entrainment, and the transcriptional and translational molecular mechanisms of the cellular clock is currently unknown. Here, we studied the after-hours mice, which have a point mutation in the Fbxl3 gene and a lengthened circadian period.

+view abstract Epigenetics & chromatin, PMID: 33407878 06 Jan 2021

Pickering KA, Gilroy K, Cassidy JW, Fey SK, Najumudeen AK, Zeiger LB, Vincent DF, Gay DM, Johansson J, Fordham RP, Miller B, Clark W, Hedley A, Unal EB, Kiel C, McGhee E, Machesky LM, Nixon C, Johnsson AE, Bain M, Strathdee D, van Hoof SR, Medema JP, Anderson KI, Brachmann SM, Stucke VM, Malliri A, Drysdale M, Turner M, Serrano L, Myant K, Campbell AD, Sansom OJ Immunology

RAC1 activity is critical for intestinal homeostasis, and is required for hyperproliferation driven by loss of the tumour suppressor gene Apc in the murine intestine. To avoid the impact of direct targeting upon homeostasis, we reasoned that indirect targeting of RAC1 via RAC-GEFs might be effective. Transcriptional profiling of Apc deficient intestinal tissue identified Vav3 and Tiam1 as key targets. Deletion of these indicated that while TIAM1 deficiency could suppress Apc-driven hyperproliferation, it had no impact upon tumourigenesis, while VAV3 deficiency had no effect. Intriguingly, deletion of either gene resulted in upregulation of Vav2, with subsequent targeting of all three (Vav2 Vav3 Tiam1), profoundly suppressing hyperproliferation, tumourigenesis and RAC1 activity, without impacting normal homeostasis. Critically, the observed RAC-GEF dependency was negated by oncogenic KRAS mutation. Together, these data demonstrate that while targeting RAC-GEF molecules may have therapeutic impact at early stages, this benefit may be lost in late stage disease.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 33397922 04 01 2021

Webb LMC, Fra-Bido S, Innocentin S, Matheson LS, Attaf N, Bignon A, Novarino J, Fazilleau N, Linterman MA Immunology

Ageing profoundly changes our immune system and is thought to be a driving factor in the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious disease in older people. We have previously shown that the impaired immunity to vaccination that occurs in aged individuals is partly attributed to the effect of age on T follicular helper (Tfh) cell formation. In this study, we examined how age intrinsically affects Tfh cell formation in both mice and humans. We show increased formation of Tfh precursors (pre-Tfh) but no associated increase in germinal centre (GC)-Tfh cells in aged mice, suggesting age-driven promotion of only early Tfh cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we show that ageing alters TCR signalling which drives expression of the Notch-associated transcription factor, RBPJ. Genetic or chemical modulation of RBPJ or Notch rescues this age-associated early Tfh cell differentiation, and increased intrinsic Notch activity recapitulates this phenomenon in younger mice. Our data offer mechanistic insight into the age-induced changes in T-cell activation that affects the differentiation and ultimately the function of effector T cells.

+view abstract Aging cell, PMID: 33387451 02 Jan 2021

Alcalá-Vida R, Garcia-Forn M, Castany-Pladevall C, Creus-Muncunill J, Ito Y, Blanco E, Golbano A, Crespí-Vázquez K, Parry A, Slater G, Samarajiwa S, Peiró S, Di Croce L, Narita M, Pérez-Navarro E Epigenetics

Lamins are crucial proteins for nuclear functionality. Here, we provide new evidence showing that increased lamin B1 levels contribute to the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD), a CAG repeat-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Through fluorescence-activated nuclear suspension imaging, we show that nucleus from striatal medium-sized spiny and CA1 hippocampal neurons display increased lamin B1 levels, in correlation with altered nuclear morphology and nucleocytoplasmic transport disruption. Moreover, ChIP-sequencing analysis shows an alteration of lamin-associated chromatin domains in hippocampal nuclei, accompanied by changes in chromatin accessibility and transcriptional dysregulation. Supporting lamin B1 alterations as a causal role in mutant huntingtin-mediated neurodegeneration, pharmacological normalization of lamin B1 levels in the hippocampus of the R6/1 mouse model of HD by betulinic acid administration restored nuclear homeostasis and prevented motor and cognitive dysfunction. Collectively, our work points increased lamin B1 levels as a new pathogenic mechanism in HD and provides a novel target for its intervention.

+view abstract EMBO molecular medicine, PMID: 33369245 28 Dec 2020

Cook FA, Cook SJ Signalling

The RAS-regulated RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway promotes cell proliferation and survival and RAS and BRAF proteins are commonly mutated in cancer. This has fuelled the development of small molecule kinase inhibitors including ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors. Type I and type I½ ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors are effective in BRAFV600E/K-mutant cancer cells. However, in RAS-mutant cells these compounds instead promote RAS-dependent dimerisation and paradoxical activation of wild-type RAF proteins. RAF dimerisation is mediated by two key regions within each RAF protein; the RKTR motif of the αC-helix and the NtA-region of the dimer partner. Dimer formation requires the adoption of a closed, active kinase conformation which can be induced by RAS-dependent activation of RAF or by the binding of type I and I½ RAF inhibitors. Binding of type I or I½ RAF inhibitors to one dimer partner reduces the binding affinity of the other, thereby leaving a single dimer partner uninhibited and able to activate MEK. To overcome this paradox two classes of drug are currently under development; type II pan-RAF inhibitors that induce RAF dimer formation but bind both dimer partners thus allowing effective inhibition of both wild-type RAF dimer partners and monomeric active class I mutant RAF, and the recently developed "paradox breakers" which interrupt BRAF dimerisation through disruption of the αC-helix. Here we review the regulation of RAF proteins, including RAF dimers, and the progress towards effective targeting of the wild-type RAF proteins.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 33367512 24 Dec 2020

Lehmann LC, Bacic L, Hewitt G, Brackmann K, Sabantsev A, Gaullier G, Pytharopoulou S, Degliesposti G, Okkenhaug H, Tan S, Costa A, Skehel JM, Boulton SJ, Deindl S Imaging

Upon DNA damage, the ALC1/CHD1L nucleosome remodeling enzyme (remodeler) is activated by binding to poly(ADP-ribose). How activated ALC1 recognizes the nucleosome, as well as how this recognition is coupled to remodeling, is unknown. Here, we show that remodeling by ALC1 requires a wild-type acidic patch on the entry side of the nucleosome. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a nucleosome-ALC1 linker complex reveals a regulatory linker segment that binds to the acidic patch. Mutations within this interface alter the dynamics of ALC1 recruitment to DNA damage and impede the ATPase and remodeling activities of ALC1. Full activation requires acidic patch-linker segment interactions that tether the remodeler to the nucleosome and couple ATP hydrolysis to nucleosome mobilization. Upon DNA damage, such a requirement may be used to modulate ALC1 activity via changes in the nucleosome acidic patches.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 33357431 22 Dec 2020

Eckersley-Maslin MA Epigenetics

The concept of cellular plasticity is particularly apt in early embryonic development, where there is a tug-of-war between the stability and flexibility of cell identity. This balance is controlled in part through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic plasticity dictates how malleable cells are to change by adjusting the potential to initiate new transcriptional programmes. The higher the plasticity of a cell, the more readily it can adapt and change its identity in response to external stimuli such as differentiation cues. Epigenetic plasticity is regulated in part through the action of epigenetic priming factors which establish this permissive epigenetic landscape at genomic regulatory elements to enable future transcriptional changes. Recent studies on the DNA binding proteins Developmental Pluripotency Associated 2 and 4 (Dppa2/4) support their roles as epigenetic priming factors in facilitating cell fate transitions. Here, using Dppa2/4 as a case study, the concept of epigenetic plasticity and molecular mechanism of epigenetic priming factors will be explored. Understanding how epigenetic priming factors function is key not only to improve our understanding of the tight control of development, but also to give insights into how this goes awry in diseases of cell identity, such as cancer.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 33336687 18 Dec 2020

Dong X, Yang Y, Zou Z, Zhao Y, Ci B, Zhong L, Bhave M, Wang L, Kuo YC, Zang X, Zhong R, Aguilera ER, Richardson RB, Simonetti B, Schoggins JW, Pfeiffer JK, Yu L, Zhang X, Xie Y, Schmid SL, Xiao G, Gleeson PA, Ktistakis NT, Cullen PJ, Xavier RJ, Levine B Signalling

Autophagy, a process of degradation that occurs via the lysosomal pathway, has an essential role in multiple aspects of immunity, including immune system development, regulation of innate and adaptive immune and inflammatory responses, selective degradation of intracellular microorganisms, and host protection against infectious diseases. Autophagy is known to be induced by stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and suppression of mTOR, but little is known about how autophagosomal biogenesis is initiated in mammalian cells in response to viral infection. Here, using genome-wide short interfering RNA screens, we find that the endosomal protein sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) is essential for virus-induced, but not for basal, stress- or endosome-induced, autophagy. We show that SNX5 deletion increases cellular susceptibility to viral infection in vitro, and that Snx5 knockout in mice enhances lethality after infection with several human viruses. Mechanistically, SNX5 interacts with beclin 1 and ATG14-containing class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3) complex 1 (PI3KC3-C1), increases the lipid kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1, and is required for endosomal generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and recruitment of the PtdIns(3)P-binding protein WIPI2 to virion-containing endosomes. These findings identify a context- and organelle-specific mechanism-SNX5-dependent PI3KC3-C1 activation at endosomes-for initiation of autophagy during viral infection.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 33328639 16 Dec 2020

Saveliev A, Bell SE, Turner M Signalling

Cell migration relies on coordinated activity of chemotactic and guidance receptors. Here, we report a specific role for the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 in limiting the abundance of molecules involved in the homing of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) to the bone marrow (BM). In the absence of ZFP36L1, ASCs build up in the spleen and the liver and show diminished accumulation in the BM. ZFP36L1 facilitates migration by directly regulating G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and the integrin chains α4 and β1 in splenic ASCs. Expression of CXCR4 and of the integrins α4 and β1 is differentially regulated on ASCs produced at the early and late stages of the immune response. Consequently, deletion of the Zfp36l1 gene has a stronger effect on BM accumulation of high-affinity ASCs formed late in the response. Thus, ZFP36L1 is an integral part of the regulatory network controlling gene expression during ASC homing.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 33306108 01 Mar 2021

Yu X, Willmann MR, Vandivier LE, Trefely S, Kramer MC, Shapiro J, Guo R, Lyons E, Snyder NW, Gregory BD Epigenetics

Although eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) normally possess a 5' end N-methyl guanosine (mG) cap, a non-canonical 5' nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cap can tag certain transcripts for degradation mediated by the NAD decapping enzyme DXO1. Despite this importance, whether NAD capping dynamically responds to specific stimuli to regulate eukaryotic transcriptomes remains unknown. Here, we reveal a link between NAD capping and tissue- and hormone response-specific mRNA stability. In the absence of DXO1 function, transcripts displaying a high proportion of NAD capping are instead processed into RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6-dependent small RNAs, resulting in their continued turnover likely to free the NAD molecules. Additionally, the NAD-capped transcriptome is significantly remodeled in response to the essential plant hormone abscisic acid in a mechanism that is primarily independent of DXO1. Overall, our findings reveal a previously uncharacterized and essential role of NAD capping in dynamically regulating transcript stability during specific physiological responses.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 33290723 11 01 2021

Odle RI, Florey O, Ktistakis NT, Cook SJ Signalling

Autophagy and cap-dependent mRNA translation are tightly regulated by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling complex in response to nutrient availability. However, the regulation of these processes, and mTORC1 itself, is different during mitosis, and this has remained an area of significant controversy; for example, studies have argued that autophagy is either repressed or highly active during mitosis. Recent studies have shown that autophagy initiation is repressed, and cap-dependent mRNA translation is maintained during mitosis despite mTORC1 activity being repressed. This is achieved in large part by a switch from mTORC1- to cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated regulation. Here, we review the history and recent advances and seek to present a unifying model to inform the future study of autophagy and mTORC1 during mitosis.

+view abstract Trends in cell biology, PMID: 33272830 30 Nov 2020

Olsen KW, Castillo-Fernandez J, Chan AC, la Cour Freiesleben N, Zedeler A, Bungum M, Cardona A, Perry JRB, Skouby SO, Hoffmann ER, Kelsey G, Grøndahl ML Epigenetics

To investigate whether epigenetic profiles of mural granulosa cells (MGC) and leukocytes from women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from those of women with normal or high ovarian reserve.

+view abstract Fertility and sterility, PMID: 33272626 30 Nov 2020

Olan I, Parry AJ, Schoenfelder S, Narita M, Ito Y, Chan ASL, Slater GSC, Bihary D, Bando M, Shirahige K, Kimura H, Samarajiwa SA, Fraser P, Narita M Epigenetics

Senescence is a state of stable proliferative arrest, generally accompanied by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which modulates tissue homeostasis. Enhancer-promoter interactions, facilitated by chromatin loops, play a key role in gene regulation but their relevance in senescence remains elusive. Here, we use Hi-C to show that oncogenic RAS-induced senescence in human diploid fibroblasts is accompanied by extensive enhancer-promoter rewiring, which is closely connected with dynamic cohesin binding to the genome. We find de novo cohesin peaks often at the 3' end of a subset of active genes. RAS-induced de novo cohesin peaks are transcription-dependent and enriched for senescence-associated genes, exemplified by IL1B, where de novo cohesin binding is involved in new loop formation. Similar IL1B induction with de novo cohesin appearance and new loop formation are observed in terminally differentiated macrophages, but not TNFα-treated cells. These results suggest that RAS-induced senescence represents a cell fate determination-like process characterised by a unique gene expression profile and 3D genome folding signature, mediated in part through cohesin redistribution on chromatin.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 33247104 27 Nov 2020

Ruis P, Van Ly D, Borel V, Kafer GR, McCarthy A, Howell S, Blassberg R, Snijders AP, Briscoe J, Niakan KK, Marzec P, Cesare AJ, Boulton SJ Epigenetics

Mammalian telomeres protect chromosome ends from aberrant DNA repair. TRF2, a component of the telomere-specific shelterin protein complex, facilitates end protection through sequestration of the terminal telomere repeat sequence within a lariat T-loop structure. Deleting TRF2 (also known as TERF2) in somatic cells abolishes T-loop formation, which coincides with telomere deprotection, chromosome end-to-end fusions and inviability. Here we establish that, by contrast, TRF2 is largely dispensable for telomere protection in mouse pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) and epiblast stem cells. ES cell telomeres devoid of TRF2 instead activate an attenuated telomeric DNA damage response that lacks accompanying telomere fusions, and propagate for multiple generations. The induction of telomere dysfunction in ES cells, consistent with somatic deletion of Trf2 (also known as Terf2), occurs only following the removal of the entire shelterin complex. Consistent with TRF2 being largely dispensable for telomere protection specifically during early embryonic development, cells exiting pluripotency rapidly switch to TRF2-dependent end protection. In addition, Trf2-null embryos arrest before implantation, with evidence of strong DNA damage response signalling and apoptosis specifically in the non-pluripotent compartment. Finally, we show that ES cells form T-loops independently of TRF2, which reveals why TRF2 is dispensable for end protection during pluripotency. Collectively, these data establish that telomere protection is solved by distinct mechanisms in pluripotent and somatic tissues.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 33239783 01 2021

Özbey NP, Imanikia S, Krueger C, Hardege I, Morud J, Sheng M, Schafer WR, Casanueva O, Taylor RC Epigenetics

In C. elegans, expression of the UPR transcription factor xbp-1s in neurons cell non-autonomously activates the UPR in the intestine, leading to enhanced proteostasis and lifespan. To better understand this signaling pathway, we isolated neurons from animals expressing neuronal xbp-1s for transcriptomic analysis, revealing a striking remodeling of transcripts involved in neuronal signaling. We then identified signaling molecules required for cell non-autonomous intestinal UPR activation, including the biogenic amine tyramine. Expression of xbp-1s in just two pairs of neurons that synthesize tyramine, the RIM and RIC interneurons, induced intestinal UPR activation and extended longevity, and exposure to stress led to splicing and activation of xbp-1 in these neurons. In addition, we found that neuronal xbp-1s modulates feeding behavior and reproduction, dependent upon tyramine synthesis. XBP-1s therefore remodels neuronal signaling to coordinately modulate intestinal physiology and stress-responsive behavior, functioning as a global regulator of organismal responses to stress.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 33232669 16 Nov 2020

O'Donnell VB, Thomas D, Stanton R, Maillard JY, Murphy RC, Jones SA, Humphreys I, Wakelam MJO, Fegan C, Wise MP, Bosch A, Sattar SA Signalling

Emerging studies increasingly demonstrate the importance of the throat and salivary glands as sites of virus replication and transmission in early COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, characterized by an outer lipid membrane derived from the host cell from which it buds. While it is highly sensitive to agents that disrupt lipid biomembranes, there has been no discussion about the potential role of oral rinsing in preventing transmission. Here, we review known mechanisms of viral lipid membrane disruption by widely available dental mouthwash components that include ethanol, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine. We also assess existing formulations for their potential ability to disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 lipid envelope, based on their concentrations of these agents, and conclude that several deserve clinical evaluation. We highlight that already published research on other enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, directly supports the idea that oral rinsing should be considered as a potential way to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Research to test this could include evaluating existing or specifically tailored new formulations in well-designed viral inactivation assays, then in clinical trials. Population-based interventions could be undertaken with available mouthwashes, with active monitoring of outcome to determine efficacy. This is an under-researched area of major clinical need.

+view abstract Function, PMID: 33215159 2020

Neumann J, Prezzemolo T, Vanderbeke L, Roca CP, Gerbaux M, Janssens S, Willemsen M, Burton O, Van Mol P, Van Herck Y, , Wauters J, Wauters E, Liston A, Humblet-Baron S

The pandemic spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is due, in part, to the immunological properties of the host-virus interaction. The clinical presentation varies from individual to individual, with asymptomatic carriers, mild-to-moderate-presenting patients and severely affected patients. Variation in immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may underlie this clinical variation.

+view abstract Clinical & translational immunology, PMID: 33209300 2020

Castillo-Fernandez J, Herrera-Puerta E, Demond H, Clark SJ, Hanna CW, Hemberger M, Kelsey G Epigenetics

Advancing maternal age causes a progressive reduction in fertility. The decline in developmental competence of the oocyte with age is likely to be a consequence of multiple contributory factors. Loss of epigenetic quality of the oocyte could impair early developmental events or programme adverse outcomes in offspring that manifest only later in life. Here, we undertake joint profiling of the transcriptome and DNA methylome of individual oocytes from reproductively young and old mice undergoing natural ovulation. We find reduced complexity as well as increased variance in the transcriptome of oocytes from aged females. This transcriptome heterogeneity is reflected in the identification of discrete sub-populations. Oocytes with a transcriptome characteristic of immature chromatin configuration (NSN) clustered into two groups: one with reduced developmental competence, as indicated by lower expression of maternal effect genes, and one with a young-like transcriptome. Oocytes from older females had on average reduced CpG methylation, but the characteristic bimodal methylation landscape of the oocyte was preserved. Germline differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes were appropriately methylated irrespective of age. For the majority of differentially expressed transcripts, the absence of correlated methylation changes suggests a post-transcriptional basis for most age-related effects on the transcriptome. However, we did find differences in gene body methylation at which there were corresponding changes in gene expression, indicating age-related effects on transcription that translate into methylation differences. Interestingly, oocytes varied in expression and methylation of these genes, which could contribute to variable competence of oocytes or penetrance of maternal age-related phenotypes in offspring.

+view abstract Aging cell, PMID: 33201571 17 Nov 2020

O'Donnell VB, FitzGerald GA, Murphy RC, Liebisch G, Dennis EA, Quehenberger O, Subramaniam S, Wakelam MJO Signalling, Lipidomics

None listed

+view abstract Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine, PMID: 33196315 16 Nov 2020

Back JB, Chadick CH, Garcia Vallejo JJ, Orlowski-Oliver E, Patel R, Roe CE, Srivastava J, Walker RV Flow Cytometry

Undoubtedly, the global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has had a significant impact on Shared Resource Laboratories (SRL) operations worldwide. Unlike other crises (e.g. natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism) which often result in a sudden and sustained cessation of scientific research usually affecting one or two cities at a time, this impact is being seen simultaneously in every SRL worldwide albeit to a varying degree. The alterations to SRL operations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic can generally be divided into three categories: i) complete shutdown, ii) partial shutdown, and iii) uninterrupted operations. In many cases SRLs which remained partially or fully operational during the initial wave of global infections saw a concurrent increase in COVID-19-related research coming through their facilities. This forced SRLs to make rapid adjustments to core operations at the same time as infectious disease experts were still developing recommendations for the safety of frontline medical workers. Although many SRLs already had contingency plans in place, this pandemic has highlighted the importance of having such plans for continuity of service, if possible, during a crisis. Immediate changes have occurred in the way SRLs operate due to potential virus transmission and in line with this new "Best Practices" have been established i.e. social distancing, remote working and technology-based meetings and training. Many of these changes are likely to be in place for some time with the threat of further waves of infections toward the end of 2020 and into 2021. Some of these best practices, such as having many training resources recorded and available online, are likely to remain long term. Although many changes have been made in haste, these will alter the future operations of SRLs. In addition we have learnt how to deal with future crises that may be encountered in the workplace.

+view abstract Cytometry, PMID: 33175466 11 Nov 2020

Iacono A, Pompa A, De Marchis F, Panfili E, Greco FA, Coletti A, Orabona C, Volpi C, Belladonna ML, Mondanelli G, Albini E, Vacca C, Gargaro M, Fallarino F, Bianchi R, De Marcos Lousa C, Mazza EM, Bicciato S, Proietti E, Milano F, Martelli MP, Iamandii IM, Graupera Garcia-Mila M, Llena Sopena J, Hawkins P, Suire S, Okkenhaug K, Stark AK, Grassi F, Bellucci M, Puccetti P, Santambrogio L, Macchiarulo A, Grohmann U, Pallotta MT Signalling

Knowledge of a protein's spatial dynamics at the subcellular level is key to understanding its function(s), interactions, and associated intracellular events. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a cytosolic enzyme that controls immune responses via tryptophan metabolism, mainly through its enzymic activity. When phosphorylated, however, IDO1 acts as a signaling molecule in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), thus activating genomic effects, ultimately leading to long-lasting immunosuppression. Whether the two activities-namely, the catalytic and signaling functions-are spatially segregated has been unclear. We found that, under conditions favoring signaling rather than catabolic events, IDO1 shifts from the cytosol to early endosomes. The event requires interaction with class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), which become activated, resulting in full expression of the immunoregulatory phenotype in vivo in pDCs as resulting from IDO1-dependent signaling events. Thus, IDO1's spatial dynamics meet the needs for short-acting as well as durable mechanisms of immune suppression, both under acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. These data expand the theoretical basis for an IDO1-centered therapy in inflammation and autoimmunity.

+view abstract EMBO reports, PMID: 33159421 07 Nov 2020

Vardaka P, Lozano T, Bot C, Ellery J, Whiteside SK, Imianowski CJ, Farrow S, Walker S, Okkenhaug H, Yang J, Okkenhaug K, Kuo P, Roychoudhuri R Immunology, Imaging

Whereas effector CD4 and CD8 T cells promote immune activation and can drive clearance of infections and cancer, CD4 regulatory T (T) cells suppress their function, contributing to both immune homeostasis and cancer immunosuppression. The transcription factor BACH2 functions as a pervasive regulator of T cell differentiation, promoting development of CD4 T cells and suppressing the effector functions of multiple effector T cell (T) lineages. Here, we report the development of a stable cell-based bioluminescence assay of the transcription factor activity of BACH2. Tetracycline-inducible BACH2 expression resulted in suppression of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-driven activation of a luciferase reporter containing BACH2/AP-1 target sequences from the mouse Ifng + 18k enhancer. BACH2 expression repressed the luciferase signal in a dose-dependent manner but this activity was abolished at high levels of AP-1 signalling, suggesting contextual regulation of AP-1 driven gene expression by BACH2. Finally, using the reporter assay developed, we find that the histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-selective inhibitor, RGFP966, inhibits BACH2-mediated repression of signal-driven luciferase expression. In addition to enabling mechanistic studies, this cell-based reporter may enable identification of small molecule agonists or antagonists of BACH2 function for drug development.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 33144667 03 Nov 2020

Rynkiewicz NK, Anderson KE, Suire S, Collins DM, Karanasios E, Vadas O, Williams R, Oxley D, Clark J, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT Signalling, Mass Spectrometry, Biological Chemistry

The PI3Kγ isoform is activated by Gi-coupled GPCRs in myeloid cells, but the extent to which the two endogenous complexes of PI3Kγ, p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ, receive direct regulation through Gβγ or indirect regulation through RAS and the sufficiency of those inputs is controversial or unclear. We generated mice with point mutations that prevent Gβγ binding to p110γ (RK552DD) or to p101 (VVKR777AAAA) and investigated the effects of these mutations in primary neutrophils and in mouse models of neutrophilic inflammation. Loss of Gβγ binding to p110γ substantially reduced the activation of both p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ in neutrophils by various GPCR agonists. Loss of Gβγ binding to p101 caused more variable effects, depending on both the agonist and cellular response, with the biggest reductions seen in PIP production by primary neutrophils in response to LTB4 and MIP-2 and in the migration of neutrophils during thioglycolate-induced peritonitis or MIP2-induced ear pouch inflammation. We also observed that p101 neutrophils showed enhanced p84-dependent ROS responses to MLP and C5a, suggesting that competition may exist between p101/p110γ and p84/p110γ for Gβγ subunits downstream of GPCR activation. GPCRs did not activate p110γ in neutrophils from mice lacking both the p101 and p84 regulatory subunits, indicating that RAS binding to p110γ is insufficient to support GPCR activation in this cell type. These findings define a direct role for Gβγ subunits in activating both of the endogenous PI3Kγ complexes and indicate that the regulatory PI3Kγ subunit biases activation toward different GPCRs.

+view abstract Science signaling, PMID: 33144519 03 Nov 2020

Johnston HE, Samant RS Signalling

Protein misfolding is a major driver of ageing-associated frailty and disease pathology. Although all cells possess multiple, well-characterised protein quality control systems to mitigate the toxicity of misfolded proteins, how they are integrated to maintain protein homeostasis ('proteostasis') in health-and how their dis-integration contributes to disease-is still an exciting and fast-paced area of research. Under physiological conditions, the predominant route for misfolded protein clearance involves ubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation. When the capacity of this route is overwhelmed-as happens during conditions of acute environmental stress, or chronic ageing-related decline-alternative routes for protein quality control are activated. In this review, we summarise our current understanding of how proteasome-targeted misfolded proteins are re-trafficked to alternative protein quality control routes such as juxta-nuclear sequestration and selective autophagy when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is compromised. We also discuss the molecular determinants of these alternative protein quality control systems, attempt to clarify distinctions between various cytoplasmic spatial quality control inclusion bodies (e.g., Q-bodies, p62-bodies, JUNQ, aggresomes, and aggresome-like induced structures 'ALIS'), and speculate on emerging concepts in the field that we hope will spur future research-with the potential to benefit the rational development of healthy ageing strategies.

+view abstract The FEBS journal, PMID: 33135311 01 Nov 2020

Staels F, Betrains A, Doubel P, Willemsen M, Cleemput V, Vanderschueren S, Corveleyn A, Meyts I, Sprangers B, Crow YJ, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Schrijvers R Immunology

STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to gain-of-function mutations in , also known as , encoding for STING. It was reported as a vasculopathy of infancy. However, since its description a wider spectrum of associated manifestations and disease-onset has been observed. We report a kindred with a heterozygous STING mutation (p.V155M) in which the 19-year-old proband suffered from isolated adult-onset ANCA-associated vasculitis. His father suffered from childhood-onset pulmonary fibrosis and renal failure attributed to ANCA-associated vasculitis, and died at the age of 30 years due to respiratory failure. In addition, an overview of the phenotypic spectrum of SAVI is provided highlighting (a) a high phenotypic variability with in some cases isolated manifestations, (b) the potential of adult-onset disease, and (c) a novel manifestation with ANCA-associated vasculitis.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 33133092 2020

Evano B, Gill D, Hernando-Herraez I, Comai G, Stubbs TM, Commere PH, Reik W, Tajbakhsh S Epigenetics

Adult skeletal muscles are maintained during homeostasis and regenerated upon injury by muscle stem cells (MuSCs). A heterogeneity in self-renewal, differentiation and regeneration properties has been reported for MuSCs based on their anatomical location. Although MuSCs derived from extraocular muscles (EOM) have a higher regenerative capacity than those derived from limb muscles, the molecular determinants that govern these differences remain undefined. Here we show that EOM and limb MuSCs have distinct DNA methylation signatures associated with enhancers of location-specific genes, and that the EOM transcriptome is reprogrammed following transplantation into a limb muscle environment. Notably, EOM MuSCs expressed host-site specific positional Hox codes after engraftment and self-renewal within the host muscle. However, about 10% of EOM-specific genes showed engraftment-resistant expression, pointing to cell-intrinsic molecular determinants of the higher engraftment potential of EOM MuSCs. Our results underscore the molecular diversity of distinct MuSC populations and molecularly define their plasticity in response to microenvironmental cues. These findings provide insights into strategies designed to improve the functional capacity of MuSCs in the context of regenerative medicine.

+view abstract PLoS genetics, PMID: 33125370 30 Oct 2020

Zachari M, Gudmundsson SR, Li Z, Manifava M, Cugliandolo F, Shah R, Smith M, Stronge J, Karanasios E, Piunti C, Kishi-Itakura C, Vihinen H, Jokitalo E, Guan JL, Buss F, Smith AM, Walker SA, Eskelinen EL, Ktistakis NT Signalling

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+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 33108756 26 Oct 2020

Srijakotre N, Liu HJ, Nobis M, Man J, Yip HYK, Papa A, Abud HE, Anderson KI, Welch HCE, Tiganis T, Timpson P, McLean CA, Ooms LM, Mitchell CA Signalling

The Rac-GEF, P-Rex1, activates Rac1 signaling downstream of G protein-coupled receptors and PI3K. Increased P-Rex1 expression promotes melanoma progression; however, its role in breast cancer is complex, with differing reports of the effect of its expression on disease outcome. To address this we analyzed human databases, undertook gene array expression analysis, and generated unique murine models of P-Rex1 gain or loss of function. Analysis of mRNA expression in breast cancer cDNA arrays and a METABRIC cohort revealed that higher mRNA in ER/luminal tumors was associated with poor outcome in luminal B cancers. deletion in MMTV- or MMTV- mice reduced Rac1 activation in vivo and improved survival. High level MMTVdriven transgenic expression resulted in apicobasal polarity defects and increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation associated with hyperplasia and development of de novo mammary tumors. MMTV- expression in MMTV- mice increased tumor initiation and enhanced metastasis in vivo, but had no effect on primary tumor growth. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 or MEK1/2 reduced P-Rex1-driven tumoroid formation and cell invasion. Therefore, P-Rex1 can act as an oncogene and cooperate with HER2/neu to enhance breast cancer initiation and metastasis, despite having no effect on primary tumor growth.

+view abstract PNAS, PMID: 33097662 23 Oct 2020

Bevan S, Schoenfelder S, Young RJ, Zhang L, Andrews S, Fraser P, O'Callaghan PM Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines are the pillars of a multi-billion dollar biopharmaceutical industry producing recombinant therapeutic proteins. The effects of local chromatin organisation and epigenetic repression within these cell lines result in unpredictable and unstable transgene expression following random integration. Limited knowledge of the CHO genome and its higher-order chromatin organisation has thus far impeded functional genomics approaches required to tackle these issues. Here, we present an integrative three-dimensional (3D) map of genome organisation within the CHOK1SV® 10E9 cell line in conjunction with an improved, less fragmented CHOK1SV® 10E9 genome assembly. Using our high-resolution chromatin conformation datasets, we have assigned ≈ 90% of sequence to a chromosome-scale genome assembly. Our genome-wide 3D map identifies higher-order chromatin structures such as topologically associated domains, incorporates our chromatin accessibility data to enhance the identification of active cis-regulatory elements and importantly links these cis-regulatory elements to target promoters in a 3D promoter interactome. We demonstrate the power of our improved functional annotation by evaluating the 3D landscape of a transgene integration site and two phenotypically different cell lines. Our work opens up further novel genome engineering targets, has the potential to inform vital improvements for industrial biotherapeutic production, and represents a significant advancement for CHO cell line development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract Biotechnology and bioengineering, PMID: 33095445 23 Oct 2020

Turner JA, Stephen-Victor E, Wang S, Rivas MN, Abdel-Gadir A, Harb H, Cui Y, Fanny M, Charbonnier LM, Fong JJH, Benamar M, Wang L, Burton OT, Bansal K, Bry L, Zhu C, Li QZ, Clement RL, Oettgen HC, Crestani E, Rachid R, Sage PT, Chatila TA Immunology

The mechanisms by which regulatory T (Treg) cells differentially control allergic and autoimmune responses remain unclear. We show that Treg cells in food allergy (FA) had decreased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) because of interleukin-4 (IL-4)- and signal transducer and activator of transciription-6 (STAT6)-dependent inhibition of Tgfb1 transcription. These changes were modeled by Treg cell-specific Tgfb1 monoallelic inactivation, which induced allergic dysregulation by impairing microbiota-dependent retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR-γt) Treg cell differentiation. This dysregulation was rescued by treatment with Clostridiales species, which upregulated Tgfb1 expression in Treg cells. Biallelic deficiency precipitated fatal autoimmunity with intense autoantibody production and dysregulated T follicular helper and B cell responses. These results identify a privileged role of Treg cell-derived TGF-β1 in regulating allergy and autoimmunity at distinct checkpoints in a Tgfb1 gene dose- and microbiota-dependent manner.

+view abstract Immunity, PMID: 33086036 14 Oct 2020

Monteagudo-Sánchez A, Hernandez Mora JR, Simon C, Burton A, Tenorio J, Lapunzina P, Clark S, Esteller M, Kelsey G, López-Siguero JP, de Nanclares GP, Torres-Padilla ME, Monk D Epigenetics

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process regulated by germline-derived DNA methylation that is resistant to embryonic reprogramming, resulting in parental origin-specific monoallelic gene expression. A subset of individuals affected by imprinting disorders (IDs) displays multi-locus imprinting disturbances (MLID), which may result from aberrant establishment of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in gametes or their maintenance in early embryogenesis. Here we investigated the extent of MLID in a family harbouring a ZFP57 truncating variant and characterize the interactions between human ZFP57 and the KAP1 co-repressor complex. By ectopically targeting ZFP57 to reprogrammed loci in mouse embryos using a dCas9 approach, we confirm that ZFP57 recruitment is sufficient to protect oocyte-derived methylation from reprogramming. Expression profiling in human pre-implantation embryos and oocytes reveals that unlike in mice, ZFP57 is only expressed following embryonic-genome activation, implying that other KRAB-zinc finger proteins (KZNFs) recruit KAP1 prior to blastocyst formation. Furthermore, we uncover ZNF202 and ZNF445 as additional KZNFs likely to recruit KAP1 to imprinted loci during reprogramming in the absence of ZFP57. Together, these data confirm the perplexing link between KZFPs and imprint maintenance and highlight the differences between mouse and humans in this respect.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 33053156 14 Oct 2020

Liebisch G, Fahy E, Aoki J, Dennis EA, Durand T, Ejsing C, Fedorova M, Feussner I, Griffiths WJ, Koefeler H, Merrill AH, Murphy RC, O'Donnell VB, Oskolkova OV, Subramaniam S, Wakelam M, Spener F Signalling

A comprehensive and standardized system to report lipid structures analyzed by mass spectrometry is essential for the communication and storage of lipidomics data. Herein, an update on both the LIPID MAPS classification system and shorthand notation of lipid structures is presented for lipid categories Fatty Acyls (FA), Glycerolipids (GL), Glycerophospholipids (GP), Sphingolipids (SP), and Sterols (ST). With its major changes, i.e. annotation of ring double bond equivalents and number of oxygens, the updated shorthand notation facilitates reporting of newly delineated oxygenated lipid species as well. For standardized reporting in lipidomics, the hierarchical architecture of shorthand notation reflects the diverse structural resolution powers provided by mass spectrometric assays. Moreover, shorthand notation is expanded beyond mammalian phyla to lipids from plant and yeast phyla. Finally, annotation of atoms is included for the use of stable isotope-labelled compounds in metabolic labelling experiments or as internal standards.This update on lipid classification, nomenclature and shorthand annotation for lipid mass spectra is considered a standard for lipid data presentation.

+view abstract Journal of lipid research, PMID: 33037133 09 Oct 2020

Cron MA, Payet CA, Fayet OM, Maillard S, Truffault F, Fadel E, Guihaire J, Berrih-Aknin S, Liston A, Le Panse R Immunology

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease mainly mediated by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. The thymus is the effector organ, and its removal alleviates the symptoms of the disease. In the early-onset form of MG, the thymus displays functional and morphological abnormalities such as B cell infiltration leading to follicular hyperplasia, and the production of AChR antibodies. Type-I interferon (IFN-I), especially IFN-β, is the orchestrator of thymic changes observed in MG. As Dicer and miR-29 subtypes play a role in modulating the IFN-I signalization in mouse thymus, we investigated their expression in MG thymus.

+view abstract Journal of neuroinflammation, PMID: 33032631 08 Oct 2020

Alvarez-Jarreta J, Rodrigues PRS, Fahy E, O'Connor A, Price A, Gaud C, Andrews S, Benton P, Siuzdak G, Hawksworth JI, Valdivia-Garcia M, Allen SM, O'Donnell VB Bioinformatics

We present LipidFinder 2.0, incorporating four new modules that apply artefact filters, remove lipid and contaminant stacks, in-source fragments and salt clusters, and a new isotope deletion method which is significantly more sensitive than available open-access alternatives. We also incorporate a novel false discovery rate (FDR) method, utilizing a target-decoy strategy, which allows users to assess data quality. A renewed lipid profiling method is introduced which searches three different databases from LIPID MAPS and returns bulk lipid structures only, and a lipid category scatter plot with color blind friendly pallet. An API interface with XCMS Online is made available on LipidFinder's online version. We show using real data that LipidFinder 2.0 provides a significant improvement over non-lipid metabolite filtering and lipid profiling, compared to available tools.

+view abstract Bioinformatics, PMID: 33027502 07 Oct 2020

Parry A, Rulands S, Reik W Epigenetics

DNA methylation is a key layer of epigenetic regulation. The deposition of methylation marks relies on the catalytic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and their active removal relies on the activity of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. Paradoxically, in important biological contexts these antagonistic factors are co-expressed and target overlapping genomic regions. The ensuing cyclic biochemistry of cytosine modifications gives rise to a continuous, out-of-thermal equilibrium transition through different methylation states. But what is the purpose of this intriguing turnover of DNA methylation? Recent evidence demonstrates that methylation turnover is enriched at gene distal regulatory elements, including enhancers, and can give rise to large-scale oscillatory dynamics. We discuss this phenomenon and propose that DNA methylation turnover might facilitate key lineage decisions.

+view abstract Nature reviews. Genetics, PMID: 33024290 06 Oct 2020

Gerri C, Menchero S, Mahadevaiah SK, Turner JMA, Niakan KK Epigenetics

Understanding human embryology has historically relied on comparative approaches using mammalian model organisms. With the advent of low-input methods to investigate genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and efficient techniques to assess gene function, we can now study the human embryo directly. These advances have transformed the investigation of early embryogenesis in nonrodent species, thereby providing a broader understanding of conserved and divergent mechanisms. Here, we present an overview of the major events in human preimplantation development and place them in the context of mammalian evolution by comparing these events in other eutherian and metatherian species. We describe the advances of studies on postimplantation development and discuss stem cell models that mimic postimplantation embryos. A comparative perspective highlights the importance of analyzing different organisms with molecular characterization and functional studies to reveal the principles of early development. This growing field has a fundamental impact in regenerative medicine and raises important ethical considerations.

+view abstract Annual review of cell and developmental biology, PMID: 33021826 06 10 2020

Streeter MD, Rowan S, Ray J, McDonald DM, Volkin J, Clark J, Taylor A, Spiegel DA Biological Chemistry

Although there is ample evidence that the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) glucosepane contributes to age-related morbidities and diabetic complications, the impact of glucosepane modifications on proteins has not been extensively explored due to the lack of sufficient analytical tools. Here, we report the development of the first polyclonal anti-glucosepane antibodies using a synthetic immunogen that contains the core bicyclic ring structure of glucosepane. We investigate the recognition properties of these antibodies through ELISAs involving an array of synthetic AGE derivatives and determine them to be both high-affinity and selective in binding glucosepane. We then employ these antibodies to image glucosepane in aging mouse retinae via immunohistochemistry. Our studies demonstrate for the first time accumulation of glucosepane within the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choroid: all regions of the eye impacted by age-related macular degeneration. Co-localization studies further suggest that glucosepane colocalizes with lipofuscin, which has previously been associated with lysosomal dysfunction and has been implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration, among other diseases. We believe that the anti-glucosepane antibodies described in this study will prove highly useful for examining the role of glycation in human health and disease.

+view abstract ACS chemical biology, PMID: 32975399 07 Oct 2020

Ili C, Buchegger K, Demond H, Castillo-Fernandez J, Kelsey G, Zanella L, Abanto M, Riquelme I, López J, Viscarra T, García P, Bellolio E, Saavedra D, Brebi P Epigenetics

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease caused by both genetic and epigenetics factors. Analysing DNA methylation changes occurring during colorectal cancer progression and metastasis formation is crucial for the identification of novel epigenetic markers of patient prognosis. Genome-wide methylation sequencing of paired samples of colon (normal adjacent, primary tumour and lymph node metastasis) showed global hypomethylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation of primary tumours compared to normal. In metastasis we observed high global and non-CGI regions methylation, but lower CGI methylation, compared to primary tumours. Gene ontology analysis showed shared biological processes between hypermethylated CGIs in metastasis and primary tumours. After complementary analysis with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, , , , and genes were found associated with poor survival. We mapped the methylation landscape of colon normal tissues, primary tumours and lymph node metastasis, being capable of identified methylation changes throughout the genome. Furthermore, we found five genes with potential for methylation biomarkers of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

+view abstract Cancers, PMID: 32971738 22 Sep 2020

Gerri C, McCarthy A, Alanis-Lobato G, Demtschenko A, Bruneau A, Loubersac S, Fogarty NME, Hampshire D, Elder K, Snell P, Christie L, David L, Van de Velde H, Fouladi-Nashta AA, Niakan KK Epigenetics

Current understandings of cell specification in early mammalian pre-implantation development are based mainly on mouse studies. The first lineage differentiation event occurs at the morula stage, with outer cells initiating a trophectoderm (TE) placental progenitor program. The inner cell mass arises from inner cells during subsequent developmental stages and comprises precursor cells of the embryo proper and yolk sac. Recent gene-expression analyses suggest that the mechanisms that regulate early lineage specification in the mouse may differ in other mammals, including human and cow. Here we show the evolutionary conservation of a molecular cascade that initiates TE segregation in human, cow and mouse embryos. At the morula stage, outer cells acquire an apical-basal cell polarity, with expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) at the contact-free domain, nuclear expression of Hippo signalling pathway effectors and restricted expression of TE-associated factors such as GATA3, which suggests initiation of a TE program. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inhibition of aPKC by small-molecule pharmacological modulation or Trim-Away protein depletion impairs TE initiation at the morula stage. Our comparative embryology analysis provides insights into early lineage specification and suggests that a similar mechanism initiates a TE program in human, cow and mouse embryos.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32968278 11 2020

Varner EL, Trefely S, Bartee D, von Krusenstiern E, Izzo L, Bekeova C, O'Connor RS, Seifert EL, Wellen KE, Meier JL, Snyder NW Epigenetics

Lysine lactoylation is a recently described protein post-translational modification (PTM). However, the biochemical pathways responsible for this acylation remain unclear. Two metabolite-dependent mechanisms have been proposed: enzymatic histone lysine lactoylation derived from lactoyl-coenzyme A (lactoyl-CoA, also termed lactyl-CoA), and non-enzymatic lysine lactoylation resulting from acyl-transfer via lactoyl-glutathione. While the former has precedent in the form of enzyme-catalysed lysine acylation, the lactoyl-CoA metabolite has not been previously quantified in mammalian systems. Here, we use liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) together with a synthetic standard to detect and validate the presence of lactoyl-CoA in cell and tissue samples. Conducting a retrospective analysis of data from previously analysed samples revealed the presence of lactoyl-CoA in diverse cell and tissue contexts. In addition, we describe a biosynthetic route to generate CN-isotopically labelled lactoyl-CoA, providing a co-eluting internal standard for analysis of this metabolite. We estimate lactoyl-CoA concentrations of 1.14 × 10 pmol per cell in cell culture and 0.0172 pmol mg tissue wet weight in mouse heart. These levels are similar to crotonyl-CoA, but between 20 and 350 times lower than predominant acyl-CoAs such as acetyl-, propionyl- and succinyl-CoA. Overall our studies provide the first quantitative measurements of lactoyl-CoA in metazoans, and provide a methodological foundation for the interrogation of this novel metabolite in biology and disease.

+view abstract Open biology, PMID: 32961073 09 2020

Rönkkö J, Molchanova S, Revah-Politi A, Pereira EM, Auranen M, Toppila J, Kvist J, Ludwig A, Neumann J, Bultynck G, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Paetau A, Rivera C, Harms MB, Tyynismaa H, Ylikallio E Immunology

ITPR3, encoding inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3, was previously reported as a potential candidate disease gene for Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. Here, we present genetic and functional evidence that ITPR3 is a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease gene.

+view abstract Annals of clinical and translational neurology, PMID: 32949214 19 Sep 2020

Galvão A, Kelsey G Epigenetics

Single-cell bisulfite sequencing (scBS-seq) enables profiling of DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution and across all genomic features. It can explore methylation differences between cells in mixed cell populations and profile methylation in very rare cell types, such as mammalian oocytes and cells from early embryos. Here, we outline the scBS-seq protocol in a 96-well plate format applicable to studies of moderate throughput.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 32944913 2021

Rayon T, Stamataki D, Perez-Carrasco R, Garcia-Perez L, Barrington C, Melchionda M, Exelby K, Lazaro J, Tybulewicz VLJ, Fisher EMC, Briscoe J Epigenetics

Although many molecular mechanisms controlling developmental processes are evolutionarily conserved, the speed at which the embryo develops can vary substantially between species. For example, the same genetic program, comprising sequential changes in transcriptional states, governs the differentiation of motor neurons in mouse and human, but the tempo at which it operates differs between species. Using in vitro directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to motor neurons, we show that the program runs more than twice as fast in mouse as in human. This is not due to differences in signaling, nor the genomic sequence of genes or their regulatory elements. Instead, there is an approximately two-fold increase in protein stability and cell cycle duration in human cells compared with mouse cells. This can account for the slower pace of human development and suggests that differences in protein turnover play a role in interspecies differences in developmental tempo.

+view abstract Science, PMID: 32943498 18 09 2020

Staels F, Betrains A, Willemsen M, Corvelyn A, Tousseyn T, Dierickx D, Humblet-Baron S, Liston A, Vanderschueren S, Schrijvers R Immunology

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+view abstract Rheumatology, PMID: 32940674 17 Sep 2020

Ross SH, Cantrell DA Immunology

Personalized medicines require understanding the molecular causes of disease. In this issue of Immunity, Gruber et al. reveal that a gain-of-function JAK1 genetic variant results in a mutant protein with mosaic expression that drives multi-organ immune dysregulation via kinase dependent and independent mechanisms. The work highlights how biochemistry can inform therapies to resolve complex immune disorders.

+view abstract Immunity, PMID: 32937149 15 Sep 2020

Cook SJ, Tucker JA, Lochhead PA Signalling

ERK5 is a protein kinase that also contains a nuclear localisation signal and a transcriptional transactivation domain. Inhibition of ERK5 has therapeutic potential in cancer and inflammation and this has prompted the development of ERK5 kinase inhibitors (ERK5i). However, few ERK5i programmes have taken account of the ERK5 transactivation domain. We have recently shown that the binding of small molecule ERK5i to the ERK5 kinase domain stimulates nuclear localisation and paradoxical activation of its transactivation domain. Other kinase inhibitors paradoxically activate their intended kinase target, in some cases leading to severe physiological consequences highlighting the importance of mitigating these effects. Here, we review the assays used to monitor ERK5 activities (kinase and transcriptional) in cells, the challenges faced in development of small molecule inhibitors to the ERK5 pathway, and classify the molecular mechanisms of paradoxical activation of protein kinases by kinase inhibitors.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 32915196 30 10 2020

Rajewsky N, Almouzni G, Gorski SA, Aerts S, Amit I, Bertero MG, Bock C, Bredenoord AL, Cavalli G, Chiocca S, Clevers H, De Strooper B, Eggert A, Ellenberg J, Fernández XM, Figlerowicz M, Gasser SM, Hubner N, Kjems J, Knoblich JA, Krabbe G, Lichter P, Linnarsson S, Marine JC, Marioni J, Marti-Renom MA, Netea MG, Nickel D, Nollmann M, Novak HR, Parkinson H, Piccolo S, Pinheiro I, Pombo A, Popp C, Reik W, Roman-Roman S, Rosenstiel P, Schultze JL, Stegle O, Tanay A, Testa G, Thanos D, Theis FJ, Torres-Padilla ME, Valencia A, Vallot C, van Oudenaarden A, Vidal M, Voet T, Epigenetics

LifeTime aims to track, understand and target human cells during the onset and progression of complex diseases and their response to therapy at single-cell resolution. This mission will be implemented through the development and integration of single-cell multi-omics and imaging, artificial intelligence and patient-derived experimental disease models during progression from health to disease. Analysis of such large molecular and clinical datasets will discover molecular mechanisms, create predictive computational models of disease progression, and reveal new drug targets and therapies. Timely detection and interception of disease embedded in an ethical and patient-centered vision will be achieved through interactions across academia, hospitals, patient-associations, health data management systems and industry. Applying this strategy to key medical challenges in cancer, neurological, infectious, chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases at the single-cell level will usher in cell-based interceptive medicine in Europe over the next decade.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32894860 07 Sep 2020

Yu JJS, Maugarny-Calès A, Pelletier S, Alexandre C, Bellaiche Y, Vincent JP, McGough IJ Signalling

Planar cell polarity (PCP) organizes the orientation of cellular protrusions and migratory activity within the tissue plane. PCP establishment involves the subcellular polarization of core PCP components. It has been suggested that Wnt gradients could provide a global cue that coordinates local PCP with tissue axes. Here, we dissect the role of Wnt ligands in the orientation of hairs of Drosophila wings, an established system for the study of PCP. We found that PCP was normal in quintuple mutant wings that rely solely on the membrane-tethered Wingless for Wnt signaling, suggesting that a Wnt gradient is not required. We then used a nanobody-based approach to trap Wntless in the endoplasmic reticulum, and hence prevent all Wnt secretion, specifically during the period of PCP establishment. PCP was still established. We conclude that, even though Wnt ligands could contribute to PCP, they are not essential, and another global cue must exist for tissue-wide polarization.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 32888416 14 09 2020

Guarnieri G, Sarchielli E, Comeglio P, Herrera-Puerta E, Piaceri I, Nacmias B, Benelli M, Kelsey G, Maggi M, Gallina P, Vannelli GB, Morelli A Epigenetics

TNFα is the main proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, but it also modulates physiological functions in both the developing and adult brain. In this study, we investigated a potential direct role of TNFα in determining phenotypic changes of a recently established cellular model of human basal forebrain cholinergic neuroblasts isolated from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (hfNBMs). Exposing hfNBMs to TNFα reduced the expression of immature markers, such as nestin and β-tubulin III, and inhibited primary cilium formation. On the contrary, TNFα increased the expression of TNFα receptor TNFR2 and the mature neuron marker MAP2, also promoting neurite elongation. Moreover, TNFα affected nerve growth factor receptor expression. We also found that TNFα induced the expression of DNA-methylation enzymes and, accordingly, downregulated genes involved in neuronal development through epigenetic mechanisms, as demonstrated by methylome analysis. In summary, TNFα showed a dual role on hfNBMs phenotypic plasticity, exerting a negative influence on neurogenesis despite a positive effect on differentiation, through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Our results help to clarify the complexity of TNFα effects in human neurons and suggest that manipulation of TNFα signaling could provide a potential therapeutic approach against neurodegenerative disorders.

+view abstract International journal of molecular sciences, PMID: 32854421 25 Aug 2020

Keating SM, Waltemath D, König M, Zhang F, Dräger A, Chaouiya C, Bergmann FT, Finney A, Gillespie CS, Helikar T, Hoops S, Malik-Sheriff RS, Moodie SL, Moraru II, Myers CJ, Naldi A, Olivier BG, Sahle S, Schaff JC, Smith LP, Swat MJ, Thieffry D, Watanabe L, Wilkinson DJ, Blinov ML, Begley K, Faeder JR, Gómez HF, Hamm TM, Inagaki Y, Liebermeister W, Lister AL, Lucio D, Mjolsness E, Proctor CJ, Raman K, Rodriguez N, Shaffer CA, Shapiro BE, Stelling J, Swainston N, Tanimura N, Wagner J, Meier-Schellersheim M, Sauro HM, Palsson B, Bolouri H, Kitano H, Funahashi A, Hermjakob H, Doyle JC, Hucka M,

Systems biology has experienced dramatic growth in the number, size, and complexity of computational models. To reproduce simulation results and reuse models, researchers must exchange unambiguous model descriptions. We review the latest edition of the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), a format designed for this purpose. A community of modelers and software authors developed SBML Level 3 over the past decade. Its modular form consists of a core suited to representing reaction-based models and packages that extend the core with features suited to other model types including constraint-based models, reaction-diffusion models, logical network models, and rule-based models. The format leverages two decades of SBML and a rich software ecosystem that transformed how systems biologists build and interact with models. More recently, the rise of multiscale models of whole cells and organs, and new data sources such as single-cell measurements and live imaging, has precipitated new ways of integrating data with models. We provide our perspectives on the challenges presented by these developments and how SBML Level 3 provides the foundation needed to support this evolution.

+view abstract Molecular systems biology, PMID: 32845085 Aug 2020

Kelsey G Epigenetics

No abstract available

+view abstract Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, PMID: 32839539 24 Aug 2020

Schacker M, Cheng YH, Eckersley-Maslin M, Snaith RM, Colledge WH Epigenetics

Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have played a crucial role in biomedical research where they can be used to elucidate gene function through the generation of genetically modified mice. A critical requirement for the success of this technology is the ability of ESCs to contribute to viable chimaeras with germ-line transmission of the genetically modified allele. We have identified several ESC clones that cause embryonic death of chimaeras at mid to late gestation stages. These clones had a normal karyotype, were pathogen free and their in vitro differentiation potential was not compromised. Chimaeric embryos developed normally up to E13.5 but showed a significant decrease in embryo survival by E17.5 with frequent haemorrhaging. We investigated the relationship between the ESCs transcriptional and epigenomic state and their ability to contribute to viable chimaeras. RNA sequencing identified four genes (Gtl2, Rian, Mirg and Rtl1as) located in the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus that were expressed at lower levels in the compromised ESC clones and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Bisulphite sequencing analysis showed significant hypermethylation at the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus with no consistent differences in methylation patterns at other imprinted loci. Treatment of the compromised ESCs with 5-azacytidine reactivated stable expression of Gtl2 and rescued the lethal phenotype but only gave low level chimaeras.

+view abstract Stem cell research, PMID: 32822966 29 Jul 2020

Linterman MA Immunology

T cell regulation of antibody-mediated immunity is critical for health. In this issue of JEM, Li et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191537) identify the Cbl family of E3 ubiquitin ligases as B cell-intrinsic gatekeepers of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 32813871 07 Sep 2020

Ortmann D, Brown S, Czechanski A, Aydin S, Muraro D, Huang Y, Tomaz RA, Osnato A, Canu G, Wesley BT, Skelly DA, Stegle O, Choi T, Churchill GA, Baker CL, Rugg-Gunn PJ, Munger SC, Reinholdt LG, Vallier L Epigenetics

Variability among pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines is a prevailing issue that hampers not only experimental reproducibility but also large-scale applications and personalized cell-based therapy. This variability could result from epigenetic and genetic factors that influence stem cell behavior. Naive culture conditions minimize epigenetic fluctuation, potentially overcoming differences in PSC line differentiation potential. Here we derived PSCs from distinct mouse strains under naive conditions and show that lines from distinct genetic backgrounds have divergent differentiation capacity, confirming a major role for genetics in PSC phenotypic variability. This is explained in part through inconsistent activity of extra-cellular signaling, including the Wnt pathway, which is modulated by specific genetic variants. Overall, this study shows that genetic background plays a dominant role in driving phenotypic variability of PSCs.

+view abstract Cell stem cell, PMID: 32795399 11 Aug 2020

Lau D, Garçon F, Chandra A, Lechermann LM, Aloj L, Chilvers ER, Corrie PG, Okkenhaug K, Gallagher FA

Efficient T-cell targeting, infiltration and activation within tumors is crucial for successful adoptive T-cell therapy. Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool for the visualization of T-cell behavior within tumors, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in response to immunotherapy. Here we describe an experimental approach for intravital imaging of adoptive T-cell morphology, mobility and trafficking in a skin-flap tumor model, following immune modulation with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting PD-L1 and CTLA-4. A syngeneic model of ovalbumin and mCherry-expressing amelanotic mouse melanoma was used in conjunction with adoptively transferred OT-1 cytotoxic T-cells expressing GFP to image antigen-specific live T-cell behavior within the tumor microenvironment. Dynamic image analysis of T-cell motility showed distinct CD8 T-cell migration patterns and morpho-dynamics within different tumor compartments in response to ICIs: this approach was used to cluster T-cell behavior into four groups based on velocity and meandering index. The results showed that most T-cells within the tumor periphery demonstrated Lévy-like trajectories, consistent with tumor cell searching strategies. T-cells adjacent to tumor cells had reduced velocity and appeared to probe the local environment, consistent with cell-cell interactions. An increased number of T-cells were detected following treatment, traveling at lower mean velocities than controls, and demonstrating reduced displacement consistent with target engagement. Histogram-based analysis of immunofluorescent images from harvested tumors showed that in the ICI-treated mice there was a higher density of CD31 vessels compared to untreated controls and a greater infiltration of T-cells towards the tumor core, consistent with increased cellular trafficking post-treatment.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 32793206 2020

Morello GM, Hultgren J, Capas-Peneda S, Wiltshire M, Thomas A, Wardle-Jones H, Brajon S, Gilbert C, Olsson IAS

High and variable pre-weaning mortality is a persistent problem in laboratory mouse breeding. Assuming a modest 15% mortality rate across mouse strains, means that approximately 1 million more pups are produced yearly in the EU to compensate for those which die. This paper presents the first large study under practical husbandry conditions to determine the risk factors associated with mouse pre-weaning mortality. We analysed historical records from 219,975 pups from two breeding facilities, collected as part of their management routine and including information on number of pups born and weaned per litter, parents' age and identification, and dates of birth and death of all animals. Pups were counted once in their first week of life and at weaning, and once every one or two weeks, depending on the need for cage cleaning. Dead pups were recorded as soon as these were found during the daily cage screening (without opening the cage). It was hypothesized that litter overlap (i.e. the presence of older siblings in the cage when new pups are born), a recurrent social configuration in trio-housed mice, is associated with increased newborn mortality, along with advanced dam age, large litter size, and a high number and age of older siblings in the cage. The estimated probability of pup death was two to seven percentage points higher in cages with litter overlap compared to those without. Litter overlap was associated with an increase in death of the entire litter of five and six percentage points, which represent an increase of 19% and 103% compared to non-overlapped litters in the two breeding facilities, respectively. Increased number and age of older siblings, advanced dam age, small litter size (less than four pups born) and large litter size (over 11 pups born) were associated with increased probability of pup death.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 32785214 2020

Mabbitt PD, Loreto A, Déry MA, Fletcher AJ, Stanley M, Pao KC, Wood NT, Coleman MP, Virdee S

MYCBP2 is a ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligase (E3) that is essential for neurodevelopment and regulates axon maintenance. MYCBP2 transfers Ub to nonlysine substrates via a newly discovered RING-Cys-Relay (RCR) mechanism, where Ub is relayed from an upstream cysteine to a downstream substrate esterification site. The molecular bases for E2-E3 Ub transfer and Ub relay are unknown. Whether these activities are linked to the neural phenotypes is also unclear. We describe the crystal structure of a covalently trapped E2~Ub:MYCBP2 transfer intermediate revealing key structural rearrangements upon E2-E3 Ub transfer and Ub relay. Our data suggest that transfer to the dynamic upstream cysteine, whilst mitigating lysine activity, requires a closed-like E2~Ub conjugate with tempered reactivity, and Ub relay is facilitated by a helix-coil transition. Furthermore, neurodevelopmental defects and delayed injury-induced degeneration in RCR-defective knock-in mice suggest its requirement, and that of substrate esterification activity, for normal neural development and programmed axon degeneration.

+view abstract Nature chemical biology, PMID: 32747811 03 Aug 2020

Alissafi T, Kalafati L, Lazari M, Filia A, Kloukina I, Manifava M, Lim JH, Alexaki VI, Ktistakis NT, Doskas T, Garinis GA, Chavakis T, Boumpas DT, Verginis P Signalling

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are vital for the maintenance of immune homeostasis, while their dysfunction constitutes a cardinal feature of autoimmunity. Under steady-state conditions, mitochondrial metabolism is critical for Treg function; however, the metabolic adaptations of Tregs during autoimmunity are ill-defined. Herein, we report that elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and a robust DNA damage response (DDR) associated with cell death occur in Tregs in individuals with autoimmunity. In an experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model of autoimmunity, we found a Treg dysfunction recapitulating the features of autoimmune Tregs with a prominent mtROS signature. Scavenging of mtROS in Tregs of EAE mice reversed the DDR and prevented Treg death, while attenuating the Th1 and Th17 autoimmune responses. These findings highlight an unrecognized role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in defining Treg fate during autoimmunity, which may facilitate the design of novel immunotherapies for diseases with disturbed immune tolerance.

+view abstract Cell metabolism, PMID: 32738205 22 Jul 2020

Wauters E, Thevissen K, Wouters C, Bosisio FM, De Smet F, Gunst J, Humblet-Baron S, Lambrechts D, Liston A, Matthys P, Neyts J, Proost P, Weynand B, Wauters J, Tejpar S, Garg AD Immunology

No abstract available

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 32719686 2020

D'Anna F, Van Dyck L, Xiong J, Zhao H, Berrens RV, Qian J, Bieniasz-Krzywiec P, Chandra V, Schoonjans L, Matthews J, De Smedt J, Minnoye L, Amorim R, Khorasanizadeh S, Yu Q, Zhao L, De Borre M, Savvides SN, Simon MC, Carmeliet P, Reik W, Rastinejad F, Mazzone M, Thienpont B, Lambrechts D Epigenetics

Hypoxia is pervasive in cancer and other diseases. Cells sense and adapt to hypoxia by activating hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), but it is still an outstanding question why cell types differ in their transcriptional response to hypoxia.

+view abstract Genome Biology, PMID: 32718321 27 Jul 2020

Pasciuto E, Burton OT, Roca CP, Lagou V, Rajan WD, Theys T, Mancuso R, Tito RY, Kouser L, Callaerts-Vegh Z, de la Fuente AG, Prezzemolo T, Mascali LG, Brajic A, Whyte CE, Yshii L, Martinez-Muriana A, Naughton M, Young A, Moudra A, Lemaitre P, Poovathingal S, Raes J, De Strooper B, Fitzgerald DC, Dooley J, Liston A Immunology

The brain is a site of relative immune privilege. Although CD4 T cells have been reported in the central nervous system, their presence in the healthy brain remains controversial, and their function remains largely unknown. We used a combination of imaging, single cell, and surgical approaches to identify a CD69 CD4 T cell population in both the mouse and human brain, distinct from circulating CD4 T cells. The brain-resident population was derived through in situ differentiation from activated circulatory cells and was shaped by self-antigen and the peripheral microbiome. Single-cell sequencing revealed that in the absence of murine CD4 T cells, resident microglia remained suspended between the fetal and adult states. This maturation defect resulted in excess immature neuronal synapses and behavioral abnormalities. These results illuminate a role for CD4 T cells in brain development and a potential interconnected dynamic between the evolution of the immunological and neurological systems. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

+view abstract Cell, PMID: 32702313 20 Jul 2020

McGough IJ, Vecchia L, Bishop B, Malinauskas T, Beckett K, Joshi D, O'Reilly N, Siebold C, Jones EY, Vincent JP Signalling

A relatively small number of proteins have been suggested to act as morphogens-signalling molecules that spread within tissues to organize tissue repair and the specification of cell fate during development. Among them are Wnt proteins, which carry a palmitoleate moiety that is essential for signalling activity. How a hydrophobic lipoprotein can spread in the aqueous extracellular space is unknown. Several mechanisms, such as those involving lipoprotein particles, exosomes or a specific chaperone, have been proposed to overcome this so-called Wnt solubility problem. Here we provide evidence against these models and show that the Wnt lipid is shielded by the core domain of a subclass of glypicans defined by the Dally-like protein (Dlp). Structural analysis shows that, in the presence of palmitoleoylated peptides, these glypicans change conformation to create a hydrophobic space. Thus, glypicans of the Dlp family protect the lipid of Wnt proteins from the aqueous environment and serve as a reservoir from which Wnt proteins can be handed over to signalling receptors.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32699409 09 2020

Patani H, Rushton MD, Higham J, Teijeiro SA, Oxley D, Cutillas P, Sproul D, Ficz G Epigenetics, Mass Spectrometry

Epigenetic reprogramming is a cancer hallmark, but how it unfolds during early neoplastic events and its role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not fully understood. Here we show that resetting from primed to naïve human pluripotency results in acquisition of a DNA methylation landscape mirroring the cancer DNA methylome, with gradual hypermethylation of bivalent developmental genes. We identify a dichotomy between bivalent genes that do and do not become hypermethylated, which is also mirrored in cancer. We find that loss of H3K4me3 at bivalent regions is associated with gain of methylation. Additionally, we observe that promoter CpG island hypermethylation is not restricted solely to emerging naïve cells, suggesting that it is a feature of a heterogeneous intermediate population during resetting. These results indicate that transition to naïve pluripotency and oncogenic transformation share common epigenetic trajectories, which implicates reprogramming and the pluripotency network as a central hub in cancer formation.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 32699299 22 Jul 2020

Thiecke MJ, Wutz G, Muhar M, Tang W, Bevan S, Malysheva V, Stocsits R, Neumann T, Zuber J, Fraser P, Schoenfelder S, Peters JM, Spivakov M Epigenetics

It is currently assumed that 3D chromosomal organization plays a central role in transcriptional control. However, depletion of cohesin and CTCF affects the steady-state levels of only a minority of transcripts. Here, we use high-resolution Capture Hi-C to interrogate the dynamics of chromosomal contacts of all annotated human gene promoters upon degradation of cohesin and CTCF. We show that a majority of promoter-anchored contacts are lost in these conditions, but many contacts with distinct properties are maintained, and some new ones are gained. The rewiring of contacts between promoters and active enhancers upon cohesin degradation associates with rapid changes in target gene transcription as detected by SLAM sequencing (SLAM-seq). These results provide a mechanistic explanation for the limited, but consistent, effects of cohesin and CTCF depletion on steady-state transcription and suggest the existence of both cohesin-dependent and -independent mechanisms of enhancer-promoter pairing.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 32698000 21 Jul 2020

Morf J, Wingett SW Bioinformatics

RNA localization is an important regulatory layer of gene expression and cell functioning. The protocol guides through the Proximity RNA-seq method, in which RNA molecules are sequenced in their spatial, cellular context to derive RNA co-localization and transcriptome organization. Transcripts in individual subcellular particles from chemically crosslinked cells are tagged with the same, unique DNA barcode in water-in-oil emulsion droplets. First, single DNA barcodes are PCR amplified and immobilized on single, small magnetic beads in droplets. Subsequently, 3' ends of bead-bound barcode copies are tailed with random pentadecamers. Then beads are encapsulated again into droplets together with crosslinked subcellular particles containing RNA. Reverse transcription using random pentadecamers as primers is performed in droplets, which optimally contain one bead and one particle, in order to tag RNAs co-localized to the same particle. Sequencing such cDNA molecules identifies the RNA molecule and the barcode. Subsequent analysis of transcripts that share the same barcode, i.e., co-barcoding, reveals RNA co-localization and interactions. The technique is not restricted to pairs of RNAs but can as well detect groups of transcripts and estimates local RNA density or connectivity for individual transcripts. We provide here a detailed protocol to perform and analyze Proximity RNA-seq on cell nuclei to study spatial, nuclear RNA organization.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 32681513 2020

Dooley J, Lagou V, Goveia J, Ulrich A, Rohlenova K, Heirman N, Karakach T, Lampi Y, Khan S, Wang J, Dresselaers T, Himmelreich U, Gunter MJ, Prokopenko I, Carmeliet P, Liston A Immunology

Pancreatic cancer is a rare but fatal form of cancer, the fourth highest in absolute mortality. Known risk factors include obesity, diet, and type 2 diabetes; however, the low incidence rate and interconnection of these factors confound the isolation of individual effects. Here, we use epidemiological analysis of prospective human cohorts and parallel tracking of pancreatic cancer in mice to dissect the effects of obesity, diet, and diabetes on pancreatic cancer. Through longitudinal monitoring and multi-omics analysis in mice, we found distinct effects of protein, sugar, and fat dietary components, with dietary sugars increasing Mad2l1 expression and tumor proliferation. Using epidemiological approaches in humans, we find that dietary sugars give a MAD2L1 genotype-dependent increased susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. The translation of these results to a clinical setting could aid in the identification of the at-risk population for screening and potentially harness dietary modification as a therapeutic measure.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 32668252 14 Jul 2020

Deniz Ö, Ahmed M, Todd CD, Rio-Machin A, Dawson MA, Branco MR Epigenetics

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterised by a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations that result in deregulation of transcriptional networks. One understudied source of transcriptional regulators are transposable elements (TEs), whose aberrant usage could contribute to oncogenic transcriptional circuits. However, the regulatory influence of TEs and their links to AML pathogenesis remain unexplored. Here we identify six endogenous retrovirus (ERV) families with AML-associated enhancer chromatin signatures that are enriched in binding of key regulators of hematopoiesis and AML pathogenesis. Using both locus-specific genetic editing and simultaneous epigenetic silencing of multiple ERVs, we demonstrate that ERV deregulation directly alters the expression of adjacent genes in AML. Strikingly, deletion or epigenetic silencing of an ERV-derived enhancer suppresses cell growth by inducing apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. This work reveals that ERVs are a previously unappreciated source of AML enhancers that may be exploited by cancer cells to help drive tumour heterogeneity and evolution.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 32665538 14 07 2020

Gallotta I, Sandhu A, Peters M, Haslbeck M, Jung R, Agilkaya S, Blersch JL, Rödelsperger C, Röseler W, Huang C, Sommer RJ, David DC Signalling

In metazoans, the secreted proteome participates in intercellular signalling and innate immunity, and builds the extracellular matrix scaffold around cells. Compared with the relatively constant intracellular environment, conditions for proteins in the extracellular space are harsher, and low concentrations of ATP prevent the activity of intracellular components of the protein quality-control machinery. Until now, only a few bona fide extracellular chaperones and proteases have been shown to limit the aggregation of extracellular proteins. Here we performed a systematic analysis of the extracellular proteostasis network in Caenorhabditis elegans with an RNA interference screen that targets genes that encode the secreted proteome. We discovered 57 regulators of extracellular protein aggregation, including several proteins related to innate immunity. Because intracellular proteostasis is upregulated in response to pathogens, we investigated whether pathogens also stimulate extracellular proteostasis. Using a pore-forming toxin to mimic a pathogenic attack, we found that C. elegans responded by increasing the expression of components of extracellular proteostasis and by limiting aggregation of extracellular proteins. The activation of extracellular proteostasis was dependent on stress-activated MAP kinase signalling. Notably, the overexpression of components of extracellular proteostasis delayed ageing and rendered worms resistant to intoxication. We propose that enhanced extracellular proteostasis contributes to systemic host defence by maintaining a functional secreted proteome and avoiding proteotoxicity.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32641833 08 2020

Alda-Catalinas C, Bredikhin D, Hernando-Herraez I, Santos F, Kubinyecz O, Eckersley-Maslin MA, Stegle O, Reik W Epigenetics

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is an essential transcriptional event in embryonic development that coincides with extensive epigenetic reprogramming. Complex manipulation techniques and maternal stores of proteins preclude large-scale functional screens for ZGA regulators within early embryos. Here, we combined pooled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) with single-cell transcriptomics to identify regulators of ZGA-like transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells, which serve as a tractable, in vitro proxy of early mouse embryos. Using multi-omics factor analysis (MOFA+) applied to ∼200,000 single-cell transcriptomes comprising 230 CRISPRa perturbations, we characterized molecular signatures of ZGA and uncovered 24 factors that promote a ZGA-like response. Follow-up assays validated top screen hits, including the DNA-binding protein Dppa2, the chromatin remodeler Smarca5, and the transcription factor Patz1, and functional experiments revealed that Smarca5's regulation of ZGA-like transcription is dependent on Dppa2. Together, our single-cell transcriptomic profiling of CRISPRa-perturbed cells provides both system-level and molecular insights into the mechanisms that orchestrate ZGA.

+view abstract Cell systems, PMID: 32634384 29 Jun 2020

Zhang F, Smith LP, Blinov ML, Faeder J, Hlavacek WS, Juan Tapia J, Keating SM, Rodriguez N, Dräger A, Harris LA, Finney A, Hu B, Hucka M, Meier-Schellersheim M

Rule-based modeling is an approach that permits constructing reaction networks based on the specification of rules for molecular interactions and transformations. These rules can encompass details such as the interacting sub-molecular domains and the states and binding status of the involved components. Conceptually, fine-grained spatial information such as locations can also be provided. Through "wildcards" representing component states, entire families of molecule complexes sharing certain properties can be specified as patterns. This can significantly simplify the definition of models involving species with multiple components, multiple states, and multiple compartments. The systems biology markup language (SBML) Level 3 Multi Package Version 1 extends the SBML Level 3 Version 1 core with the "type" concept in the Species and Compartment classes. Therefore, reaction rules may contain species that can be patterns and exist in multiple locations. Multiple software tools such as Simmune and BioNetGen support this standard that thus also becomes a medium for exchanging rule-based models. This document provides the specification for Release 2 of Version 1 of the SBML Level 3 Multi package. No design changes have been made to the description of models between Release 1 and Release 2; changes are restricted to the correction of errata and the addition of clarifications.

+view abstract Journal of integrative bioinformatics, PMID: 32628633 06 Jul 2020

Klobučar T, Kreibich E, Krueger F, Arez M, Pólvora-Brandão D, von Meyenn F, da Rocha ST, Eckersley-Maslin M Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon leading to parental allele-specific expression. Dosage of imprinted genes is crucial for normal development and its dysregulation accounts for several human disorders. This unusual expression pattern is mostly dictated by differences in DNA methylation between parental alleles at specific regulatory elements known as imprinting control regions (ICRs). Although several approaches can be used for methylation inspection, we lack an easy and cost-effective method to simultaneously measure DNA methylation at multiple imprinted regions. Here, we present IMPLICON, a high-throughput method measuring DNA methylation levels at imprinted regions with base-pair resolution and over 1000-fold coverage. We adapted amplicon bisulfite-sequencing protocols to design IMPLICON for ICRs in adult tissues of inbred mice, validating it in hybrid mice from reciprocal crosses for which we could discriminate methylation profiles in the two parental alleles. Lastly, we developed a human version of IMPLICON and detected imprinting errors in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We also provide rules and guidelines to adapt this method for investigating the DNA methylation landscape of any set of genomic regions. In summary, IMPLICON is a rapid, cost-effective and scalable method, which could become the gold standard in both imprinting research and diagnostics.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 32621604 04 Jul 2020

Prada-Luengo I, Møller HD, Henriksen RA, Gao Q, Larsen CE, Alizadeh S, Maretty L, Houseley J, Regenberg B Epigenetics

Circular DNA can arise from all parts of eukaryotic chromosomes. In yeast, circular ribosomal DNA (rDNA) accumulates dramatically as cells age, however little is known about the accumulation of other chromosome-derived circles or the contribution of such circles to genetic variation in aged cells. We profiled circular DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations sampled when young and after extensive aging. Young cells possessed highly diverse circular DNA populations but 94% of the circular DNA were lost after ∼15 divisions, whereas rDNA circles underwent massive accumulation to >95% of circular DNA. Circles present in both young and old cells were characterized by replication origins including circles from unique regions of the genome and repetitive regions: rDNA and telomeric Y' regions. We further observed that circles can have flexible inheritance patterns: [HXT6/7circle] normally segregates to mother cells but in low glucose is present in up to 50% of cells, the majority of which must have inherited this circle from their mother. Interestingly, [HXT6/7circle] cells are eventually replaced by cells carrying stable chromosomal HXT6 HXT6/7 HXT7 amplifications, suggesting circular DNAs are intermediates in chromosomal amplifications. In conclusion, the heterogeneity of circular DNA offers flexibility in adaptation, but this heterogeneity is remarkably diminished with age.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 32609810 01 Jul 2020

Ohashi Y, Tremel S, Masson GR, McGinney L, Boulanger J, Rostislavleva K, Johnson CM, Niewczas I, Clark J, Williams RL Biological Chemistry

The lipid kinase VPS34 orchestrates diverse processes, including autophagy, endocytic sorting, phagocytosis, anabolic responses and cell division. VPS34 forms various complexes that help adapt it to specific pathways, with complexes I and II being the most prominent ones. We found that physicochemical properties of membranes strongly modulate VPS34 activity. Greater unsaturation of both substrate and non-substrate lipids, negative charge and curvature activate VPS34 complexes, adapting them to their cellular compartments. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) of complexes I and II on membranes elucidated structural determinants that enable them to bind membranes. Among these are the Barkor/ATG14L autophagosome targeting sequence (BATS), which makes autophagy-specific complex I more active than the endocytic complex II, and the Beclin1 BARA domain. Interestingly, even though Beclin1 BARA is common to both complexes, its membrane-interacting loops are critical for complex II, but have only a minor role for complex I.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 32602837 30 Jun 2020

Dodsworth BT, Hatje K, Rostovskaya M, Flynn R, Meyer CA, Cowley SA Epigenetics

Naïve human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) resemble the embryonic epiblast at an earlier time-point in development than conventional, 'primed' hPSC. We present a comprehensive miRNA profiling of naïve-to-primed transition in hPSC, a process recapitulating aspects of early in vivo embryogenesis. We identify miR-143-3p and miR-22-3p as markers of the naïve state and miR-363-5p, several members of the miR-17 family, miR-302 family as primed markers. We uncover that miR-371-373 are highly expressed in naïve hPSC. MiR-371-373 are the human homologs of the mouse miR-290 family, which are the most highly expressed miRNAs in naïve mouse PSC. This aligns with the consensus that naïve hPSC resemble mouse naive PSC, showing that the absence of miR-371-373 in conventional hPSC is due to cell state rather than a species difference.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 32601281 29 06 2020

Ivanova E, Canovas S, Garcia-Martínez S, Romar R, Lopes JS, Rizos D, Sanchez-Calabuig MJ, Krueger F, Andrews S, Perez-Sanz F, Kelsey G, Coy P Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 32600441 29 Jun 2020

Hay IM, Fearnley GW, Rios P, Köhn M, Sharpe HJ, Deane JE Signalling

The receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are key regulators of cell-cell communication through the control of cellular phosphotyrosine levels. Most human RPTPs possess an extracellular receptor domain and tandem intracellular phosphatase domains: comprising an active membrane proximal (D1) domain and an inactive distal (D2) pseudophosphatase domain. Here we demonstrate that PTPRU is unique amongst the RPTPs in possessing two pseudophosphatase domains. The PTPRU-D1 displays no detectable catalytic activity against a range of phosphorylated substrates and we show that this is due to multiple structural rearrangements that destabilise the active site pocket and block the catalytic cysteine. Upon oxidation, this cysteine forms an intramolecular disulphide bond with a vicinal "backdoor" cysteine, a process thought to reversibly inactivate related phosphatases. Importantly, despite the absence of catalytic activity, PTPRU binds substrates of related phosphatases strongly suggesting that this pseudophosphatase functions in tyrosine phosphorylation by competing with active phosphatases for the binding of substrates.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 32591542 26 Jun 2020

Glont M, Arankalle C, Tiwari K, Nguyen TVN, Hermjakob H, Malik Sheriff RS Bioinformatics

One of the major bottlenecks in building systems biology models is identification and estimation of model parameters for model calibration. Searching for model parameters from published literature and models is an essential, yet laborious task.

+view abstract Bioinformatics, PMID: 32573648 23 Jun 2020

Eckersley-Maslin MA, Parry A, Blotenburg M, Krueger C, Ito Y, Franklin VNR, Narita M, D'Santos CS, Reik W Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

How the epigenetic landscape is established in development is still being elucidated. Here, we uncover developmental pluripotency associated 2 and 4 (DPPA2/4) as epigenetic priming factors that establish a permissive epigenetic landscape at a subset of developmentally important bivalent promoters characterized by low expression and poised RNA-polymerase. Differentiation assays reveal that Dppa2/4 double knockout mouse embryonic stem cells fail to exit pluripotency and differentiate efficiently. DPPA2/4 bind both H3K4me3-marked and bivalent gene promoters and associate with COMPASS- and Polycomb-bound chromatin. Comparing knockout and inducible knockdown systems, we find that acute depletion of DPPA2/4 results in rapid loss of H3K4me3 from key bivalent genes, while H3K27me3 is initially more stable but lost following extended culture. Consequently, upon DPPA2/4 depletion, these promoters gain DNA methylation and are unable to be activated upon differentiation. Our findings uncover a novel epigenetic priming mechanism at developmental promoters, poising them for future lineage-specific activation.

+view abstract Nature structural & molecular biology, PMID: 32572255 22 Jun 2020

Furmanik M, Chatrou M, van Gorp R, Akbulut A, Willems B, Schmidt H, van Eys G, Bochaton-Piallat ML, Proudfoot D, Biessen E, Hedin U, Perisic L, Mees B, Shanahan C, Reutelingsperger C, Schurgers L

Vascular calcification, the formation of calcium phosphate crystals in the vessel wall, is mediated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive, precluding mechanism-based therapies.

+view abstract Circulation research, PMID: 32564697 11 09 2020

Nieuwenhuis B, Barber AC, Evans RS, Pearson CS, Fuchs J, MacQueen AR, van Erp S, Haenzi B, Hulshof LA, Osborne A, Conceicao R, Khatib TZ, Deshpande SS, Cave J, Ffrench-Constant C, Smith PD, Okkenhaug K, Eickholt BJ, Martin KR, Fawcett JW, Eva R

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons support axon regeneration into adulthood, whereas central nervous system (CNS) neurons lose regenerative ability after development. To better understand this decline whilst aiming to improve regeneration, we focused on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its product phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP ). We demonstrate that adult PNS neurons utilise two catalytic subunits of PI3K for axon regeneration: p110α and p110δ. However, in the CNS, axonal PIP decreases with development at the time when axon transport declines and regenerative competence is lost. Overexpressing p110α in CNS neurons had no effect; however, expression of p110δ restored axonal PIP and increased regenerative axon transport. p110δ expression enhanced CNS regeneration in both rat and human neurons and in transgenic mice, functioning in the same way as the hyperactivating H1047R mutation of p110α. Furthermore, viral delivery of p110δ promoted robust regeneration after optic nerve injury. These findings establish a deficit of axonal PIP as a key reason for intrinsic regeneration failure and demonstrate that native p110δ facilitates axon regeneration by functioning in a hyperactive fashion.

+view abstract EMBO molecular medicine, PMID: 32558386 07 08 2020

Stammers M, Niewczas IS, Segonds-Pichon A, Clark J Biological Chemistry

Collagen I is a major tendon protein whose polypeptide chains are linked by covalent cross-links. It is unknown how the cross-linking contributes to the mechanical properties of tendon or whether cross-linking changes in response to stretching or relaxation. Since their discovery, imine bonds within collagen have been recognized as being important in both cross-link formation and collagen structure. They are often described as acidic or thermally labile, but no evidence is available from direct measurements of cross-link levels whether these bonds contribute to the mechanical properties of collagen. Here, we used MS to analyze these imine bonds after reduction with sodium borohydride while under tension and found that their levels are altered in stretched tendon. We studied the changes in cross-link bonding in tail tendon from 11-week-old C57Bl/6 mice at 4% physical strain, at 10% strain, and at breaking point. The cross-links hydroxy-lysino-norleucine (HLNL), dihydroxy-lysino-norleucine (DHLNL), and lysino-norleucine (LNL) increased or decreased depending on the specific cross-link and amount of mechanical strain. We also noted a decrease in glycated lysine residues in collagen, indicating that the imine formed between circulating glucose and lysine is also stress-labile. We also carried out mechanical testing, including cyclic testing at 4% strain, stress relaxation tests, and stress-strain profiles taken at breaking point, both with and without sodium borohydride reduction. The results from both the MS studies and mechanical testing provide insights into the chemical changes during tendon stretching and directly link these chemical changes to functional collagen properties.

+view abstract The Journal of biological chemistry, PMID: 32546479 16 Jun 2020

Fang X, Wu Z, Raitskin O, Webb K, Voigt P, Lu T, Howard M, Dean C Epigenetics

Noncoding RNA plays essential roles in transcriptional control and chromatin silencing. At antisense transcription quantitatively influences transcriptional output, but the mechanism by which this occurs is still unclear. Proximal polyadenylation of the antisense transcripts by FCA, an RNA-binding protein that physically interacts with RNA 3' processing factors, reduces transcription. This process genetically requires FLD, a homolog of the H3K4 demethylase LSD1. However, the mechanism linking RNA processing to FLD function had not been established. Here, we show that FLD tightly associates with LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) and SET DOMAIN GROUP 26 (SDG26) in vivo, and, together, they prevent accumulation of monomethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1) over the gene body. SDG26 interacts with the RNA 3' processing factor FY (WDR33), thus linking activities for proximal polyadenylation of the antisense transcripts to FLD/LD/SDG26-associated H3K4 demethylation. We propose this demethylation antagonizes an active transcription module, thus reducing H3K36me3 accumulation and increasing H3K27me3. Consistent with this view, we show that Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) silencing is genetically required by FCA to repress Overall, our work provides insights into RNA-mediated chromatin silencing.

+view abstract PNAS, PMID: 32541063 30 06 2020

Chauve L, Le Pen J, Hodge F, Todtenhaupt P, Biggins L, Miska EA, Andrews S, Casanueva O Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

This paper presents a high-throughput reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for Caenorhabditis elegans that is fast, robust, and highly sensitive. This protocol obtains precise measurements of gene expression from single worms or from bulk samples. The protocol presented here provides a novel adaptation of existing methods for complementary DNA (cDNA) preparation coupled to a nanofluidic RT-qPCR platform. The first part of this protocol, named 'Worm-to-CT', allows cDNA production directly from nematodes without the need for prior mRNA isolation. It increases experimental throughput by allowing the preparation of cDNA from 96 worms in 3.5 h. The second part of the protocol uses existing nanofluidic technology to run high-throughput RT-qPCR on the cDNA. This paper evaluates two different nanofluidic chips: the first runs 96 samples and 96 targets, resulting in 9,216 reactions in approximately 1.5 days of benchwork. The second chip type consists of six 12 x 12 arrays, resulting in 864 reactions. Here, the Worm-to-CT method is demonstrated by quantifying mRNA levels of genes encoding heat shock proteins from single worms and from bulk samples. Provided is an extensive list of primers designed to amplify processed RNA for the majority of coding genes within the C. elegans genome.

+view abstract Journal of visualized experiments, PMID: 32538915 28 May 2020

Okkenhaug H, Chauve L, Masoudzadeh F, Okkenhaug L, Casanueva O Epigenetics, Imaging

An issue often encountered when acquiring image data from fixed or anesthetized C. elegans is that worms cross and cluster with their neighbors. This problem is aggravated with increasing density of worms and creates challenges for imaging and quantification. We developed a FIJI-based workflow, Worm-align, that can be used to generate single- or multi-channel montages of user-selected, straightened and aligned worms from raw image data of C. elegans. Worm-align is a simple and user-friendly workflow that does not require prior training of either the user or the analysis algorithm. Montages generated with Worm-align can aid the visual inspection of worms, their classification and representation. In addition, the output of Worm-align can be used for subsequent quantification of fluorescence intensity in single worms, either in FIJI directly, or in other image analysis software platforms. We demonstrate this by importing the Worm-align output into Worm_CP, a pipeline that uses the open-source CellProfiler software. CellProfiler's flexibility enables the incorporation of additional modules for high-content screening. As a practical example, we have used the pipeline on two datasets: the first dataset are images of heat shock reporter worms that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the promoter of a heat shock inducible gene hsp-70, and the second dataset are images obtained from fixed worms, stained for fat-stores with a fluorescent dye.

+view abstract Journal of visualized experiments, PMID: 32538914 28 May 2020

Coleman MP

Axons are diverse. They have different lengths, different branching patterns, and different biological roles. Methods to study axon degeneration are also diverse. The result is a bewildering range of experimental systems in which to study mechanisms of axon degeneration, and it is difficult to extrapolate from one neuron type and one method to another. The purpose of this chapter is to help readers to do this and to choose the methods most appropriate for answering their particular research question.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 32524468 2020

Villaseñor R, Pfaendler R, Ambrosi C, Butz S, Giuliani S, Bryan E, Sheahan TW, Gable AL, Schmolka N, Manzo M, Wirz J, Feller C, von Mering C, Aebersold R, Voigt P, Baubec T Epigenetics

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

+view abstract Nature biotechnology, PMID: 32518402 06 2020

Grant FM, Yang J, Nasrallah R, Clarke J, Sadiyah F, Whiteside SK, Imianowski CJ, Kuo P, Vardaka P, Todorov T, Zandhuis N, Patrascan I, Tough DF, Kometani K, Eil R, Kurosaki T, Okkenhaug K, Roychoudhuri R Immunology

Regulatory T (Treg) cell populations are composed of functionally quiescent resting Treg (rTreg) cells which differentiate into activated Treg (aTreg) cells upon antigen stimulation. How rTreg cells remain quiescent despite chronic exposure to cognate self- and foreign antigens is unclear. The transcription factor BACH2 is critical for early Treg lineage specification, but its function following lineage commitment is unresolved. Here, we show that BACH2 is repurposed following Treg lineage commitment and promotes the quiescence and long-term maintenance of rTreg cells. Bach2 is highly expressed in rTreg cells but is down-regulated in aTreg cells and during inflammation. In rTreg cells, BACH2 binds to enhancers of genes involved in aTreg differentiation and represses their TCR-driven induction by competing with AP-1 factors for DNA binding. This function promotes rTreg cell quiescence and long-term maintenance and is required for immune homeostasis and durable immunosuppression in cancer. Thus, BACH2 supports a "division of labor" between quiescent rTreg cells and their activated progeny in Treg maintenance and function, respectively.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 32515782 07 Sep 2020

Nasrallah R, Imianowski CJ, Bossini-Castillo L, Grant FM, Dogan M, Placek L, Kozhaya L, Kuo P, Sadiyah F, Whiteside SK, Mumbach MR, Glinos D, Vardaka P, Whyte CE, Lozano T, Fujita T, Fujii H, Liston A, Andrews S, Cozzani A, Yang J, Mitra S, Lugli E, Chang HY, Unutmaz D, Trynka G, Roychoudhuri R Immunology, Bioinformatics

Genetic variations underlying susceptibility to complex autoimmune and allergic diseases are concentrated within noncoding regulatory elements termed enhancers. The functions of a large majority of disease-associated enhancers are unknown, in part owing to their distance from the genes they regulate, a lack of understanding of the cell types in which they operate, and our inability to recapitulate the biology of immune diseases in vitro. Here, using shared synteny to guide loss-of-function analysis of homologues of human enhancers in mice, we show that the prominent autoimmune and allergic disease risk locus at chromosome 11q13.5 contains a distal enhancer that is functional in CD4 regulatory T (T) cells and required for T-mediated suppression of colitis. The enhancer recruits the transcription factors STAT5 and NF-κB to mediate signal-driven expression of Lrrc32, which encodes the protein glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP). Whereas disruption of the Lrrc32 gene results in early lethality, mice lacking the enhancer are viable but lack GARP expression in Foxp3 T cells, which are unable to control colitis in a cell-transfer model of the disease. In human T cells, the enhancer forms conformational interactions with the promoter of LRRC32 and enhancer risk variants are associated with reduced histone acetylation and GARP expression. Finally, functional fine-mapping of 11q13.5 using CRISPR-activation (CRISPRa) identifies a CRISPRa-responsive element in the vicinity of risk variant rs11236797 capable of driving GARP expression. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for association of the 11q13.5 risk locus with immune-mediated diseases and identify GARP as a potential target in their therapy.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32499651 13 May 2020

Nützmann HW, Doerr D, Ramírez-Colmenero A, Sotelo-Fonseca JE, Wegel E, Di Stefano M, Wingett SW, Fraser P, Hurst L, Fernandez-Valverde SL, Osbourn A Bioinformatics

While colocalization within a bacterial operon enables coexpression of the constituent genes, the mechanistic logic of clustering of nonhomologous monocistronic genes in eukaryotes is not immediately obvious. Biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways for specialized metabolites are an exception to the classical eukaryote rule of random gene location and provide paradigmatic exemplars with which to understand eukaryotic cluster dynamics and regulation. Here, using 3C, Hi-C, and Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) organ-specific chromosome conformation capture techniques along with high-resolution microscopy, we investigate how chromosome topology relates to transcriptional activity of clustered biosynthetic pathway genes in Our analyses reveal that biosynthetic gene clusters are embedded in local hot spots of 3D contacts that segregate cluster regions from the surrounding chromosome environment. The spatial conformation of these cluster-associated domains differs between transcriptionally active and silenced clusters. We further show that silenced clusters associate with heterochromatic chromosomal domains toward the periphery of the nucleus, while transcriptionally active clusters relocate away from the nuclear periphery. Examination of chromosome structure at unrelated clusters in maize, rice, and tomato indicates that integration of clustered pathway genes into distinct topological domains is a common feature in plant genomes. Our results shed light on the potential mechanisms that constrain coexpression within clusters of nonhomologous eukaryotic genes and suggest that gene clustering in the one-dimensional chromosome is accompanied by compartmentalization of the 3D chromosome.

+view abstract PNAS, PMID: 32493747 03 Jun 2020

Jhamat N, Niazi A, Guo Y, Chanrot M, Ivanova E, Kelsey G, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Andersson G, Humblot P Epigenetics

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin stimulates pro-inflammatory pathways and is a key player in the pathological mechanisms involved in the development of endometritis. This study aimed to investigate LPS-induced DNA methylation changes in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs), which may affect endometrial function. Following in vitro culture, bEECs from three cows were either untreated (0) or exposed to 2 and 8 μg/mL LPS for 24 h.

+view abstract BMC genomics, PMID: 32493210 03 Jun 2020

Ipseiz N, Pickering RJ, Rosas M, Tyrrell VJ, Davies LC, Orr SJ, Czubala MA, Fathalla D, Robertson AA, Bryant CE, O'Donnell V, Taylor PR Signalling

The alarm cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent activator of the inflammatory cascade following pathogen recognition. IL-1β production typically requires two signals: first, priming by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns leads to the production of immature pro-IL-1β; subsequently, inflammasome activation by a secondary signal allows cleavage and maturation of IL-1β from its pro-form. However, despite the important role of IL-1β in controlling local and systemic inflammation, its overall regulation is still not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that peritoneal tissue-resident macrophages use an active inhibitory pathway, to suppress IL-1β processing, which can otherwise occur in the absence of a second signal. Programming by the transcription factor Gata6 controls the expression of prostacyclin synthase, which is required for prostacyclin production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation and optimal induction of IL-10. In the absence of secondary signal, IL-10 potently inhibits IL-1β processing, providing a previously unrecognized control of IL-1β in tissue-resident macrophages.

+view abstract The EMBO journal, PMID: 32484988 15 Jul 2020

Reiterer V, Pawłowski K, Desrochers G, Pause A, Sharpe HJ, Farhan H Signalling

Phosphatases are a diverse family of enzymes, comprising at least 10 distinct protein folds. Like most other enzyme families, many have sequence variations that predict an impairment or loss of catalytic activity classifying them as pseudophosphatases. Research on pseudoenzymes is an emerging area of interest, with new biological functions repurposed from catalytically active relatives. Here, we provide an overview of the pseudophosphatases identified to date in all major phosphatase families. We will highlight the degeneration of the various catalytic sequence motifs and discuss the challenges associated with the experimental determination of catalytic inactivity. We will also summarize the role of pseudophosphatases in various diseases and discuss the major challenges and future directions in this field.

+view abstract The FEBS journal, PMID: 32484316 02 Jun 2020

Hill CS, Sreedharan J, Loreto A, Menon DK, Coleman MP

Traumatic brain injury is a major global cause of death and disability. Axonal injury is a major underlying mechanism of TBI and could represent a major therapeutic target. We provide evidence that targeting the axonal death pathway known as Wallerian degeneration improves outcome in a model of high impact trauma. This cell-autonomous neurodegenerative pathway is initiated following axon injury, and in Drosophila, involves activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase . We demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in the gene rescues deleterious effects of a traumatic injury, including-improved functional outcomes, lifespan, survival of dopaminergic neurons, and retention of synaptic proteins. This data suggests that represents a potential therapeutic target in traumatic injury.

+view abstract Frontiers in neurology, PMID: 32477254 2020

Olsen KW, Castillo-Fernandez J, Zedeler A, Freiesleben NC, Bungum M, Chan AC, Cardona A, Perry JRB, Skouby SO, Borup R, Hoffmann ER, Kelsey G, Grøndahl ML Epigenetics

Does women's age affect the DNA methylation (DNAm) profile differently in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) from other somatic cells?

+view abstract Human reproduction, PMID: 32474592 31 May 2020

Velanis CN, Perera P, Thomson B, de Leau E, Liang SC, Hartwig B, Förderer A, Thornton H, Arede P, Chen J, Webb KM, Gümüs S, De Jaeger G, Page CA, Hancock CN, Spanos C, Rappsilber J, Voigt P, Turck F, Wellmer F, Goodrich J Epigenetics

A large fraction of plant genomes is composed of transposable elements (TE), which provide a potential source of novel genes through "domestication"-the process whereby the proteins encoded by TE diverge in sequence, lose their ability to catalyse transposition and instead acquire novel functions for their hosts. In Arabidopsis, ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (ALP1) arose by domestication of the nuclease component of Harbinger class TE and acquired a new function as a component of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2), a histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase involved in regulation of host genes and in some cases TE. It was not clear how ALP1 associated with PRC2, nor what the functional consequence was. Here, we identify ALP2 genetically as a suppressor of Polycomb-group (PcG) mutant phenotypes and show that it arose from the second, DNA binding component of Harbinger transposases. Molecular analysis of PcG compromised backgrounds reveals that ALP genes oppose silencing and H3K27me3 deposition at key PcG target genes. Proteomic analysis reveals that ALP1 and ALP2 are components of a variant PRC2 complex that contains the four core components but lacks plant-specific accessory components such as the H3K27me3 reader LIKE HETEROCHROMATION PROTEIN 1 (LHP1). We show that the N-terminus of ALP2 interacts directly with ALP1, whereas the C-terminus of ALP2 interacts with MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1), a core component of PRC2. Proteomic analysis reveals that in alp2 mutant backgrounds ALP1 protein no longer associates with PRC2, consistent with a role for ALP2 in recruitment of ALP1. We suggest that the propensity of Harbinger TE to insert in gene-rich regions of the genome, together with the modular two component nature of their transposases, has predisposed them for domestication and incorporation into chromatin modifying complexes.

+view abstract PLoS genetics, PMID: 32463832 05 2020

Senner CE, Chrysanthou S, Burge S, Lin HY, Branco MR, Hemberger M

The ten-eleven translocation factor TET1 and its conferred epigenetic modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have important roles in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We previously showed that TET1 is also essential to maintain the stem cell state of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Here, we establish an integrated panel of absolute 5hmC levels, genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns, transcriptomes, and TET1 chromatin occupancy in TSCs and differentiated trophoblast cells. We show that the combined presence of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5hmC correlates with transcriptional activity of associated genes. Hypoxia can slow down the global loss of 5hmC that occurs upon differentiation of TSCs. Notably, unlike in ESCs and epiblast cells, most TET1-bound regions overlap with active chromatin marks and TFAP2C binding sites and demarcate putative trophoblast enhancer regions. These chromatin modification and occupancy patterns are highly informative to identify novel candidate regulators of the TSC state.

+view abstract Stem cell reports, PMID: 32442533 13 May 2020

Kwok A, Zvetkova I, Virtue S, Luijten I, Huang-Doran I, Tomlinson P, Bulger DA, West J, Murfitt S, Griffin J, Alam R, Hart D, Knox R, Voshol P, Vidal-Puig A, Jensen J, O'Rahilly S, Semple RK Immunology

Insulin signaling via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) requires PIK3R1-encoded regulatory subunits. C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations cause SHORT syndrome, including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance (IR), surprisingly without fatty liver or metabolic dyslipidemia. We sought to investigate this discordance.

+view abstract Molecular metabolism, PMID: 32439336 18 May 2020

Marshall JD, Courage ER, Elliott RF, Fitzpatrick MN, Kim AD, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Woolfrey BA, Ouimet M, Wakelam MJO, Brown RJ Signalling, Lipidomics

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and it may promote the progression of atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms behind this process are not completely understood. We previously showed that the phosphorylation of Akt within THP-1 macrophages is increased in response to the lipid hydrolysis products generated by LPL from total lipoproteins. Notably, the free fatty acid (FFA) component was responsible for this effect. In the present study, we aimed to reveal more detail as to how the FFA component may affect Akt signalling. We show that the phosphorylation of Akt within THP-1 macrophages increases with total FFA concentration and that phosphorylation is elevated up to 18 hours. We further show that specifically the palmitoleate component of the total FFA affects Akt phosphorylation. This is tied with changes to the levels of select molecular species of phosphoinositides. We further show that the total FFA component, and specifically palmitoleate, reduces apolipoprotein A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux, and that the reduction can be reversed in the presence of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206. Overall, our data support a negative role for the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL, by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux via Akt activation.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 32437392 2020

Pikor NB, Mörbe U, Lütge M, Gil-Cruz C, Perez-Shibayama C, Novkovic M, Cheng HW, Nombela-Arrieta C, Nagasawa T, Linterman MA, Onder L, Ludewig B Immunology

Efficient generation of germinal center (GC) responses requires directed movement of B cells between distinct microenvironments underpinned by specialized B cell-interacting reticular cells (BRCs). How BRCs are reprogrammed to cater to the developing GC remains unclear, and studying this process is largely hindered by incomplete resolution of the cellular composition of the B cell follicle. Here we used genetic targeting of Cxcl13-expressing cells to define the molecular identity of the BRC landscape. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis revealed that BRC subset specification was predetermined in the primary B cell follicle. Further topological remodeling of light and dark zone follicular dendritic cells required CXCL12-dependent crosstalk with B cells and dictated GC output by retaining B cells in the follicle and steering their interaction with follicular helper T cells. Together, our results reveal that poised BRC-defined microenvironments establish a feed-forward system that determines the efficacy of the GC reaction.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 32424359 18 May 2020

Ma CY, Marioni JC, Griffiths GM, Richard AC Immunology

Millions of naïve T cells with different TCRs may interact with a peptide-MHC ligand, but very few will activate. Remarkably, this fine control is orchestrated using a limited set of intracellular machinery. It remains unclear whether changes in stimulation strength alter the programme of signalling events leading to T cell activation. Using mass cytometry to simultaneously measure multiple signalling pathways during activation of murine CD8 T cells, we found a programme of distal signalling events that is shared, regardless of the strength of TCR stimulation. Moreover, the relationship between transcription of early response genes and and activation of the ribosomal protein S6 is also conserved across stimuli. Instead, we found that stimulation strength dictates the rate with which cells initiate signalling through this network. These data suggest that TCR-induced signalling results in a coordinated activation program, modulated in rate but not organization by stimulation strength.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 32412411 15 05 2020

Quinn KM, Linterman MA Immunology

In Covre et al. and Pereira et al., the authors demonstrate the parallels between senescent NK cells and senescent CD8 T cells, and formalise the mechanism by which senescent CD8 T cells become more NK cell-like, through the action of sestrins.

+view abstract Immunology and cell biology, PMID: 32406096 13 May 2020

Meckelmann SW, Hawksworth JI, White D, Andrews R, Rodrigues P, O'Connor A, Alvarez-Jarreta J, Tyrrell VJ, Hinz C, Zhou Y, Williams J, Aldrovandi M, Watkins WJ, Engler AJ, Lo Sardo V, Slatter DA, Allen SM, Acharya J, Mitchell J, Cooper J, Aoki J, Kano K, Humphries SE, O'Donnell VB Signalling

Common chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increase coronary heart disease risk, independent of traditional lipid risk factors. However, lipids comprise large numbers of structurally related molecules not measured in traditional risk measurements, and many have inflammatory bioactivities. Here, we applied lipidomic and genomic approaches to 3 model systems to characterize lipid metabolic changes in common Chr9p21 SNPs, which confer ≈30% elevated coronary heart disease risk associated with altered expression of ANRIL, a long ncRNA.

+view abstract Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine, PMID: 32396387 06 2020

Borg M, Jacob Y, Susaki D, LeBlanc C, Buendía D, Axelsson E, Kawashima T, Voigt P, Boavida L, Becker J, Higashiyama T, Martienssen R, Berger F Epigenetics

Epigenetic marks are reprogrammed in the gametes to reset genomic potential in the next generation. In mammals, paternal chromatin is extensively reprogrammed through the global erasure of DNA methylation and the exchange of histones with protamines. Precisely how the paternal epigenome is reprogrammed in flowering plants has remained unclear since DNA is not demethylated and histones are retained in sperm. Here, we describe a multi-layered mechanism by which H3K27me3 is globally lost from histone-based sperm chromatin in Arabidopsis. This mechanism involves the silencing of H3K27me3 writers, activity of H3K27me3 erasers and deposition of a sperm-specific histone, H3.10 (ref. ), which we show is immune to lysine 27 methylation. The loss of H3K27me3 facilitates the transcription of genes essential for spermatogenesis and pre-configures sperm with a chromatin state that forecasts gene expression in the next generation. Thus, plants have evolved a specific mechanism to simultaneously differentiate male gametes and reprogram the paternal epigenome.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 32393884 06 2020

Ivanova E, Canovas S, Garcia-Martínez S, Romar R, Lopes JS, Rizos D, Sanchez-Calabuig MJ, Krueger F, Andrews S, Perez-Sanz F, Kelsey G, Coy P Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Preimplantation embryos experience profound resetting of epigenetic information inherited from the gametes. Genome-wide analysis at single-base resolution has shown similarities but also species differences between human and mouse preimplantation embryos in DNA methylation patterns and reprogramming. Here, we have extended such analysis to two key livestock species, the pig and the cow. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation and whole-transcriptome datasets from gametes to blastocysts in both species. In oocytes from both species, a distinctive bimodal methylation landscape is present, with hypermethylated domains prevalent over hypomethylated domains, similar to human, while in the mouse the proportions are reversed.An oocyte-like pattern of methylation persists in the cleavage stages, albeit with some reduction in methylation level, persisting to blastocysts in cow, while pig blastocysts have a highly hypomethylated landscape. In the pig, there was evidence of transient de novo methylation at the 8-16 cell stages of domains unmethylated in oocytes, revealing a complex dynamic of methylation reprogramming. The methylation datasets were used to identify germline differentially methylated regions (gDMRs) of known imprinted genes and for the basis of detection of novel imprinted loci. Strikingly in the pig, we detected a consistent reduction in gDMR methylation at the 8-16 cell stages, followed by recovery to the blastocyst stage, suggesting an active period of imprint stabilization in preimplantation embryos. Transcriptome analysis revealed absence of expression in oocytes of both species of ZFP57, a key factor in the mouse for gDMR methylation maintenance, but presence of the alternative imprint regulator ZNF445. In conclusion, our study reveals species differences in DNA methylation reprogramming and suggests that porcine or bovine models may be closer to human in key aspects than in the mouse model.

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 32393379 11 May 2020

Stammers M, Ivanova IM, Niewczas IS, Segonds-Pichon A, Streeter M, Spiegel DA, Clark J Biological Chemistry

Collagen is a structural protein whose internal cross-linking critically determines the properties and functions of connective tissue. Knowing how the cross-linking of collagen changes with age is key to understanding why the mechanical properties of tissues change over a lifetime. The current scientific consensus is that collagen cross-linking increases with age and that this increase leads to tendon stiffening. Here, we show that this view should be reconsidered. Using MS-based analyses, we demonstrate that during aging of healthy C57BL/6 mice, the overall levels of collagen cross-linking in tail tendon decrease with age. However, the levels of lysine glycation in collagen, which is not considered a cross-link, increased dramatically with age. We found that in 16-week-old diabetic db/db mice, glycation reaches levels similar to those observed in 98-week-old C57BL/6 mice, while the other cross-links typical of tendon collagen either decreased or remained the same as those observed in 20 week old WT mice. These results, combined with findings from mechanical testing of tendons from these mice, indicate that overall collagen cross-linking in mouse tendon decreases with age. Our findings also reveal that lysine glycation appears to be an important factor that contributes to tendon stiffening with age and in diabetes.

+view abstract The Journal of biological chemistry, PMID: 32381510 07 May 2020

Wołodko K, Walewska E, Adamowski M, Castillo-Fernandez J, Kelsey G, Galvão A Epigenetics

Obesity is associated with infertility, decreased ovarian performance and lipotoxicity. However, little is known about the aetiology of these reproductive impairments. Here, we hypothesise that the majority of changes in ovarian physiology in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are a consequence of transcriptional changes downstream of altered leptin signalling. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which leptin signalling is altered in the ovary upon obesity with particular emphasis on effects on cumulus cells (CCs), the intimate functional companions of the oocyte. Furthermore, we used the pharmacological hyperleptinemic (LEPT) mouse model to compare transcriptional profiles to DIO.

+view abstract Cellular physiology and biochemistry, PMID: 32348667 30 Apr 2020

Liston A, Whyte CE Immunology

The microbiome is increasingly recognized for its ability to modulate human health. Colonization with gut symbionts induces Foxp3‐expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expands their local numbers, a critical step in the suppression of intestinal inflammation and maintaining gut homeostasis. The molecular mechanism by which the microbiome interacts with peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) is likely complex and multifactorial; however, part of the effect is mediated via the release of microbial fermentation products, such as butyrate and other short‐chain fatty acids.

+view abstract Immunology and cell biology, PMID: 32329090 24 Apr 2020

Silva-Cayetano A, Linterman MA Immunology

The germinal centre (GC) is a specialized cellular structure that forms in response to antigenic stimulation. It generates long-term humoral immunity through the production of memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells. Conventional GCs form within secondary lymphoid organs, where networks of specialised stromal cells that form during embryogenesis act as the stage upon which the various GC immune cell players are brought together, nurtured and co-ordinated to generate a productive response. In non-lymphoid organs, ectopic GCs can form in response to persistent antigenic and inflammatory stimuli. Unlike secondary lymphoid tissues, non-lymphoid organs do not have a developmentally programmed stromal cell network capable of supporting the germinal centre reaction; therefore, the local tissue stroma must be remodelled by inflammatory stimuli in order to host a GC reaction. These ectopic GCs produce memory B cells and plasma cells that form a critical component of the humoral immune response.

+view abstract Current opinion in immunology, PMID: 32325390 20 Apr 2020

Van Nieuwenhove E, Barber JS, Neumann J, Smeets E, Willemsen M, Pasciuto E, Prezzemolo T, Lagou V, Seldeslachts L, Malengier-Devlies B, Metzemaekers M, Haßdenteufel S, Kerstens A, van der Kant R, Rousseau F, Schymkowitz J, Di Marino D, Lang S, Zimmermann R, Schlenner S, Munck S, Proost P, Matthys P, Devalck C, Boeckx N, Claessens F, Wouters C, Humblet-Baron S, Meyts I, Liston A Immunology

The molecular cause of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is unknown in 30-50% of patients. SEC61A1 encodes the α subunit of the SEC61 complex, which governs endoplasmic reticulum protein transport and passive calcium leakage. Recently, mutations in SEC61A1 were reported to be pathogenic in common variable immunodeficiency and glomerulocystic kidney disease.

+view abstract The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, PMID: 32325141 20 Apr 2020

Hanna CW Epigenetics

As the maternal-foetal interface, the placenta is essential for the establishment and progression of healthy pregnancy, regulating both foetal growth and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. The evolution and functional importance of genomic imprinting are inextricably linked to mammalian placentation. Recent technological advances in mapping and manipulating the epigenome in embryogenesis in mouse models have revealed novel mechanisms regulating genomic imprinting in placental trophoblast, the physiological implications of which are only just beginning to be explored. This review will highlight important recent discoveries and exciting new directions in the study of placental imprinting.

+view abstract PLoS genetics, PMID: 32324732 Apr 2020

Dalle Pezze P, Karanasios E, Kandia V, Manifava M, Walker SA, Gambardella Le Novère N, Ktistakis NT Signalling, Imaging

During macroautophagy/autophagy, the ULK complex nucleates autophagic precursors, which give rise to autophagosomes. We analyzed, by live imaging and mathematical modeling, the translocation of ATG13 (part of the ULK complex) to the autophagic puncta in starvation-induced autophagy and ivermectin-induced mitophagy. In nonselective autophagy, the intensity and duration of ATG13 translocation approximated a normal distribution, whereas wortmannin reduced this effect and shifted to a log-normal distribution. During mitophagy, multiple translocations of ATG13 with increasing time between peaks were observed. We hypothesized that these multiple translocations arise because the engulfment of mitochondrial fragments required successive nucleation of phagophores on the same target, and a mathematical model based on this idea reproduced the oscillatory behavior. Significantly, model and experimental data were also in agreement that the number of ATG13 translocations is directly proportional to the diameter of the targeted mitochondrial fragments. Thus, our data provide novel insights into the early dynamics of selective and nonselective autophagy. ATG: autophagy related 13; CFP: cyan fluorescent protein; dsRED: red fluorescent protein; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GFP: green fluorescent protein; IVM: ivermectin; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PtdIns3P: PtdIns-3-phosphate; ULK: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 32320309 22 Apr 2020

Wojdyla K, Collier AJ, Fabian C, Nisi PS, Biggins L, Oxley D, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics, Mass Spectrometry

Naive and primed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) provide valuable models to study cellular and molecular developmental processes. The lack of detailed information about cell-surface protein expression in these two pluripotent cell types prevents an understanding of how the cells communicate and interact with their microenvironments. Here, we used plasma membrane profiling to directly measure cell-surface protein expression in naive and primed hPSC. This unbiased approach quantified over 1,700 plasma membrane proteins, including those involved in cell adhesion, signaling, and cell interactions. Notably, multiple cytokine receptors upstream of JAK-STAT signaling were more abundant in naive hPSC. In addition, functional experiments showed that FOLR1 and SUSD2 proteins are highly expressed at the cell surface in naive hPSC but are not required to establish human naive pluripotency. This study provides a comprehensive stem cell proteomic resource that uncovers differences in signaling pathway activity and has identified new markers to define human pluripotent states.

+view abstract Stem cell reports, PMID: 32302559 10 Apr 2020

Hull RM, Houseley J Epigenetics

Carefully maintained and precisely inherited chromosomal DNA provides long-term genetic stability, but eukaryotic cells facing environmental challenges can benefit from the accumulation of less stable DNA species. Circular DNA molecules lacking centromeres segregate randomly or asymmetrically during cell division, following non-Mendelian inheritance patterns that result in high copy number instability and massive heterogeneity across populations. Such circular DNA species, variously known as extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), microDNA, double minutes or extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA), are becoming recognised as a major source of the genetic variation exploited by cancer cells and pathogenic eukaryotes to acquire drug resistance. In budding yeast, circular DNA molecules derived from the ribosomal DNA (ERCs) have been long known to accumulate with age, but it is now clear that aged yeast also accumulate other high-copy protein-coding circular DNAs acquired through both random and environmentally-stimulated recombination processes. Here, we argue that accumulation of circular DNA provides a reservoir of heterogeneous genetic material that can allow rapid adaptation of aged cells to environmental insults, but avoids the negative fitness impacts on normal growth of unsolicited gene amplification in the young population.

+view abstract Current genetics, PMID: 32296868 15 Apr 2020

Dembny P, Newman AG, Singh M, Hinz M, Szczepek M, Krüger C, Adalbert R, Dzaye O, Trimbuch T, Wallach T, Kleinau G, Derkow K, Richard BC, Schipke C, Scheidereit C, Stachelscheid H, Golenbock D, Peters O, Coleman M, Heppner FL, Scheerer P, Tarabykin V, Ruprecht K, Izsvák Z, Mayer J, Lehnardt S

Although human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent a substantial proportion of the human genome and some HERVs, such as HERV-K(HML-2), are reported to be involved in neurological disorders, little is known about their biological function. We report that RNA from an HERV-K(HML-2) envelope gene region binds to and activates human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8, as well as murine Tlr7, expressed in neurons and microglia, thereby causing neurodegeneration. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA introduced into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of either C57BL/6 wild-type mice or APPPS1 mice, a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulted in neurodegeneration and microglia accumulation. Tlr7-deficient mice were protected against neurodegenerative effects but were resensitized toward HERV-K(HML-2) RNA when neurons ectopically expressed murine Tlr7 or human TLR8. Transcriptome data sets of human AD brain samples revealed a distinct correlation of upregulated HERV-K(HML-2) and TLR8 RNA expression. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA was detectable more frequently in CSF from individuals with AD compared with controls. Our data establish HERV-K(HML-2) RNA as an endogenous ligand for species-specific TLRs 7/8 and imply a functional contribution of human endogenous retroviral transcripts to neurodegenerative processes, such as AD.

+view abstract JCI insight, PMID: 32271161 09 Apr 2020

Zachari M, Ktistakis NT Signalling

Mitophagy, a conserved intracellular process by which mitochondria are eliminated via the autophagic machinery, is a quality control mechanism which facilitates maintenance of a functional mitochondrial network and cell homeostasis, making it a key process in development and longevity. Mitophagy has been linked to multiple human disorders, especially neurodegenerative diseases where the long-lived neurons are relying on clearance of old/damaged mitochondria to survive. During the past decade, the availability of novel tools to study mitophagy both and has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing this fundamental process in normal physiology and in various disease models. We here give an overview of the known mitophagy pathways and how they are induced, with a particular emphasis on the early events governing mitophagosome formation.

+view abstract Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, PMID: 32258042 2020

Thompson O, von Meyenn F, Hewitt Z, Alexander J, Wood A, Weightman R, Gregory S, Krueger F, Andrews S, Barbaric I, Gokhale PJ, Moore HD, Reik W, Milo M, Nik-Zainal S, Yusa K, Andrews PW Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

The occurrence of repetitive genomic changes that provide a selective growth advantage in pluripotent stem cells is of concern for their clinical application. However, the effect of different culture conditions on the underlying mutation rate is unknown. Here we show that the mutation rate in two human embryonic stem cell lines derived and banked for clinical application is low and not substantially affected by culture with Rho Kinase inhibitor, commonly used in their routine maintenance. However, the mutation rate is reduced by >50% in cells cultured under 5% oxygen, when we also found alterations in imprint methylation and reversible DNA hypomethylation. Mutations are evenly distributed across the chromosomes, except for a slight increase on the X-chromosome, and an elevation in intergenic regions suggesting that chromatin structure may affect mutation rate. Overall the results suggest that pluripotent stem cells are not subject to unusually high rates of genetic or epigenetic alterations.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 32251294 23 Mar 2020

Ludwig-Begall LF, Lu J, Hosmillo M, de Oliveira-Filho EF, Mathijs E, Goodfellow I, Mauroy A, Thiry E Immunology

Noroviruses are recognized as the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in a viral genome, potentially eliciting a fitness cost, which must be compensated via the adaptive capacity of a recombinant virus. We previously described replicative fitness reduction of the first generated WU20-CW1 recombinant murine norovirus, RecMNV. In this follow-up study, RecMNV's capability of replicative fitness recuperation and genetic characteristics of RecMNV progenies at early and late stages of an adaptation experiment were evaluated. Replicative fitness regain of the recombinant was demonstrated via growth kinetics and plaque size differences between viral progenies prior to and post serial passaging. Point mutations at consensus and sub-consensus population levels of early and late viral progenies were characterized via next-generation sequencing and putatively associated to fitness changes. To investigate the effect of genomic changes separately and in combination in the context of a lab-generated inter-MNV infectious virus, mutations were introduced into a recombinant WU20-CW1 cDNA for subsequent DNA-based reverse genetics recovery. We thus associated fitness loss of RecMNV to a C7245T mutation and functional VP2 (ORF3) truncation and demonstrated individual and cumulative compensatory effects of one synonymous OFR2 and two non-synonymous ORF1 consensus-level mutations acquired during successive rounds of replication. Our data provide evidence of viral adaptation in a controlled environment via genetic drift after genetic shift induced a fitness cost of an infectious recombinant norovirus.

+view abstract The Journal of general virology, PMID: 32242791 03 Apr 2020

Collombet S, Ranisavljevic N, Nagano T, Varnai C, Shisode T, Leung W, Piolot T, Galupa R, Borensztein M, Servant N, Fraser P, Ancelin K, Heard E

Paternal and maternal epigenomes undergo marked changes after fertilization. Recent epigenomic studies have revealed the unusual chromatin landscapes that are present in oocytes, sperm and early preimplantation embryos, including atypical patterns of histone modifications and differences in chromosome organization and accessibility, both in gametes and after fertilization. However, these studies have led to very different conclusions: the global absence of local topological-associated domains (TADs) in gametes and their appearance in the embryo versus the pre-existence of TADs and loops in the zygote. The questions of whether parental structures can be inherited in the newly formed embryo and how these structures might relate to allele-specific gene regulation remain open. Here we map genomic interactions for each parental genome (including the X chromosome), using an optimized single-cell high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (HiC) protocol, during preimplantation in the mouse. We integrate chromosome organization with allelic expression states and chromatin marks, and reveal that higher-order chromatin structure after fertilization coincides with an allele-specific enrichment of methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. These early parental-specific domains correlate with gene repression and participate in parentally biased gene expression-including in recently described, transiently imprinted loci. We also find TADs that arise in a non-parental-specific manner during a second wave of genome assembly. These de novo domains are associated with active chromatin. Finally, we obtain insights into the relationship between TADs and gene expression by investigating structural changes to the paternal X chromosome before and during X chromosome inactivation in preimplantation female embryos. We find that TADs are lost as genes become silenced on the paternal X chromosome but linger in regions that escape X chromosome inactivation. These findings demonstrate the complex dynamics of three-dimensional genome organization and gene expression during early development.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32238933 04 2020

Collombet S, Ranisavljevic N, Nagano T, Varnai C, Shisode T, Leung W, Piolot T, Galupa R, Borensztein M, Servant N, Fraser P, Ancelin K, Heard E

Paternal and maternal epigenomes undergo marked changes after fertilization. Recent epigenomic studies have revealed the unusual chromatin landscapes that are present in oocytes, sperm and early preimplantation embryos, including atypical patterns of histone modifications and differences in chromosome organization and accessibility, both in gametes and after fertilization. However, these studies have led to very different conclusions: the global absence of local topological-associated domains (TADs) in gametes and their appearance in the embryo versus the pre-existence of TADs and loops in the zygote. The questions of whether parental structures can be inherited in the newly formed embryo and how these structures might relate to allele-specific gene regulation remain open. Here we map genomic interactions for each parental genome (including the X chromosome), using an optimized single-cell high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (HiC) protocol, during preimplantation in the mouse. We integrate chromosome organization with allelic expression states and chromatin marks, and reveal that higher-order chromatin structure after fertilization coincides with an allele-specific enrichment of methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. These early parental-specific domains correlate with gene repression and participate in parentally biased gene expression-including in recently described, transiently imprinted loci. We also find TADs that arise in a non-parental-specific manner during a second wave of genome assembly. These de novo domains are associated with active chromatin. Finally, we obtain insights into the relationship between TADs and gene expression by investigating structural changes to the paternal X chromosome before and during X chromosome inactivation in preimplantation female embryos. We find that TADs are lost as genes become silenced on the paternal X chromosome but linger in regions that escape X chromosome inactivation. These findings demonstrate the complex dynamics of three-dimensional genome organization and gene expression during early development.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32238933 04 2020

Zhao S, Jang C, Liu J, Uehara K, Gilbert M, Izzo L, Zeng X, Trefely S, Fernandez S, Carrer A, Miller KD, Schug ZT, Snyder NW, Gade TP, Titchenell PM, Rabinowitz JD, Wellen KE Epigenetics

Consumption of fructose has risen markedly in recent decades owing to the use of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup in beverages and processed foods, and this has contributed to increasing rates of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fructose intake triggers de novo lipogenesis in the liver, in which carbon precursors of acetyl-CoA are converted into fatty acids. The ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) enzyme cleaves cytosolic citrate to generate acetyl-CoA, and is upregulated after consumption of carbohydrates. Clinical trials are currently pursuing the inhibition of ACLY as a treatment for metabolic diseases. However, the route from dietary fructose to hepatic acetyl-CoA and lipids remains unknown. Here, using in vivo isotope tracing, we show that liver-specific deletion of Acly in mice is unable to suppress fructose-induced lipogenesis. Dietary fructose is converted to acetate by the gut microbiota, and this supplies lipogenic acetyl-CoA independently of ACLY. Depletion of the microbiota or silencing of hepatic ACSS2, which generates acetyl-CoA from acetate, potently suppresses the conversion of bolus fructose into hepatic acetyl-CoA and fatty acids. When fructose is consumed more gradually to facilitate its absorption in the small intestine, both citrate cleavage in hepatocytes and microorganism-derived acetate contribute to lipogenesis. By contrast, the lipogenic transcriptional program is activated in response to fructose in a manner that is independent of acetyl-CoA metabolism. These data reveal a two-pronged mechanism that regulates hepatic lipogenesis, in which fructolysis within hepatocytes provides a signal to promote the expression of lipogenic genes, and the generation of microbial acetate feeds lipogenic pools of acetyl-CoA.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 32214246 03 2020

Stebegg M, Bignon A, Hill DL, Silva-Cayetano A, Krueger C, Vanderleyden I, Innocentin S, Boon L, Wang J, Zand MS, Dooley J, Clark J, Liston A, Carr E, Linterman MA Immunology, Bioinformatics

Germinal centres (GCs) are T follicular helper cell (Tfh)-dependent structures that form in response to vaccination, producing long-lived antibody secreting plasma cells and memory B cells that protect against subsequent infection. With advancing age the GC and Tfh cell response declines, resulting in impaired humoral immunity. We sought to discover what underpins the poor Tfh cell response in ageing and whether it is possible to correct it. Here, we demonstrate that older people and aged mice have impaired Tfh cell differentiation upon vaccination. This deficit is preceded by poor activation of conventional dendritic cells type 2 (cDC2) due to reduced type 1 interferon signalling. Importantly, the Tfh and cDC2 cell response can be boosted in aged mice by treatment with a TLR7 agonist. This demonstrates that age-associated defects in the cDC2 and Tfh cell response are not irreversible and can be enhanced to improve vaccine responses in older individuals.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 32204792 24 Mar 2020

Trefely S, Lovell CD, Snyder NW, Wellen KE Epigenetics

Many metabolites serve as important signalling molecules to adjust cellular activities and functions based on nutrient availability. Links between acetyl-CoA metabolism, histone lysine acetylation, and gene expression have been documented and studied over the past decade. In recent years, several additional acyl modifications to histone lysine residues have been identified, which depend on acyl-coenzyme A thioesters (acyl-CoAs) as acyl donors. Acyl-CoAs are intermediates of multiple distinct metabolic pathways, and substantial evidence has emerged that histone acylation is metabolically sensitive. Nevertheless, the metabolic sources of acyl-CoAs used for chromatin modification in most cases remain poorly understood. Elucidating how these diverse chemical modifications are coupled to and regulated by cellular metabolism is important in deciphering their functional significance.

+view abstract Molecular metabolism, PMID: 32199817 08 2020

Haeussler S, Köhler F, Witting M, Premm MF, Rolland SG, Fischer C, Chauve L, Casanueva O, Conradt B Epigenetics

Compromising mitochondrial fusion or fission disrupts cellular homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) are not fully understood. The loss of C. elegans fzo-1MFN results in mitochondrial fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes that when knocked-down suppress fzo-1MFN(lf)-induced UPRmt. Of the 299 genes identified, 143 encode negative regulators of autophagy, many of which have previously not been implicated in this cellular quality control mechanism. We present evidence that increased autophagic flux suppresses fzo-1MFN(lf)-induced UPRmt by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential rather than restoring mitochondrial morphology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased autophagic flux also suppresses UPRmt induction in response to a block in mitochondrial fission, but not in response to the loss of spg-7, which encodes a mitochondrial metalloprotease. Finally, we found that blocking mitochondrial fusion or fission leads to increased levels of certain types of triacylglycerols and that this is at least partially reverted by the induction of autophagy. We propose that the breakdown of these triacylglycerols through autophagy leads to elevated metabolic activity, thereby increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and restoring mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis.

+view abstract PLoS genetics, PMID: 32191694 19 Mar 2020

Proikas-Cezanne T, Ktistakis NT Signalling

Ever since it was first discussed in evolutionary terms by Haldane (1941), Medawar (1952), and Williams (1957), [reviewed in Partridge and Gems (2006)] aging has become a focus of much current research interest, especially following discoveries pointing to molecular, genetic, and biochemical hallmarks that control its progression and severity (López-Otín et al., 2013). Amongst the many cellular processes that provide physiological connections to the aging process, autophagy is perhaps one of the most compelling (Rubinsztein et al., 2011; Nakamura and Yoshimori, 2018).

+view abstract Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, PMID: 32185175 2020

Woods L, Morgan N, Zhao X, Dean W, Perez-Garcia V, Hemberger M

Reproductive decline in older female mice can be attributed to a failure of the uterus to decidualise in response to steroid hormones. Here, we show that normal decidualisation is associated with significant epigenetic changes. Notably, we identify a cohort of differentially methylated regions (DMRs), most of which gain DNA methylation between the early and late stages of decidualisation. These DMRs are enriched at progesterone-responsive gene loci that are essential for reproductive function. In female mice nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, DNA methylation fidelity is lost at a number of CpG islands (CGIs) resulting in CGI hypermethylation at key decidualisation genes. Importantly, this hypermethylated state correlates with the failure of the corresponding genes to become transcriptionally upregulated during the implantation window. Thus, age-associated DNA methylation changes may underlie the decidualisation defects that are a common occurrence in older females. Alterations to the epigenome of uterine cells may therefore contribute significantly to the reproductive decline associated with advanced maternal age.

+view abstract Development, PMID: 32184271 17 Mar 2020

Lochhead PA, Tucker JA, Tatum NJ, Wang J, Oxley D, Kidger AM, Johnson VP, Cassidy MA, Gray NS, Noble MEM, Cook SJ Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

The dual protein kinase-transcription factor, ERK5, is an emerging drug target in cancer and inflammation, and small-molecule ERK5 kinase inhibitors have been developed. However, selective ERK5 kinase inhibitors fail to recapitulate ERK5 genetic ablation phenotypes, suggesting kinase-independent functions for ERK5. Here we show that ERK5 kinase inhibitors cause paradoxical activation of ERK5 transcriptional activity mediated through its unique C-terminal transcriptional activation domain (TAD). Using the ERK5 kinase inhibitor, Compound 26 (ERK5-IN-1), as a paradigm, we have developed kinase-active, drug-resistant mutants of ERK5. With these mutants, we show that induction of ERK5 transcriptional activity requires direct binding of the inhibitor to the kinase domain. This in turn promotes conformational changes in the kinase domain that result in nuclear translocation of ERK5 and stimulation of gene transcription. This shows that both the ERK5 kinase and TAD must be considered when assessing the role of ERK5 and the effectiveness of anti-ERK5 therapeutics.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 32170057 13 Mar 2020

Kazakevych J, Denizot J, Liebert A, Portovedo M, Mosavie M, Jain P, Stellato C, Fraser C, Corrêa RO, Célestine M, Mattiuz R, Okkenhaug H, Miller JR, Vinolo MAR, Veldhoen M, Varga-Weisz P Immunology, Imaging

How intestinal epithelial cells interact with the microbiota and how this is regulated at the gene expression level are critical questions. Smarcad1 is a conserved chromatin remodeling factor with a poorly understood tissue function. As this factor is highly expressed in the stem and proliferative zones of the intestinal epithelium, we explore its role in this tissue.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 32160911 11 Mar 2020

Coleman MP, Höke A

Wallerian degeneration is a widespread mechanism of programmed axon degeneration. In the three decades since the discovery of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld) mouse, research has generated extensive knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Wallerian degeneration, demonstrated its involvement in non-injury disorders and found multiple ways to block it. Recent developments have included: the detection of NMNAT2 mutations that implicate Wallerian degeneration in rare human diseases; the capacity for lifelong rescue of a lethal condition related to Wallerian degeneration in mice; the discovery of 'druggable' enzymes, including SARM1 and MYCBP2 (also known as PHR1), in Wallerian pathways; and the elucidation of protein structures to drive further understanding of the underlying mechanisms and drug development. Additionally, new data have indicated the potential of these advances to alleviate a number of common disorders, including chemotherapy-induced and diabetic peripheral neuropathies, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

+view abstract Nature reviews. Neuroscience, PMID: 32152523 09 Mar 2020

Demond H, Kelsey G Epigenetics

The mammalian genome experiences profound setting and resetting of epigenetic patterns during the life-course. This is understood best for DNA methylation: the specification of germ cells, gametogenesis, and early embryo development are characterised by phases of widespread erasure and rewriting of methylation. While mitigating against intergenerational transmission of epigenetic information, these processes must also ensure correct genomic imprinting that depends on faithful and long-term memory of gamete-derived methylation states in the next generation. This underscores the importance of understanding the mechanisms of methylation programming in the germline. methylation in the oocyte is of particular interest because of its intimate association with transcription, which results in a bimodal methylome unique amongst mammalian cells. Moreover, this methylation landscape is entirely set up in a non-dividing cell, making the oocyte a fascinating model system in which to explore mechanistic determinants of methylation. Here, we summarise current knowledge on the oocyte DNA methylome and how it is established, focussing on recent insights from knockout models in the mouse that explore the interplay between methylation and chromatin states. We also highlight some remaining paradoxes and enigmas, in particular the involvement of non-nuclear factors for correct methylation.

+view abstract F1000Research, PMID: 32148772 2020

Alvisi G, Brummelman J, Puccio S, Mazza EMC, Paoluzzi Tomada E, Losurdo A, Zanon V, Peano C, Colombo FS, Scarpa A, Alloisio M, Vasanthakumar A, Roychoudhuri R, Kallikourdis M, Pagani M, Lopci E, Novellis P, Blume J, Kallies A, Veronesi G, Lugli E Immunology

The molecular mechanisms responsible for the high immunosuppressive capacity of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumors are poorly known. High-dimensional single cell profiling of T cells from chemotherapy-naïve individuals with non-small cell lung cancer identified the transcription factor IRF4 as specifically expressed by a subset of intratumoral CD4+ effector Tregs with superior suppressive activity. In contrast to the IRF4- counterparts, IRF4+ Tregs expressed a vast array of suppressive molecules, and their presence correlated with multiple exhausted subpopulations of T cells. Integration of transcriptomic and epigenomic data revealed that IRF4, either alone or in combination with its partner BATF, directly controlled a molecular program responsible for immunosuppression in tumors. Accordingly, deletion of Irf4 exclusively in Tregs resulted in delayed tumor growth in mice while the abundance of IRF4+ Tregs correlated with poor prognosis in patients with multiple human cancers. Thus, a common mechanism underlies immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment irrespectively of the tumor type.

+view abstract The Journal of clinical investigation, PMID: 32125291 03 Mar 2020

Villaseñor R, Pfaendler R, Ambrosi C, Butz S, Giuliani S, Bryan E, Sheahan TW, Gable AL, Schmolka N, Manzo M, Wirz J, Feller C, von Mering C, Aebersold R, Voigt P, Baubec T Epigenetics

Chromatin modifications regulate genome function by recruiting proteins to the genome. However, the protein composition at distinct chromatin modifications has yet to be fully characterized. In this study, we used natural protein domains as modular building blocks to develop engineered chromatin readers (eCRs) selective for DNA methylation and histone tri-methylation at H3K4, H3K9 and H3K27 residues. We first demonstrated their utility as selective chromatin binders in living cells by stably expressing eCRs in mouse embryonic stem cells and measuring their subnuclear localization, genomic distribution and histone-modification-binding preference. By fusing eCRs to the biotin ligase BASU, we established ChromID, a method for identifying the chromatin-dependent protein interactome on the basis of proximity biotinylation, and applied it to distinct chromatin modifications in mouse stem cells. Using a synthetic dual-modification reader, we also uncovered the protein composition at bivalently modified promoters marked by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. These results highlight the ability of ChromID to obtain a detailed view of protein interaction networks on chromatin.

+view abstract Nature biotechnology, PMID: 32123383 06 2020

Coulon D, Faure L, Grison M, Pascal S, Wattelet-Boyer V, Clark J, Guedard ML, Testet E, Bessoule JJ Biological Chemistry

-lipid acyltransferases are enzymes involved in various processes such as lipid synthesis and remodelling. Here, we characterized the activity of an acyltransferase from (LPIAT). In vitro, this protein, expressed in membrane, displayed a 2--phosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity with a specificity towards saturated long chain acyl CoAs (C16:0- and C18:0-CoAs), allowing the remodelling of phosphatidylinositol. , gene was expressed in mature seeds and very transiently during seed imbibition, mostly in aleurone-like layer cells. Whereas the disruption of this gene did not alter the lipid composition of seed, its overexpression in leaves promoted a strong increase in the phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIP) level without affecting the PIP2 content. The spatial and temporal narrow expression of this gene as well as the modification of PIP metabolism led us to investigate its role in the control of seed germination. Seeds from the mutant germinated faster and were less sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) than wild-type or overexpressing lines. We also showed that the protective effect of ABA on young seedlings against dryness was reduced for line. In addition, germination of mutant seeds was more sensitive to hyperosmotic stress. All these results suggest a link between phosphoinositides and ABA signalling in the control of seed germination.

+view abstract International journal of molecular sciences, PMID: 32121266 28 Feb 2020

Casanova V, Sousa FH, Shakamuri P, Svoboda P, Buch C, D'Acremont M, Christophorou MA, Pohl J, Stevens C, Barlow PG Epigenetics

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the most common cause of viral respiratory tract infections. While normally mild and self-limiting in healthy adults, HRV infections are associated with bronchiolitis in infants, pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, and exacerbations of asthma and COPD. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a host defense peptide (HDP) with broad immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities that has direct antiviral effects against HRV. However, LL-37 is known to be susceptible to the enzymatic activity of peptidyl arginine deiminases (PAD), and exposure of the peptide to these enzymes results in the conversion of positively charged arginines to neutral citrullines (citrullination). Here, we demonstrate that citrullination of LL-37 reduced its direct antiviral activity against HRV. Furthermore, while the anti-rhinovirus activity of LL-37 results in dampened epithelial cell inflammatory responses, citrullination of the peptide, and a loss in antiviral activity, ameliorates this effect. This study also demonstrates that HRV infection upregulates PAD2 protein expression, and increases levels of protein citrullination, including histone H3, in human bronchial epithelial cells. Increased gene expression and HDP citrullination during infection may represent a novel viral evasion mechanism, likely applicable to a wide range of pathogens, and should therefore be considered in the design of therapeutic peptide derivatives.

+view abstract Frontiers in immunology, PMID: 32117246 2020

Mitchelmore J, Grinberg NF, Wallace C, Spivakov M

Identifying DNA cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control the expression of specific genes is crucial for deciphering the logic of transcriptional control. Natural genetic variation can point to the possible gene regulatory function of specific sequences through their allelic associations with gene expression. However, comprehensive identification of causal regulatory sequences in brute-force association testing without incorporating prior knowledge is challenging due to limited statistical power and effects of linkage disequilibrium. Sequence variants affecting transcription factor (TF) binding at CRMs have a strong potential to influence gene regulatory function, which provides a motivation for prioritizing such variants in association testing. Here, we generate an atlas of CRMs showing predicted allelic variation in TF binding affinity in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and test their association with the expression of their putative target genes inferred from Promoter Capture Hi-C and immediate linear proximity. We reveal >1300 CRM TF-binding variants associated with target gene expression, the majority of them undetected with standard association testing. A large proportion of CRMs showing associations with the expression of genes they contact in 3D localize to the promoter regions of other genes, supporting the notion of 'epromoters': dual-action CRMs with promoter and distal enhancer activity.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 32112106 06 04 2020

Antunes C, Da Silva JD, Guerra-Gomes S, Alves ND, Ferreira F, Loureiro-Campos E, Branco MR, Sousa N, Reik W, Pinto L, Marques CJ Epigenetics

TET3 is a member of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of enzymes which oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Tet3 is highly expressed in the brain, where 5hmC levels are most abundant. In adult mice, we observed that TET3 is present in mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but is absent in astrocytes. To investigate the function of TET3 in adult postmitotic neurons, we crossed Tet3 floxed mice with a neuronal Cre-expressing mouse line, Camk2a-CreERT2, obtaining a Tet3 conditional KO (cKO) mouse line. Ablation of Tet3 in adult mature neurons resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior with concomitant hypercorticalism, and impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial orientation. Transcriptome and gene-specific expression analysis of the hippocampus showed dysregulation of genes involved in glucocorticoid signaling pathway (HPA axis) in the ventral hippocampus, whereas upregulation of immediate early genes was observed in both dorsal and ventral hippocampal areas. In addition, Tet3 cKO mice exhibit increased dendritic spine maturation in the ventral CA1 hippocampal subregion. Based on these observations, we suggest that TET3 is involved in molecular alterations that govern hippocampal-dependent functions. These results reveal a critical role for epigenetic modifications in modulating brain functions, opening new insights into the molecular basis of neurological disorders.

+view abstract Molecular psychiatry, PMID: 32103150 26 Feb 2020

Bansode S, Bashtanova U, Li R, Clark J, Müller KH, Puszkarska A, Goldberga I, Chetwood HH, Reid DG, Colwell LJ, Skepper JN, Shanahan CM, Schitter G, Mesquida P, Duer MJ Biological Chemistry

Collagen fibrils are central to the molecular organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to defining the cellular microenvironment. Glycation of collagen fibrils is known to impact on cell adhesion and migration in the context of cancer and in model studies, glycation of collagen molecules has been shown to affect the binding of other ECM components to collagen. Here we use TEM to show that ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) glycation of collagen fibrils - potentially important in the microenvironment of actively dividing cells, such as cancer cells - disrupts the longitudinal ordering of the molecules in collagen fibrils and, using KFM and FLiM, that R5P-glycated collagen fibrils have a more negative surface charge than unglycated fibrils. Altered molecular arrangement can be expected to impact on the accessibility of cell adhesion sites and altered fibril surface charge on the integrity of the extracellular matrix structure surrounding glycated collagen fibrils. Both effects are highly relevant for cell adhesion and migration within the tumour microenvironment.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 32099005 25 Feb 2020

Kishi-Itakura C, Ktistakis NT, Buss F Signalling

Autophagy defends cells against proliferation of bacteria such as Salmonella in the cytosol. After escape from a damaged Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) exposing luminal glycans that bind to Galectin-8, the host cell ubiquitination machinery deposits a dense layer of ubiquitin around the cytosolic bacteria. The nature and spatial distribution of this ubiquitin coat in relation to other autophagy-related membranes are unknown. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy we determined the exact localisation of ubiquitin, the ruptured SCV membrane and phagophores around cytosolic Salmonella. Ubiquitin was not predominantly present on the Salmonella surface, but enriched on the fragmented SCV. Cytosolic bacteria without SCVs were less efficiently targeted by phagophores. Single bacteria were contained in single phagophores but multiple bacteria could be within large autophagic vacuoles reaching 30 μm in circumference. These large phagophores followed the contour of the engulfed bacteria, they were frequently in close association with endoplasmic reticulum membranes and, within them, remnants of the SCV were seen associated with each engulfed particle. Our data suggest that the Salmonella SCV has a major role in the formation of autophagic phagophores and highlight evolutionary conserved parallel mechanisms between xenophagy and mitophagy with the fragmented SCV and the damaged outer mitochondrial membrane serving similar functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract Traffic, PMID: 32086870 21 Feb 2020

Monzón-Casanova E, Matheson LS, Tabbada K, Zarnack K, Smith CW, Turner M Immunology, Sequencing

Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1) is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) expressed throughout B cell development. Deletion of in mouse pro-B cells results in upregulation of PTBP2 and normal B cell development. We show that PTBP2 compensates for PTBP1 in B cell ontogeny as deletion of both and results in a complete block at the pro-B cell stage and a lack of mature B cells. In pro-B cells PTBP1 ensures precise synchronisation of the activity of cyclin dependent kinases at distinct stages of the cell cycle, suppresses S-phase entry and promotes progression into mitosis. PTBP1 controls mRNA abundance and alternative splicing of important cell cycle regulators including CYCLIN-D2, c-MYC, p107 and CDC25B. Our results reveal a previously unrecognised mechanism mediated by a RBP that is essential for B cell ontogeny and integrates transcriptional and post-translational determinants of progression through the cell cycle.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 32081131 21 Feb 2020

Odle RI, Cook SJ Signalling

For the last two decades there has been wide ranging debate about the status of macroautophagy during mitosis. Because metazoan cells undergo an "open" mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks down, it has been proposed that macroautophagy must be inhibited to maintain genome integrity. While many studies have agreed that the number of autophagosomes is greatly reduced in cells undergoing mitosis, there has been no consensus on whether this reflects decreased autophagosome synthesis or increased autophagosome degradation. Reviewing the literature we were concerned that many studies relied too heavily on autophagy assays that were simply not appropriate for a relatively brief event such as mitosis. Using highly dynamic omegasome markers we have recently shown unequivocally that autophagosome synthesis is repressed at the onset of mitosis and is restored once cell division is complete. This is accomplished by CDK1, the master regulator of mitosis, taking over the function of MTORC1, to ensure autophagy is repressed during mitosis.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 32079445 20 Feb 2020

Wutz G, Ladurner R, St Hilaire BG, Stocsits RR, Nagasaka K, Pignard B, Sanborn A, Tang W, Várnai C, Ivanov MP, Schoenfelder S, van der Lelij P, Huang X, Dürnberger G, Roitinger E, Mechtler K, Davidson IF, Fraser PJ, Lieberman-Aiden E, Peters JM Epigenetics

Eukaryotic genomes are folded into loops. It is thought that these are formed by cohesin complexes extrusion, either until loop expansion is arrested by CTCF or until cohesin is removed from DNA by WAPL. Although WAPL limits cohesin's chromatin residence time to minutes, it has been reported that some loops exist for hours. How these loops can persist is unknown. We show that during G1-phase, mammalian cells contain acetylated cohesin which binds chromatin for hours, whereas cohesin binds chromatin for minutes. Our results indicate that CTCF and the acetyltransferase ESCO1 protect a subset of cohesin complexes from WAPL, thereby enable formation of long and presumably long-lived loops, and that ESCO1, like CTCF, contributes to boundary formation in chromatin looping. Our data are consistent with a model of nested loop extrusion, in which acetylated cohesin forms stable loops between CTCF sites, demarcating the boundaries of more transient cohesin extrusion activity.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 32065581 17 Feb 2020

Li L, Lai M, Cole S, Le Novère N, Edelstein SJ

Calmodulin sits at the center of molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Its complex and sometimes opposite influences, mediated via the binding to various proteins, are yet to be fully understood. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) both bind open calmodulin, favoring Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) or Depression (LTD) respectively. Neurogranin binds to the closed conformation of calmodulin and its impact on synaptic plasticity is less clear. We set up a mechanistic computational model based on allosteric principles to simulate calmodulin state transitions and its interactions with calcium ions and the three binding partners mentioned above. We simulated calcium spikes at various frequencies and show that neurogranin regulates synaptic plasticity along three modalities. At low spike frequencies, neurogranin inhibits the onset of LTD by limiting CaN activation. At intermediate frequencies, neurogranin facilitates LTD, but limits LTP by precluding binding of CaMKII with calmodulin. Finally, at high spike frequencies, neurogranin promotes LTP by enhancing CaMKII autophosphorylation. While neurogranin might act as a calmodulin buffer, it does not significantly preclude the calmodulin opening by calcium. On the contrary, neurogranin synchronizes the opening of calmodulin's two lobes and promotes their activation at specific frequencies. Neurogranin suppresses basal CaN activity, thus increasing the chance of CaMKII trans-autophosphorylation at high-frequency calcium spikes. Taken together, our study reveals dynamic regulatory roles played by neurogranin on synaptic plasticity, which provide mechanistic explanations for opposing experimental findings.

+view abstract PLoS computational biology, PMID: 32049957 02 2020

Biram A, Winter E, Denton AE, Zaretsky I, Dassa B, Bemark M, Linterman MA, Yaari G, Shulman Z Immunology

Antibodies secreted within the intestinal tract provide protection from the invasion of microbes into the host tissues. Germinal center (GC) formation in lymph nodes and spleen strictly requires SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-mediated T cell functions; however, it is not known whether this mechanism plays a similar role in mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. Here, we find that in Peyer's patches (PPs), SAP-mediated T cell help is required for promoting B cell selection in GCs, but not for clonal diversification. PPs of SAP-deficient mice host chronic GCs that are absent in T cell-deficient mice. GC B cells in SAP-deficient mice express AID and Bcl6 and generate plasma cells in proportion to the GC size. Single-cell IgA sequencing analysis reveals that these mice host few diversified clones that were subjected to mild selection forces. These findings demonstrate that T cell-derived help to B cells in PPs includes SAP-dependent and SAP-independent functions.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 32049020 11 Feb 2020

Durrant CS, Ruscher K, Sheppard O, Coleman MP, Özen I

Amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) proteins play a key role in vascular pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) including impairment of the blood-brain barrier and aberrant angiogenesis. Although previous work has demonstrated a pro-angiogenic role of Aβ, the exact mechanisms by which amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and endothelial angiogenic signalling cascades interact in AD remain a largely unsolved problem. Here, we report that increased endothelial sprouting in human-APP transgenic mouse (TgCRND8) tissue is dependent on β-secretase (BACE1) processing of APP. Higher levels of Aβ processing in TgCRND8 tissue coincides with decreased NOTCH3/JAG1 signalling, overproduction of endothelial filopodia and increased numbers of vascular pericytes. Using a novel in vitro approach to study sprouting angiogenesis in TgCRND8 organotypic brain slice cultures (OBSCs), we find that BACE1 inhibition normalises excessive endothelial filopodia formation and restores NOTCH3 signalling. These data present the first evidence for the potential of BACE1 inhibition as an effective therapeutic target for aberrant angiogenesis in AD.

+view abstract Cell death & disease, PMID: 32029735 06 Feb 2020

Hill DL, Carr EJ, Rutishauser T, Moncunill G, Campo JJ, Innocentin S, Mpina M, Nhabomba A, Tumbo A, Jairoce C, Moll HA, van Zelm MC, Dobaño C, Daubenberger C, Linterman MA Immunology

Children from low- and middle-income countries, where there is a high incidence of infectious disease, have the greatest need for the protection afforded by vaccination, but vaccines often show reduced efficacy in these populations. An improved understanding of how age, infection, nutrition, and genetics influence immune ontogeny and function is key to informing vaccine design for this at-risk population. We sought to identify factors that shape immune development in children under 5 years of age from Tanzania and Mozambique by detailed immunophenotyping of longitudinal blood samples collected during the RTS,S malaria vaccine phase 3 trial. In these cohorts, the composition of the immune system is dynamically transformed during the first years of life, and this was further influenced by geographical location, with some immune cell types showing an altered rate of development in Tanzanian children compared to Dutch children enrolled in the Generation R population-based cohort study. High-titer antibody responses to the RTS,S/AS01E vaccine were associated with an activated immune profile at the time of vaccination, including an increased frequency of antibody-secreting plasmablasts and follicular helper T cells. Anemic children had lower frequencies of recent thymic emigrant T cells, isotype-switched memory B cells, and plasmablasts; modulating iron bioavailability in vitro could recapitulate the B cell defects observed in anemic children. Our findings demonstrate that the composition of the immune system in children varies according to age, geographical location, and anemia status.

+view abstract Science translational medicine, PMID: 32024802 05 Feb 2020

Salerno F, Turner M, Wolkers MC Immunology

Effective T cell responses against infections and tumors require a swift and ample production of cytokines, chemokines, and cytotoxic molecules. The production of these effector molecules relies on rapid changes of gene expression, determined by cell-intrinsic signals and environmental cues. Here, we review our current understanding of gene-specific regulatory networks that define the magnitude and timing of cytokine production in CD8 T cells. We discuss the dynamic features of post-transcriptional control during CD8 T cell homeostasis and activation, and focus on the crosstalk between cell signaling and RNA-binding proteins. Elucidating gene-specific regulatory circuits may help in the future to rectify dysfunctional T cell responses.

+view abstract Trends in immunology, PMID: 32007423 29 Jan 2020

Qüesta JI, Antoniou-Kourounioti RL, Rosa S, Li P, Duncan S, Whittaker C, Howard M, Dean C Epigenetics

In , the cold-induced epigenetic regulation of () involves distinct phases of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) silencing. During cold, a PHD-PRC2 complex metastably and digitally nucleates H3K27me3 within On return to warm, PHD-PRC2 spreads across the locus delivering H3K27me3 to maintain long-term silencing. Here, we studied natural variation in this process in accessions, exploring Lov-1, which shows reactivation on return to warm, a feature characteristic of in perennial This analysis identifies an additional phase in this Polycomb silencing mechanism downstream from H3K27me3 spreading. In this long-term silencing (perpetuated) phase, the PHD proteins are lost from the nucleation region and silencing is likely maintained by the read-write feedbacks associated with H3K27me3. A combination of noncoding SNPs in the nucleation region mediates instability in this long-term silencing phase with the result that Lov-1 frequently digitally reactivates in individual cells, with a probability that diminishes with increasing cold duration. We propose that this decrease in reactivation probability is due to reduced DNA replication after flowering. Overall, this work defines an additional phase in the Polycomb mechanism instrumental in natural variation of silencing, and provides avenues to dissect broader evolutionary changes at .

+view abstract Genes & development, PMID: 32001513 01 03 2020

Wingett SW, Andrews S, Fraser P, Morf J Bioinformatics

We have previously developed and described a method for measuring RNA co-locations within cells, called Proximity RNA-seq, which promises insights into RNA expression, processing, storage and translation. Here, we describe transcriptome-wide proximity RNA-seq datasets obtained from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell nuclei. To aid future users of this method, we also describe and release our analysis pipeline, CloseCall, which maps cDNA to a custom transcript annotation and allocates cDNA-linked barcodes to barcode groups. CloseCall then performs Monte Carlo simulations on the data to identify pairs of transcripts, which are co-barcoded more frequently than expected by chance. Furthermore, derived co-barcoding frequencies for individual transcripts, dubbed valency, serve as proxies for RNA density or connectivity for that given transcript. We outline how this pipeline was applied to these sequencing datasets and openly share the processed data outputs and access to a virtual machine that runs CloseCall. The resulting data specify the spatial organization of RNAs and builds hypotheses for potential regulatory relationships between RNAs.

+view abstract Scientific data, PMID: 31992717 28 Jan 2020

Fellows R, Varga-Weisz P

The microbiota in the human gut are an important component of normal physiology that has co-evolved from the earliest multicellular organisms. Therefore, it is unsurprising that there is intimate crosstalk between the microbial world in the gut and the host. Genome regulation through microbiota-host interactions not only affects the host's immunity, but also metabolic health and resilience against cancer. Chromatin dynamics of the host epithelium involving histone modifications and other facets of the epigenetic machinery play an important role in this process.

+view abstract Molecular metabolism, PMID: 31992511 27 Dec 2019

Saenz-de-Juano MD, Ivanova E, Billooye K, Herta AC, Smitz J, Kelsey G, Anckaert E

After publication of the original article [1], we were notified that the software used to create the figures has exported them wrong so they display incomplete

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 31987054 27 Jan 2020

Vanderleyden I, Fra-Bido SC, Innocentin S, Stebegg M, Okkenhaug H, Evans-Bailey N, Pierson W, Denton AE, Linterman MA Immunology

The germinal center (GC) response is critical for generating high-affinity humoral immunity and immunological memory, which forms the basis of successful immunization. Control of the GC response is thought to require follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells, a subset of suppressive Foxp3 regulatory T cells located within GCs. Relatively little is known about the exact role of Tfr cells within the GC and how they exert their suppressive function. A unique feature of Tfr cells is their reported CXCR5-dependent localization to the GC. Here, we show that the lack of CXCR5 on Foxp3 regulatory T cells results in a reduced frequency, but not an absence, of GC-localized Tfr cells. This reduction in Tfr cells is not sufficient to alter the magnitude or output of the GC response. This demonstrates that additional, CXCR5-independent mechanisms facilitate Treg cell homing to the GC.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 31968240 21 Jan 2020

Hattwell JPN, Hastings J, Casanueva O, Schirra HJ, Witting M Epigenetics

Interpretation of metabolomics data in the context of biological pathways is important to gain knowledge about underlying metabolic processes. In this chapter we present methods to analyze genome-scale models (GSMs) and metabolomics data together. This includes reading and mining of GSMs using the SBTab format to retrieve information on genes, reactions, and metabolites. Furthermore, the chapter showcases the generation of metabolic pathway maps using the Escher tool, which can be used for data visualization. Lastly, approaches to constrain flux balance analysis (FBA) by metabolomics data are presented.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 31953826 2020

Cassidy LD, Young ARJ, Young CNJ, Soilleux EJ, Fielder E, Weigand BM, Lagnado A, Brais R, Ktistakis NT, Wiggins KA, Pyrillou K, Clarke MCH, Jurk D, Passos JF, Narita M Signalling

Autophagy is an important cellular degradation pathway with a central role in metabolism as well as basic quality control, two processes inextricably linked to ageing. A decrease in autophagy is associated with increasing age, yet it is unknown if this is causal in the ageing process, and whether autophagy restoration can counteract these ageing effects. Here we demonstrate that systemic autophagy inhibition induces the premature acquisition of age-associated phenotypes and pathologies in mammals. Remarkably, autophagy restoration provides a near complete recovery of morbidity and a significant extension of lifespan; however, at the molecular level this rescue appears incomplete. Importantly autophagy-restored mice still succumb earlier due to an increase in spontaneous tumour formation. Thus, our data suggest that chronic autophagy inhibition confers an irreversible increase in cancer risk and uncovers a biphasic role of autophagy in cancer development being both tumour suppressive and oncogenic, sequentially.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31949142 16 Jan 2020

Casciano JC, Perry C, Cohen-Nowak AJ, Miller KD, Vande Voorde J, Zhang Q, Chalmers S, Sandison ME, Liu Q, Hedley A, McBryan T, Tang HY, Gorman N, Beer T, Speicher DW, Adams PD, Liu X, Schlegel R, McCarron JG, Wakelam MJO, Gottlieb E, Kossenkov AV, Schug ZT Signalling

Recent studies have suggested that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a key metabolic pathway for the growth of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), particularly those that have high expression of MYC. However, the underlying mechanism by which MYC promotes FAO remains poorly understood.

+view abstract British journal of cancer, PMID: 31942031 16 Jan 2020

Al-Eitan L, Saadeh H, Alnaamneh A, Darabseh S, Al-Sarhan N, Alzihlif M, Hakooz N, Ivanova E, Kelsey G, Dajani R Epigenetics

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely used in several fields including medical genetics, forensic science, genetic genealogy, and evolutionary anthropology. In this study, mtDNA haplotype diversity was determined for 293 unrelated subjects from Jordanian population (Circassians, Chechens, and the original inhabitants of Jordan). A total of 102 haplotypes were identified and analyzed among the populations to describe the maternal lineage landscape. Our results revealed that the distribution of mtDNA haplotype frequencies among the three populations showed disparity and significant differences when compared to each other. We also constructed mitochondrial haplotype classification trees for the three populations to determine the phylogenetic relationship of mtDNA haplotype variants, and we observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestries, especially between Arab and the minority ethnic populations. To our knowledge, this study is the first, to date, to characterize mitochondrial haplotypes and haplotype distributions in a population-based sample from the Jordanian population. It provides a powerful reference for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease and studying population history and evolution by comparing the mtDNA haplotypes to other populations.

+view abstract Gene, PMID: 31884104 01 Mar 2020

Saenz-de-Juano MD, Ivanova E, Billooye K, Herta AC, Smitz J, Kelsey G, Anckaert E Epigenetics

In vitro follicle culture (IFC), as applied in the mouse system, allows the growth and maturation of a large number of immature preantral follicles to become mature and competent oocytes. In the human oncofertility clinic, there is increasing interest in developing this technique as an alternative to ovarian cortical tissue transplantation and to preserve the fertility of prepubertal cancer patients. However, the effect of IFC and hormonal stimulation on DNA methylation in the oocyte is not fully known, and there is legitimate concern over epigenetic abnormalities that could be induced by procedures applied during assisted reproductive technology (ART).

+view abstract Clinical epigenetics, PMID: 31856890 19 Dec 2019

Demond H, Anvar Z, Jahromi BN, Sparago A, Verma A, Davari M, Calzari L, Russo S, Jahromi MA, Monk D, Andrews S, Riccio A, Kelsey G Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Maternal effect mutations in the components of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) of the human oocyte can cause early embryonic failure, gestational abnormalities and recurrent pregnancy loss. Enigmatically, they are also associated with DNA methylation abnormalities at imprinted genes in conceptuses: in the devastating gestational abnormality biparental complete hydatidiform mole (BiCHM) or in multi-locus imprinting disease (MLID). However, the developmental timing, genomic extent and mechanistic basis of these imprinting defects are unknown. The rarity of these disorders and the possibility that methylation defects originate in oocytes have made these questions very challenging to address.

+view abstract Genome medicine, PMID: 31847873 17 12 2019

Adalbert R, Kaieda A, Antoniou C, Loreto A, Yang X, Gilley J, Hoshino T, Uga K, Makhija MT, Coleman MP

Disruption of axonal transport causes a number of rare, inherited axonopathies and is heavily implicated in a wide range of more common neurodegenerative disorders, many of them age-related. Acetylation of α-tubulin is one important regulatory mechanism, influencing microtubule stability and motor protein attachment. Of several strategies so far used to enhance axonal transport, increasing microtubule acetylation through inhibition of the deacetylase enzyme histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been one of the most effective. Several inhibitors have been developed and tested in animal and cellular models, but better drug candidates are still needed. Here we report the development and characterization of two highly potent HDAC6 inhibitors, which show low toxicity, promising pharmacokinetic properties, and enhance microtubule acetylation in the nanomolar range. We demonstrate their capacity to rescue axonal transport of mitochondria in a primary neuronal culture model of the inherited axonopathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2F, caused by a dominantly acting mutation in heat shock protein beta 1.

+view abstract ACS chemical neuroscience, PMID: 31845794 08 Jan 2020

Czechowska K, Lannigan J, Aghaeepour N, Back JB, Begum J, Behbehani G, Bispo C, Bitoun D, Fernández AB, Boova ST, Brinkman RR, Ciccolella CO, Cotleur B, Davies D, Dela Cruz GV, Del Rio-Guerra R, Des Lauriers-Cox AM, Douagi I, Dumrese C, Bonilla Escobar DL, Estevam J, Ewald C, Fossum A, Gaudillière B, Green C, Groves C, Hall C, Haque Y, Hedrick MN, Hogg K, Hsieh EWY, Irish J, Lederer J, Leipold M, Lewis-Tuffin LJ, Litwin V, Lopez P, Nasdala I, Nedbal J, Ohlsson-Wilhelm BM, Price KM, Rahman AH, Rayanki R, Rieger AM, Robinson JP, Shapiro H, Sun YS, Tang VA, Tesfa L, Telford WG, Walker R, Welsh JA, Wheeler P, Tárnok A Flow Cytometry

See publication

+view abstract Cytometry, PMID: 31833655 Dec 2019

McDermott MI, Wang Y, Wakelam MJO, Bankaitis VA Signalling

Despite being discovered over 60 years ago, the precise role of Phospholipase D (PLD) is still being elucidated. PLD enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids producing phosphatidic acid and the free headgroup. PLD family members are found in organisms ranging from viruses, and bacteria to plants, and mammals, and they display a range of substrate specificities, are regulated by a diverse range of molecules, and have been implicated in a broad range of cellular processes including receptor signaling, cytoskeletal regulation and membrane trafficking. Recent technological advances including: the development of PLD knockout mice, isoform-specific antibodies, and specific inhibitors are finally permitting a thorough analysis of the in vivo role of mammalian PLDs. These studies are facilitating increased recognition of PLD's role in disease states including cancers and Alzheimer's disease, offering potential as a target for therapeutic intervention.

+view abstract Progress in lipid research, PMID: 31830503 09 Dec 2019

Argelaguet R, Clark SJ, Mohammed H, Stapel LC, Krueger C, Kapourani CA, Imaz-Rosshandler I, Lohoff T, Xiang Y, Hanna CW, Smallwood S, Ibarra-Soria X, Buettner F, Sanguinetti G, Xie W, Krueger F, Göttgens B, Rugg-Gunn PJ, Kelsey G, Dean W, Nichols J, Stegle O, Marioni JC, Reik W Epigenetics

Formation of the three primary germ layers during gastrulation is an essential step in the establishment of the vertebrate body plan and is associated with major transcriptional changes. Global epigenetic reprogramming accompanies these changes, but the role of the epigenome in regulating early cell-fate choice remains unresolved, and the coordination between different molecular layers is unclear. Here we describe a single-cell multi-omics map of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression during the onset of gastrulation in mouse embryos. The initial exit from pluripotency coincides with the establishment of a global repressive epigenetic landscape, followed by the emergence of lineage-specific epigenetic patterns during gastrulation. Notably, cells committed to mesoderm and endoderm undergo widespread coordinated epigenetic rearrangements at enhancer marks, driven by ten-eleven translocation (TET)-mediated demethylation and a concomitant increase of accessibility. By contrast, the methylation and accessibility landscape of ectodermal cells is already established in the early epiblast. Hence, regulatory elements associated with each germ layer are either epigenetically primed or remodelled before cell-fate decisions, providing the molecular framework for a hierarchical emergence of the primary germ layers.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 31827285 2019

Morgan S, Hooper KM, Milne EM, Farquharson C, Stevens C, Staines KA

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often present poor bone health and are 40% more at risk of bone fracture. Studies have implicated autophagy in IBD pathology and drugs used to treat IBD stimulate autophagy in varying degrees, however, their effect on the skeleton is currently unknown. Here, we have utilised the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in mice to examine the effects of the thiopurine drug azathioprine on the skeleton. Ten-week-old male mice ( = 6/group) received 3.0% DSS in their drinking water for four days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. Mice were treated with 10 mg/kg/day azathioprine or vehicle control. Histopathological analysis of the colon from DSS mice revealed significant increases in scores for inflammation severity, extent, and crypt damage ( < 0.05). Azathioprine provided partial protection to the colon, as reflected by a lack of significant difference in crypt damage and tissue regeneration with DSS treatment. MicroCT of vehicle-treated DSS mice revealed azathioprine treatment had a significant detrimental effect on the trabecular bone microarchitecture, independent of DSS treatment. Specifically, significant decreases were observed in bone volume/tissue volume ( < 0.01), and trabecular number ( < 0.05), with a concurrent significant increase in trabecular pattern factor ( < 0.01). Immunohistochemical labelling for LC3 revealed azathioprine to induce autophagy in the bone marrow. Together these data suggest that azathioprine treatment may have a deleterious effect on IBD patients who may already be at increased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures and thus will inform on future treatment strategies for patient stratification.

+view abstract International journal of molecular sciences, PMID: 31816823 03 Dec 2019

Hull RM, King M, Pizza G, Krueger F, Vergara X, Houseley J Epigenetics, Sequencing

Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) facilitates adaptive evolution by allowing rapid and extensive gene copy number variation and is implicated in the pathology of cancer and ageing. Here, we demonstrate that yeast aged under environmental copper accumulate high levels of eccDNA containing the copper-resistance gene CUP1. Transcription of the tandemly repeated CUP1 gene causes CUP1 eccDNA accumulation, which occurs in the absence of phenotypic selection. We have developed a sensitive and quantitative eccDNA sequencing pipeline that reveals CUP1 eccDNA accumulation on copper exposure to be exquisitely site specific, with no other detectable changes across the eccDNA complement. eccDNA forms de novo from the CUP1 locus through processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by Sae2, Mre11 and Mus81, and genome-wide analyses show that other protein coding eccDNA species in aged yeast share a similar biogenesis pathway. Although abundant, we find that CUP1 eccDNA does not replicate efficiently, and high-copy numbers in aged cells arise through frequent formation events combined with asymmetric DNA segregation. The transcriptional stimulation of CUP1 eccDNA formation shows that age-linked genetic change varies with transcription pattern, resulting in gene copy number profiles tailored by environment.

+view abstract PLoS biology, PMID: 31794573 Dec 2019

Goodwin J, Laslett AL, Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics

Recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research have uncovered different subpopulations within stem cell cultures and have captured a range of pluripotent states that hold distinct molecular and functional properties. At the two ends of the pluripotency spectrum are naïve and primed hPSC, whereby naïve hPSC grown in stringent conditions recapitulate features of the preimplantation human embryo, and the conventionally grown primed hPSC align closer to the early postimplantation embryo. Investigating these cell types will help to define the mechanisms that control early development and should provide new insights into stem cell properties such as cell identity, differentiation and reprogramming. Monitoring cell surface marker expression provides a valuable approach to resolve complex cell populations, to directly compare between cell types, and to isolate viable cells for functional experiments. This review discusses the discovery and applications of cell surface markers to study human pluripotent cell types with a particular focus on the transitions between naïve and primed states. Highlighted areas for future study include the potential functions for the identified cell surface proteins in pluripotency, the production of new high-quality monoclonal antibodies to naïve-specific protein epitopes and the use of cell surface markers to characterise subpopulations within pluripotent states.

+view abstract Experimental cell research, PMID: 31790696 30 Nov 2019

Sendžikaitė G, Kelsey G Epigenetics

Epigenetic information in the mammalian oocyte has the potential to be transmitted to the next generation and influence gene expression; this occurs naturally in the case of imprinted genes. Therefore, it is important to understand how epigenetic information is patterned during oocyte development and growth. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of de novo DNA methylation mechanisms in the oocyte: how a distinctive gene-body methylation pattern is created, and the extent to which the DNA methylation machinery reads chromatin states. Recent epigenomic studies building on advances in ultra-low input chromatin profiling methods, coupled with genetic studies, have started to allow a detailed interrogation of the interplay between DNA methylation establishment and chromatin states; however, a full mechanistic description awaits.

+view abstract Essays in biochemistry, PMID: 31782490 20 Dec 2019

Cruz C, Houseley J Epigenetics

Over the past decade a plethora of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified, initiating an explosion in RNA research. Although RNA sequencing methods provide unsurpassed insights into ncRNA distribution and expression, detailed information on structure and processing are harder to extract from sequence data. In contrast, northern blotting methods provide uniquely detailed insights into complex RNA populations but are rarely employed outside specialist RNA research groups. Such techniques are generally considered difficult for nonspecialists, which is unfortunate as substantial technical advances in the past few decades have solved the major challenges. Here we present simple, reproducible and highly robust protocols for separating glyoxylated RNA on agarose gels and heat denatured RNA on polyacrylamide-urea gels using standard laboratory electrophoresis equipment. We also provide reliable transfer and hybridization protocols that do not require optimization for most applications. Together, these should allow any molecular biology lab to elucidate the structure and processing of ncRNAs of interest.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology, PMID: 31768973 2020

Gambardella L, McManus SA, Moignard V, Sebukhan D, Delaune A, Andrews S, Bernard WG, Morrison MA, Riley PR, Göttgens B, Gambardella Le Novère N, Sinha S Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

The murine developing epicardium heterogeneously expresses the transcription factors TCF21 and WT1. Here, we show that this cell heterogeneity is conserved in human epicardium, regulated by BNC1 and associated with cell fate and function. Single cell RNA sequencing of epicardium derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-epi) revealed that distinct epicardial subpopulations are defined by high levels of expression for the transcription factors BNC1 or TCF21. WT1 cells are included in the BNC1 population, which was confirmed in human foetal hearts. THY1 emerged as a membrane marker of the TCF21 population. We show that THY1 cells can differentiate into cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), whereas THY1 cells were predominantly restricted to SMCs. Knocking down BNC1 during the establishment of the epicardial populations resulted in a homogeneous, predominantly TCF21 population. Network inference methods using transcriptomic data from the different cell lineages derived from the hPSC-epi delivered a core transcriptional network organised around WT1, TCF21 and BNC1. This study unveils a list of epicardial regulators and is a step towards engineering subpopulations of epicardial cells with selective biological activities.

+view abstract Development, PMID: 31767620 13 Dec 2019

Trefely S, Liu J, Huber K, Doan MT, Jiang H, Singh J, von Krusenstiern E, Bostwick A, Xu P, Bogner-Strauss JG, Wellen KE, Snyder NW Epigenetics

The dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways can be monitored by stable isotope tracing. Yet, many metabolites are part of distinct processes within different subcellular compartments. Standard isotope tracing experiments relying on analyses in whole cells may not accurately reflect compartmentalized metabolic processes. Analysis of compartmentalized metabolism and the dynamic interplay between compartments can potentially be achieved by stable isotope tracing followed by subcellular fractionation. Although it is recognized that metabolism can take place during biochemical fractionation of cells, a clear understanding of how such post-harvest metabolism impacts the interpretation of subcellular isotope tracing data and methods to correct for this are lacking. We set out to directly assess artifactual metabolism, enabling us to develop and test strategies to correct for it. We apply these techniques to examine the compartment-specific metabolic kinetics of C-labeled substrates targeting central metabolic pathways.

+view abstract Molecular metabolism, PMID: 31767181 12 2019

Bell CG, Lowe R, Adams PD, Baccarelli AA, Beck S, Bell JT, Christensen BC, Gladyshev VN, Heijmans BT, Horvath S, Ideker T, Issa JJ, Kelsey KT, Marioni RE, Reik W, Relton CL, Schalkwyk LC, Teschendorff AE, Wagner W, Zhang K, Rakyan VK Epigenetics

Epigenetic clocks comprise a set of CpG sites whose DNA methylation levels measure subject age. These clocks are acknowledged as a highly accurate molecular correlate of chronological age in humans and other vertebrates. Also, extensive research is aimed at their potential to quantify biological aging rates and test longevity or rejuvenating interventions. Here, we discuss key challenges to understand clock mechanisms and biomarker utility. This requires dissecting the drivers and regulators of age-related changes in single-cell, tissue- and disease-specific models, as well as exploring other epigenomic marks, longitudinal and diverse population studies, and non-human models. We also highlight important ethical issues in forensic age determination and predicting the trajectory of biological aging in an individual.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 31767039 25 11 2019

Kidger AM, Munck JM, Saini HK, Balmanno K, Minihane E, Courtin A, Graham B, O'Reilly M, Odle R, Cook SJ Signalling

The RAS-regulated RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in cancer due to activating mutations of growth factor receptors, RAS or BRAF. Both RAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors are clinically approved and various ERK1/2 inhibitors (ERKi) are currently undergoing clinical trials. To date ERKi display two distinct mechanisms of action (MoA); catalytic ERKi solely inhibit ERK1/2 catalytic activity, whereas dual mechanism ERKi additionally prevent the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at its T-E-Y motif by MEK1/2. These differences may impart significant differences in biological activity because T-E-Y phosphorylation is the signal for nuclear entry of ERK1/2, allowing them to access many key transcription factor targets. Here, we characterised the MoA of five ERKi and examined their functional consequences in terms of ERK1/2 signalling, gene expression and anti-proliferative efficacy. We demonstrate that catalytic ERKi promote a striking nuclear accumulation of p-ERK1/2 in KRAS mutant cell lines. In contrast, dual mechanism ERKi exploit a distinct binding mode to block ERK1/2 phosphorylation by MEK1/2, exhibit superior potency and prevent the nuclear accumulation of ERK1/2. Consequently, dual-mechanism ERKi exhibit more durable pathway inhibition and enhanced suppression of ERK1/2-dependent gene expression compared to catalytic ERKi, resulting in increased efficacy across BRAF and RAS mutant cell lines.

+view abstract Molecular cancer therapeutics, PMID: 31748345 20 Nov 2019

Hahn O, Drews LF, Nguyen A, Tatsuta T, Gkioni L, Hendrich O, Zhang Q, Langer T, Pletcher S, Wakelam MJO, Beyer A, Grönke S, Partridge L Signalling, Lipidomics

Dietary restriction (DR) during adulthood can greatly extend lifespan and improve metabolic health in diverse species. However, whether DR in mammals is still effective when applied for the first time at old age remains elusive. Here, we report results of a late-life DR switch experiment employing 800 mice, in which 24 months old female mice were switched from ad libitum (AL) to DR or vice versa. Strikingly, the switch from DR-to-AL acutely increases mortality, whereas the switch from AL-to-DR causes only a weak and gradual increase in survival, suggesting a memory of earlier nutrition. RNA-seq profiling in liver, brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) demonstrate a largely refractory transcriptional and metabolic response to DR after AL feeding in fat tissue, particularly in WAT, and a proinflammatory signature in aged preadipocytes, which is prevented by chronic DR feeding. Our results provide evidence for a nutritional memory as a limiting factor for DR-induced longevity and metabolic remodeling of WAT in mammals.

+view abstract Nature metabolism, PMID: 31742247 Nov 2019

Loreto A, Hill CS, Hewitt VL, Orsomando G, Angeletti C, Gilley J, Lucci C, Sanchez-Martinez A, Whitworth AJ, Conforti L, Dajas-Bailador F, Coleman MP

Wallerian degeneration of physically injured axons involves a well-defined molecular pathway linking loss of axonal survival factor NMNAT2 to activation of pro-degenerative protein SARM1. Manipulating the pathway through these proteins led to the identification of non-axotomy insults causing axon degeneration by a Wallerian-like mechanism, including several involving mitochondrial impairment. Mitochondrial dysfunction is heavily implicated in Parkinson's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia and other axonal disorders. However, whether and how mitochondrial impairment activates Wallerian degeneration has remained unclear. Here, we show that disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential leads to axonal NMNAT2 depletion in mouse sympathetic neurons, increasing the substrate-to-product ratio (NMN/NAD) of this NAD-synthesising enzyme, a metabolic fingerprint of Wallerian degeneration. The mechanism appears to involve both impaired NMNAT2 synthesis and reduced axonal transport. Expression of WLD and Sarm1 deletion both protect axons after mitochondrial uncoupling. Blocking the pathway also confers neuroprotection and increases the lifespan of flies with Pink1 loss-of-function mutation, which causes severe mitochondrial defects. These data indicate that mitochondrial impairment replicates all the major steps of Wallerian degeneration, placing it upstream of NMNAT2 loss, with the potential to contribute to axon pathology in mitochondrial disorders.

+view abstract Neurobiology of disease, PMID: 31740269 15 Nov 2019

Odle RI, Walker SA, Oxley D, Kidger AM, Balmanno K, Gilley R, Okkenhaug H, Florey O, Ktistakis NT, Cook SJ Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Since nuclear envelope breakdown occurs during mitosis in metazoan cells, it has been proposed that macroautophagy must be inhibited to maintain genome integrity. However, repression of macroautophagy during mitosis remains controversial and mechanistic detail limited to the suggestion that CDK1 phosphorylates VPS34. Here, we show that initiation of macroautophagy, measured by the translocation of the ULK complex to autophagic puncta, is repressed during mitosis, even when mTORC1 is inhibited. Indeed, mTORC1 is inactive during mitosis, reflecting its failure to localize to lysosomes due to CDK1-dependent RAPTOR phosphorylation. While mTORC1 normally represses autophagy via phosphorylation of ULK1, ATG13, ATG14, and TFEB, we show that the mitotic phosphorylation of these autophagy regulators, including at known repressive sites, is dependent on CDK1 but independent of mTOR. Thus, CDK1 substitutes for inhibited mTORC1 as the master regulator of macroautophagy during mitosis, uncoupling autophagy regulation from nutrient status to ensure repression of macroautophagy during mitosis.

+view abstract Molecular cell, PMID: 31733992 06 Nov 2019

Sale MJ, Minihane E, Monks NR, Gilley R, Richards FM, Schifferli KP, Andersen CL, Davies EJ, Vicente MA, Ozono E, Markovets A, Dry JR, Drew L, Flemington V, Proia T, Jodrell DI, Smith PD, Cook SJ Signalling

BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors are effective in melanoma but resistance inevitably develops. Despite increasing the abundance of pro-apoptotic BIM and BMF, ERK1/2 pathway inhibition is predominantly cytostatic, reflecting residual pro-survival BCL2 family activity. Here, we show that uniquely low BCL-X expression in melanoma biases the pro-survival pool towards MCL1. Consequently, BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors are synthetic lethal with the MCL1 inhibitor AZD5991, driving profound tumour cell death that requires BAK/BAX, BIM and BMF, and inhibiting tumour growth in vivo. Combination of ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors with BCL2/BCL-w/BCL-X inhibitors is stronger in CRC, correlating with a low MCL1:BCL-X ratio; indeed the MCL1:BCL-X ratio is predictive of ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor synergy with MCL1 or BCL2/BCL-w/BCL-X inhibitors. Finally, AZD5991 delays acquired BRAFi/MEKi resistance and enhances the efficacy of an ERK1/2 inhibitor in a model of acquired BRAFi + MEKi resistance. Thus combining ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors with MCL1 antagonists in melanoma could improve therapeutic index and patient outcomes.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31727888 14 Nov 2019

Walker SA, Ktistakis NT Signalling, Imaging

We review current knowledge of the process of autophagosome formation with special emphasis on the very early steps: turning on the autophagy pathway, assembling the autophagy machinery, and building the autophagosome. The pathway is remarkably well coordinated spatially and temporally, and it shows broad conservation across species and cell types, including neurons. In addition, although much current knowledge derives mostly from settings of nonselective autophagy, recent work also indicates that selective autophagy, and more specifically mitophagy, shows similar dynamics. Having an understanding of this remarkable process may help the design of novel therapeutics for neurodegeneration and other pathologies.

+view abstract Journal of molecular biology, PMID: 31705882 03 04 2020

Malik-Sheriff RS, Glont M, Nguyen TVN, Tiwari K, Roberts MG, Xavier A, Vu MT, Men J, Maire M, Kananathan S, Fairbanks EL, Meyer JP, Arankalle C, Varusai TM, Knight-Schrijver V, Li L, Dueñas-Roca C, Dass G, Keating SM, Park YM, Buso N, Rodriguez N, Hucka M, Hermjakob H Signalling

Computational modelling has become increasingly common in life science research. To provide a platform to support universal sharing, easy accessibility and model reproducibility, BioModels (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/), a repository for mathematical models, was established in 2005. The current BioModels platform allows submission of models encoded in diverse modelling formats, including SBML, CellML, PharmML, COMBINE archive, MATLAB, Mathematica, R, Python or C++. The models submitted to BioModels are curated to verify the computational representation of the biological process and the reproducibility of the simulation results in the reference publication. The curation also involves encoding models in standard formats and annotation with controlled vocabularies following MIRIAM (minimal information required in the annotation of biochemical models) guidelines. BioModels now accepts large-scale submission of auto-generated computational models. With gradual growth in content over 15 years, BioModels currently hosts about 2000 models from the published literature. With about 800 curated models, BioModels has become the world's largest repository of curated models and emerged as the third most used data resource after PubMed and Google Scholar among the scientists who use modelling in their research. Thus, BioModels benefits modellers by providing access to reliable and semantically enriched curated models in standard formats that are easy to share, reproduce and reuse.

+view abstract Nucleic acids research, PMID: 31701150 2020

Johnston JM, Angyal A, Bauer RC, Hamby S, Suvarna SK, Baidžajevas K, Hegedus Z, Dear TN, Turner M, , Wilson HL, Goodall AH, Rader DJ, Shoulders CC, Francis SE, Kiss-Toth E Immunology,

Macrophages drive atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture; hence, attenuating their atherosclerosis-inducing properties holds promise for reducing coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent studies in mouse models have demonstrated that Tribbles 1 (Trib1) regulates macrophage phenotype and shows that deficiency increases plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, suggesting that reduced expression mediates the strong genetic association between the locus and increased CHD risk in man. However, we report here that myeloid-specific (m) deficiency reduces early atheroma formation and that m transgene expression increases atherogenesis. Mechanistically, m increased macrophage lipid accumulation and the expression of a critical receptor (OLR1), promoting oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake and the formation of lipid-laden foam cells. As and RNA levels were also strongly correlated in human macrophages, we suggest that a conserved, TRIB1-mediated mechanism drives foam cell formation in atherosclerotic plaque and that inhibiting mTRIB1 could be used therapeutically to reduce CHD.

+view abstract Science advances, PMID: 31692955 2019

Hanna CW, Pérez-Palacios R, Gahurova L, Schubert M, Krueger F, Biggins L, Andrews S, Colomé-Tatché M, Bourc'his D, Dean W, Kelsey G Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that allows a subset of genes to be expressed mono-allelically based on the parent of origin and is typically regulated by differential DNA methylation inherited from gametes. Imprinting is pervasive in murine extra-embryonic lineages, and uniquely, the imprinting of several genes has been found to be conferred non-canonically through maternally inherited repressive histone modification H3K27me3. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of non-canonical imprinting in post-implantation development remain unexplored.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 31665063 2019

White MA, Lin Z, Kim E, Henstridge CM, Pena Altamira E, Hunt CK, Burchill E, Callaghan I, Loreto A, Brown-Wright H, Mead R, Simmons C, Cash D, Coleman MP, Sreedharan J ,

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition that primarily affects the motor system and shares many features with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Evidence suggests that ALS is a 'dying-back' disease, with peripheral denervation and axonal degeneration occurring before loss of motor neuron cell bodies. Distal to a nerve injury, a similar pattern of axonal degeneration can be seen, which is mediated by an active axon destruction mechanism called Wallerian degeneration. Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 (Sarm1) is a key gene in the Wallerian pathway and its deletion provides long-term protection against both Wallerian degeneration and Wallerian-like, non-injury induced axonopathy, a retrograde degenerative process that occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases where axonal transport is impaired. Here, we explored whether Sarm1 signalling could be a therapeutic target for ALS by deleting Sarm1 from a mouse model of ALS-FTD, a TDP-43, YFP-H double transgenic mouse. Sarm1 deletion attenuated motor axon degeneration and neuromuscular junction denervation. Motor neuron cell bodies were also significantly protected. Deletion of Sarm1 also attenuated loss of layer V pyramidal neuronal dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex. Structural MRI identified the entorhinal cortex as the most significantly atrophic region, and histological studies confirmed a greater loss of neurons in the entorhinal cortex than in the motor cortex, suggesting a prominent FTD-like pattern of neurodegeneration in this transgenic mouse model. Despite the reduction in neuronal degeneration, Sarm1 deletion did not attenuate age-related behavioural deficits caused by TDP-43. However, Sarm1 deletion was associated with a significant increase in the viability of male TDP-43 mice, suggesting a detrimental role of Wallerian-like pathways in the earliest stages of TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. Collectively, these results indicate that anti-SARM1 strategies have therapeutic potential in ALS-FTD.

+view abstract Acta neuropathologica communications, PMID: 31661035 2019

Mancuso R, Van Den Daele J, Fattorelli N, Wolfs L, Balusu S, Burton O, Liston A, Sierksma A, Fourne Y, Poovathingal S, Arranz-Mendiguren A, Sala Frigerio C, Claes C, Serneels L, Theys T, Perry VH, Verfaillie C, Fiers M, De Strooper B ,

Although genetics highlights the role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease, one-third of putative Alzheimer's disease risk genes lack adequate mouse orthologs. Here we successfully engraft human microglia derived from embryonic stem cells in the mouse brain. The cells recapitulate transcriptionally human primary microglia ex vivo and show expression of human-specific Alzheimer's disease risk genes. Oligomeric amyloid-β induces a divergent response in human versus mouse microglia. This model can be used to study the role of microglia in neurological diseases.

+view abstract Nature neuroscience, PMID: 31659342 2019

Barneda D, Cosulich S, Stephens L, Hawkins P Signalling

The phosphoinositide (PIPn) family of signalling phospholipids are central regulators in membrane cell biology. Their varied functions are based on the phosphorylation pattern of their inositol ring, which can be recognized by selective binding domains in their effector proteins and be modified by a series of specific PIPn kinases and phosphatases, which control their interconversion in a spatial and temporal manner. Yet, a unique feature of PIPns remains largely unexplored: their unusually uniform acyl chain composition. Indeed, while most phospholipids present a range of molecular species comprising acyl chains of diverse length and saturation, PIPns in several organisms and tissues show the predominance of a single hydrophobic backbone, which in mammals is composed of arachidonoyl and stearoyl chains. Despite evolution having favoured this specific PIPn configuration, little is known regarding the mechanisms and functions behind it. In this review, we explore the metabolic pathways that could control the acyl chain composition of PIPns as well as the potential roles of this selective enrichment. While our understanding of this phenomenon has been constrained largely by the technical limitations in the methods traditionally employed in the PIPn field, we believe that the latest developments in PIPn analysis should shed light onto this old question.

+view abstract Biochemical Society transactions, PMID: 31657437 31 10 2019

O'Donnell VB, Ekroos K, Liebisch G, Wakelam M Signalling,

Lipids are essential for all facets of life. They play three major roles: energy metabolism, structural, and signaling. They are dynamic molecules strongly influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors including genetics, diet, age, lifestyle, drugs, disease and inflammation. As precision medicine starts to become mainstream, there is a huge burgeoning interest in lipids and their potential to act as unique biomarkers or prognostic indicators. Lipids comprise a large component of all metabolites (around one-third), and our expanding knowledge about their dynamic behavior is fueling the hope that mapping their regulatory biochemical pathways on a systems level will revolutionize our ability to prevent, diagnose, and stratify major human diseases. Up to now, clinical lipid measurements have consisted primarily of total cholesterol or triglycerides, as a measure for cardiovascular risk and response to lipid lowering drugs. Nowadays, we are able to measure thousands of individual lipids that make up the lipidome. nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) metabolomics is also being increasingly used in large cohort studies where it can report on total levels of selected lipid classes, and relative levels of fatty acid saturation. To support the application of lipidomics research, LIPID MAPS was established in 2003, and since then has gone on to become the go-to resource for several lipid databases, lipid drawing tools, data deposition, and more recently lipidomics informatics tools, and a lipid biochemistry encyclopedia, LipidWeb. Alongside this, the recently established Lipidomics Standards Initiative plays a key role in standardization of lipidomics methodologies. This article is categorized under: Laboratory Methods and Technologies > Metabolomics Analytical and Computational Methods > Analytical Methods.

+view abstract Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine, PMID: 31646749 2019

Santiago M, Antunes C, Guedes M, Iacovino M, Kyba M, Reik W, Sousa N, Pinto L, Branco MR, Marques CJ Epigenetics

TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a process thought to be intermediary in an active DNA demethylation mechanism. Notably, 5hmC is highly abundant in the brain and in neuronal cells. Here, we interrogated the function of Tet3 in neural precursor cells (NPCs), using a stable and inducible knockdown system and an in vitro neural differentiation protocol. We show that Tet3 is upregulated during neural differentiation, whereas Tet1 is downregulated. Surprisingly, Tet3 knockdown led to a de-repression of pluripotency-associated genes such as Oct4, Nanog or Tcl1, with concomitant hypomethylation. Moreover, in Tet3 knockdown NPCs, we observed the appearance of OCT4-positive cells forming cellular aggregates, suggesting de-differentiation of the cells. Notably, Tet3 KD led to a genome-scale loss of DNA methylation and hypermethylation of a smaller number of CpGs that are located at neurogenesis-related genes and at imprinting control regions (ICRs) of Peg10, Zrsr1 and Mcts2 imprinted genes. Overall, our results suggest that TET3 is necessary to maintain silencing of pluripotency genes and consequently neural stem cell identity, possibly through regulation of DNA methylation levels in neural precursor cells.

+view abstract Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, PMID: 31646359 2019

Doll S, Freitas FP, Shah R, Aldrovandi M, da Silva MC, Ingold I, Goya Grocin A, Xavier da Silva TN, Panzilius E, Scheel CH, Mourão A, Buday K, Sato M, Wanninger J, Vignane T, Mohana V, Rehberg M, Flatley A, Schepers A, Kurz A, White D, Sauer M, Sattler M, Tate EW, Schmitz W, Schulze A, O'Donnell V, Proneth B, Popowicz GM, Pratt DA, Angeli JPF, Conrad M Signalling

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of necrotic cell death marked by oxidative damage to phospholipids. To date, ferroptosis has been thought to be controlled only by the phospholipid hydroperoxide-reducing enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and radical-trapping antioxidants. However, elucidation of the factors that underlie the sensitivity of a given cell type to ferroptosis is crucial to understand the pathophysiological role of ferroptosis and how it may be exploited for the treatment of cancer. Although metabolic constraints and phospholipid composition contribute to ferroptosis sensitivity, no cell-autonomous mechanisms have been identified that account for the resistance of cells to ferroptosis. Here we used an expression cloning approach to identify genes in human cancer cells that are able to complement the loss of GPX4. We found that the flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria-associated 2 (AIFM2) is a previously unrecognized anti-ferroptotic gene. AIFM2, which we renamed ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1) and which was initially described as a pro-apoptotic gene, confers protection against ferroptosis elicited by GPX4 deletion. We further demonstrate that the suppression of ferroptosis by FSP1 is mediated by ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q, CoQ): the reduced form, ubiquinol, traps lipid peroxyl radicals that mediate lipid peroxidation, whereas FSP1 catalyses the regeneration of CoQ using NAD(P)H. Pharmacological targeting of FSP1 strongly synergizes with GPX4 inhibitors to trigger ferroptosis in a number of cancer entities. In conclusion, the FSP1-CoQ-NAD(P)H pathway exists as a stand-alone parallel system, which co-operates with GPX4 and glutathione to suppress phospholipid peroxidation and ferroptosis.

+view abstract Nature, PMID: 31634899 11 2019

Cossarizza A, Chang HD, Radbruch A, Acs A, Adam D, Adam-Klages S, Agace WW, Aghaeepour N, Akdis M, Allez M, Almeida LN, Alvisi G, Anderson G, Andrä I, Annunziato F, Anselmo A, Bacher P, Baldari CT, Bari S, Barnaba V, Barros-Martins J, Battistini L, Bauer W, Baumgart S, Baumgarth N, Baumjohann D, Baying B, Bebawy M, Becher B, Beisker W, Benes V, Beyaert R, Blanco A, Boardman DA, Bogdan C, Borger JG, Borsellino G, Boulais PE, Bradford JA, Brenner D, Brinkman RR, Brooks AES, Busch DH, Büscher M, Bushnell TP, Calzetti F, Cameron G, Cammarata I, Cao X, Cardell SL, Casola S, Cassatella MA, Cavani A, Celada A, Chatenoud L, Chattopadhyay PK, Chow S, Christakou E, Čičin-Šain L, Clerici M, Colombo FS, Cooper AM, Corbett AJ, Cosma A, Cosmi L, Coulie PG, Cumano A, Cvetkovic L, Dang VD, Dang-Heine C, Davey MS, Davies D, De Biasi S, Del Zotto G, Dela Cruz GV, Delacher M, Della Bella S, Dellabona P, Deniz G, Dessing M, Di Santo JP, Diefenbach A, Dieli F, Dolf A, Dörner T, Dress RJ, Dudziak D, Dustin M, Dutertre CA, Ebner F, Eckle SBG, Edinger M, Eede P, Ehrhardt GRA, Eich M, Engel P, Engelhardt B, Erdei A, Esser C, Everts B, Evrard M, Falk CS, Fehniger TA, Felipo-Benavent M, Ferry H, Feuerer M, Filby A, Filkor K, Fillatreau S, Follo M, Förster I, Foster J, Foulds GA, Frehse B, Frenette PS, Frischbutter S, Fritzsche W, Galbraith DW, Gangaev A, Garbi N, Gaudilliere B, Gazzinelli RT, Geginat J, Gerner W, Gherardin NA, Ghoreschi K, Gibellini L, Ginhoux F, Goda K, Godfrey DI, Goettlinger C, González-Navajas JM, Goodyear CS, Gori A, Grogan JL, Grummitt D, Grützkau A, Haftmann C, Hahn J, Hammad H, Hämmerling G, Hansmann L, Hansson G, Harpur CM, Hartmann S, Hauser A, Hauser AE, Haviland DL, Hedley D, Hernández DC, Herrera G, Herrmann M, Hess C, Höfer T, Hoffmann P, Hogquist K, Holland T, Höllt T, Holmdahl R, Hombrink P, Houston JP, Hoyer BF, Huang B, Huang FP, Huber JE, Huehn J, Hundemer M, Hunter CA, Hwang WYK, Iannone A, Ingelfinger F, Ivison SM, Jäck HM, Jani PK, Jávega B, Jonjic S, Kaiser T, Kalina T, Kamradt T, Kaufmann SHE, Keller B, Ketelaars SLC, Khalilnezhad A, Khan S, Kisielow J, Klenerman P, Knopf J, Koay HF, Kobow K, Kolls JK, Kong WT, Kopf M, Korn T, Kriegsmann K, Kristyanto H, Kroneis T, Krueger A, Kühne J, Kukat C, Kunkel D, Kunze-Schumacher H, Kurosaki T, Kurts C, Kvistborg P, Kwok I, Landry J, Lantz O, Lanuti P, LaRosa F, Lehuen A, LeibundGut-Landmann S, Leipold MD, Leung LYT, Levings MK, Lino AC, Liotta F, Litwin V, Liu Y, Ljunggren HG, Lohoff M, Lombardi G, Lopez L, López-Botet M, Lovett-Racke AE, Lubberts E, Luche H, Ludewig B, Lugli E, Lunemann S, Maecker HT, Maggi L, Maguire O, Mair F, Mair KH, Mantovani A, Manz RA, Marshall AJ, Martínez-Romero A, Martrus G, Marventano I, Maslinski W, Matarese G, Mattioli AV, Maueröder C, Mazzoni A, McCluskey J, McGrath M, McGuire HM, McInnes IB, Mei HE, Melchers F, Melzer S, Mielenz D, Miller SD, Mills KHG, Minderman H, Mjösberg J, Moore J, Moran B, Moretta L, Mosmann TR, Müller S, Multhoff G, Muñoz LE, Münz C, Nakayama T, Nasi M, Neumann K, Ng LG, Niedobitek A, Nourshargh S, Núñez G, O'Connor JE, Ochel A, Oja A, Ordonez D, Orfao A, Orlowski-Oliver E, Ouyang W, Oxenius A, Palankar R, Panse I, Pattanapanyasat K, Paulsen M, Pavlinic D, Penter L, Peterson P, Peth C, Petriz J, Piancone F, Pickl WF, Piconese S, Pinti M, Pockley AG, Podolska MJ, Poon Z, Pracht K, Prinz I, Pucillo CEM, Quataert SA, Quatrini L, Quinn KM, Radbruch H, Radstake TRDJ, Rahmig S, Rahn HP, Rajwa B, Ravichandran G, Raz Y, Rebhahn JA, Recktenwald D, Reimer D, Reis E Sousa C, Remmerswaal EBM, Richter L, Rico LG, Riddell A, Rieger AM, Robinson JP, Romagnani C, Rubartelli A, Ruland J, Saalmüller A, Saeys Y, Saito T, Sakaguchi S, Sala-de-Oyanguren F, Samstag Y, Sanderson S, Sandrock I, Santoni A, Sanz RB, Saresella M, Sautes-Fridman C, Sawitzki B, Schadt L, Scheffold A, Scherer HU, Schiemann M, Schildberg FA, Schimisky E, Schlitzer A, Schlosser J, Schmid S, Schmitt S, Schober K, Schraivogel D, Schuh W, Schüler T, Schulte R, Schulz AR, Schulz SR, Scottá C, Scott-Algara D, Sester DP, Shankey TV, Silva-Santos B, Simon AK, Sitnik KM, Sozzani S, Speiser DE, Spidlen J, Stahlberg A, Stall AM, Stanley N, Stark R, Stehle C, Steinmetz T, Stockinger H, Takahama Y, Takeda K, Tan L, Tárnok A, Tiegs G, Toldi G, Tornack J, Traggiai E, Trebak M, Tree TIM, Trotter J, Trowsdale J, Tsoumakidou M, Ulrich H, Urbanczyk S, van de Veen W, van den Broek M, van der Pol E, Van Gassen S, Van Isterdael G, van Lier RAW, Veldhoen M, Vento-Asturias S, Vieira P, Voehringer D, Volk HD, von Borstel A, von Volkmann K, Waisman A, Walker RV, Wallace PK, Wang SA, Wang XM, Ward MD, Ward-Hartstonge KA, Warnatz K, Warnes G, Warth S, Waskow C, Watson JV, Watzl C, Wegener L, Weisenburger T, Wiedemann A, Wienands J, Wilharm A, Wilkinson RJ, Willimsky G, Wing JB, Winkelmann R, Winkler TH, Wirz OF, Wong A, Wurst P, Yang JHM, Yang J, Yazdanbakhsh M, Yu L, Yue A, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Ziegler SM, Zielinski C, Zimmermann J, Zychlinsky A Flow Cytometry

These guidelines are a consensus work of a considerable number of members of the immunology and flow cytometry community. They provide the theory and key practical aspects of flow cytometry enabling immunologists to avoid the common errors that often undermine immunological data. Notably, there are comprehensive sections of all major immune cell types with helpful Tables detailing phenotypes in murine and human cells. The latest flow cytometry techniques and applications are also described, featuring examples of the data that can be generated and, importantly, how the data can be analysed. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid, all written and peer-reviewed by leading experts in the field, making this an essential research companion.

+view abstract European journal of immunology, PMID: 31633216 2019

Stanford NJ, Scharm M, Dobson PD, Golebiewski M, Hucka M, Kothamachu VB, Nickerson D, Owen S, Pahle J, Wittig U, Waltemath D, Goble C, Mendes P, Snoep J ,

Computational systems biology involves integrating heterogeneous datasets in order to generate models. These models can assist with understanding and prediction of biological phenomena. Generating datasets and integrating them into models involves a wide range of scientific expertise. As a result these datasets are often collected by one set of researchers, and exchanged with others researchers for constructing the models. For this process to run smoothly the data and models must be FAIR-findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. In order for data and models to be FAIR they must be structured in consistent and predictable ways, and described sufficiently for other researchers to understand them. Furthermore, these data and models must be shared with other researchers, with appropriately controlled sharing permissions, before and after publication. In this chapter we explore the different data and model standards that assist with structuring, describing, and sharing. We also highlight the popular standards and sharing databases within computational systems biology.

+view abstract Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), PMID: 31602618 2019

Teng Y, Young JL, Edwards B, Hayes P, Thompson L, Johnston C, Edwards C, Sanders Y, Writer M, Pinto D, Zhang Y, Roode M, Chovanec P, Matheson L, Corcoran AE, Fernandez A, Montoliu L, Rossi B, Tosato V, Gjuracic K, Nikitin D, Bruschi C, McGuinness B, Sandal T, Romanos M Immunology

We describe the 'Crescendo Mouse', a human V transgenic platform combining an engineered heavy chain locus with diverse human heavy chain V, D and J genes, a modified mouse Cγ1 gene and complete 3' regulatory region, in a triple knock-out (TKO) mouse background devoid of endogenous immunoglobulin expression. The addition of the engineered heavy chain locus to the TKO mouse restored B cell development, giving rise to functional B cells that responded to immunization with a diverse response that comprised entirely 'heavy chain only' antibodies. Heavy chain variable (V) domain libraries were rapidly mined using phage display technology, yielding diverse high-affinity human V that had undergone somatic hypermutation, lacked aggregation and showed enhanced expression in E. coli. The Crescendo Mouse produces human V fragments, or Humabody® V, with excellent bio-therapeutic potential, as exemplified here by the generation of antagonistic Humabody® V specific for human IL17A and IL17RA.

+view abstract New biotechnology, PMID: 31600579 2019

Saini S, Poelmans J, Korf H, Dooley JL, Liang S, Manshian BB, Verbeke R, Soenen SJ, Vande Velde G, Lentacker I, Lagrou K, Liston A, Gysemans C, De Smedt SC, Himmelreich U Immunology,

The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is ubiquitous in nature and the most common cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with a compromised immune system. The development of IPA in patients under immunosuppressive treatment or in patients with primary immunodeficiency demonstrates the importance of the host immune response in controlling aspergillosis. However, study of the host-microbe interaction has been hampered by the lack of tools for their non-invasive assessment. We developed a methodology to study the response of the host's immune system against IPA longitudinally in vivo by using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (F MRI). We showed the advantage of a perfluorocarbon-based contrast agent for the in vivo labeling of macrophages and dendritic cells, permitting quantification of pulmonary inflammation in different murine IPA models. Our findings reveal the potential of F MRI for the assessment of rapid kinetics of innate immune response against IPA and the permissive niche generated through immunosuppression.

+view abstract iScience, PMID: 31581067 2019

Abad MA, Ruppert JG, Buzuk L, Wear M, Zou J, Webb KM, Kelly DA, Voigt P, Rappsilber J, Earnshaw WC, Jeyaprakash AA Epigenetics

Chromosome association of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC; consisting of Borealin, Survivin, INCENP, and the Aurora B kinase) is essential to achieve error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. Hence, understanding the mechanisms driving the chromosome association of the CPC is of paramount importance. Here using a multifaceted approach, we show that the CPC binds nucleosomes through a multivalent interaction predominantly involving Borealin. Strikingly, Survivin, previously suggested to target the CPC to centromeres, failed to bind nucleosomes on its own and requires Borealin and INCENP for its binding. Disrupting Borealin-nucleosome interactions excluded the CPC from chromosomes and caused chromosome congression defects. We also show that Borealin-mediated chromosome association of the CPC is critical for Haspin- and Bub1-mediated centromere enrichment of the CPC and works upstream of the latter. Our work thus establishes Borealin as a master regulator determining the chromosome association and function of the CPC.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 31570499 02 12 2019

Anikeeva P, Boyden E, Brangwynne C, Cissé II, Fiehn O, Fromme P, Gingras AC, Greene CS, Heard E, Hell SW, Hillman E, Jensen GJ, Karchin R, Kiessling LL, Kleinstiver BP, Knight R, Kukura P, Lancaster MA, Loman N, Looger L, Lundberg E, Luo Q, Miyawaki A, Myers EW, Nolan GP, Picotti P, Reik W, Sauer M, Shalek AK, Shendure J, Slavov N, Tanay A, Troyanskaya O, van Valen D, Wang HW, Yi C, Yin P, Zernicka-Goetz M, Zhuang X Epigenetics,

+view abstract Nature methods, PMID: 31562479 2019

Hernando-Herraez I, Evano B, Stubbs T, Commere PH, Jan Bonder M, Clark S, Andrews S, Tajbakhsh S, Reik W ,

Age-related tissue alterations have been associated with a decline in stem cell number and function. Although increased cell-to-cell variability in transcription or epigenetic marks has been proposed to be a major hallmark of ageing, little is known about the molecular diversity of stem cells during ageing. Here we present a single cell multi-omics study of mouse muscle stem cells, combining single-cell transcriptome and DNA methylome profiling. Aged cells show a global increase of uncoordinated transcriptional heterogeneity biased towards genes regulating cell-niche interactions. We find context-dependent alterations of DNA methylation in aged stem cells. Importantly, promoters with increased methylation heterogeneity are associated with increased transcriptional heterogeneity of the genes they drive. These results indicate that epigenetic drift, by accumulation of stochastic DNA methylation changes in promoters, is associated with the degradation of coherent transcriptional networks during stem cell ageing. Furthermore, our observations also shed light on the mechanisms underlying the DNA methylation clock.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31554804 2019

Rugg-Gunn PJ Epigenetics,

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 31548607 2019

Furlong RM, Lindsay A, Anderson KE, Hawkins PT, Sullivan AM, O'Neill C Signalling

Akt signalling is central to cell survival, metabolism, protein and lipid homeostasis, and is impaired in Parkinson's disease(PD). Akt activation is reduced in the PD brain, and by many PD-causing genes, including PINK1(PTEN-induced putative kinase-1). This study investigated the mechanisms by which PINK1 regulates Akt signalling. Our results reveal for the first time that PINK1 constitutively activates Akt in a PINK1-kinase dependent manner in the absence of growth factors, and enhances Akt activation in normal growth medium. In PINK1 modified MEFs, agonist-induced Akt signalling failed in the absence of PINK1, due to significantly impaired PINK1 kinase-dependent increases in PI(3,4,5)P at both plasma membrane and Golgi. In the absence of PINK1, PI(3,4,5)P levels did not increase in the Golgi, and there was significant Golgi fragmentation, a recognised characteristic of PD neuropathology. PINK1 kinase activity protected the Golgi from fragmentation in an Akt-dependent fashion. This study demonstrates a new role for PINK1 as a primary upstream activator of Akt via PINK1 kinase-dependent regulation of its primary activator PI(3,4,5)P, providing novel mechanistic information on how loss of PINK1 impairs Akt signalling in PD.

+view abstract Journal of cell science, PMID: 31540955 2019

Hemberger M, Hanna CW, Dean W Epigenetics,

The importance of the placenta in supporting mammalian development has long been recognized, but our knowledge of the molecular, genetic and epigenetic requirements that underpin normal placentation has remained remarkably under-appreciated. Both the in vivo mouse model and in vitro-derived murine trophoblast stem cells have been invaluable research tools for gaining insights into these aspects of placental development and function, with recent studies starting to reshape our view of how a unique epigenetic environment contributes to trophoblast differentiation and placenta formation. These advances, together with recent successes in deriving human trophoblast stem cells, open up new and exciting prospects in basic and clinical settings that will help deepen our understanding of placental development and associated disorders of pregnancy.

+view abstract Nature reviews. Genetics, PMID: 31534202 2019

González-García S, Mosquera M, Fuentes P, Palumbo T, Escudero A, Pérez-Martínez A, Ramírez M, Corcoran AE, Toribio ML Immunology,

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy resulting from the dysregulation of signaling pathways that control intrathymic T-cell development. Relapse rates are still significant and prognosis is particularly bleak for relapsed patients. Therefore, development of novel therapies specifically targeting pathways controlling leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity is mandatory for fighting refractory T-ALL. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) is a crucial T-cell developmental pathway commonly expressed in T-ALL, which has been implicated in leukemia progression. However, the significance of IL-7R/IL-7 signaling in T-ALL pathogenesis and its contribution to disease relapse remain unknown. To directly explore whether IL-7R targeting may be therapeutically efficient against T-ALL relapse, we focused here on a known Notch1-induced T-ALL model, since a majority of T-ALL patients harbor activating mutations in , which is a transcriptional regulator of IL-7R expression. Using loss-of-function approaches, we show that -deficient, but not wild type, mouse hematopoietic progenitors transduced with constitutively active Notch1 failed to generate leukemia upon transplantation into immunodeficient mice, thus providing formal evidence that IL-7R function is essential for Notch1-induced T-cell leukemogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-7R expression is an early functional biomarker of T-ALL cells with LIC potential, and demonstrate that impaired IL-7R signaling hampers engraftment and progression of patient-derived T-ALL xenografts. Notably, we show that IL-7R-dependent LIC activity and leukemia progression can be extended to human B-ALL. These results have important therapeutic implications, highlighting the relevance that targeting normal IL-7R signaling may have in future therapeutic interventions, particularly for preventing T-ALL (and B-ALL) relapse.

+view abstract Blood, PMID: 31530562 2019

Evans PD ,

The rapid non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol in multiple tissues, including the nervous system, may involve the activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor, GPER. Different signalling pathways have been suggested to be activated by GPER in different cell lines and tissues. Controversially, GPER has also been suggested to be activated by the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, and by the non-steroidal diphenylacrylamide compound, STX, in some preparations. Evidence for the ability of the GPER agonist, G-1, and for aldosterone in the presence of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone, to potentiate forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in the hippocampal clonal cell line, mHippoE-18 is reviewed. The effects of both agents are blocked by the GPER antagonist G36, by PTX, (suggesting the involvement of Gi/o G proteins), by BAPTA-AM, (suggesting they are calcium sensitive), by wortmannin (suggesting an involvement of PI3Kinase) and by soluble amyloid-β peptides. STX also stimulates cyclic AMP levels in mHippoE-18 cells and these effects are blocked by G36 and PTX, as well as by amyloid-β peptides. This suggests that both aldosterone and STX may be capable of activating GPER in mHippoE-18 cells. Possible molecular mechanisms that may underlie these effects are discussed, together with possible forward directions for research on rapid non-genomic signalling by GPER, emphasising the importance of understanding the spatio-temporal aspects of its signalling in various tissues.

+view abstract Steroids, PMID: 31499073 2019

Sadiyah MF, Roychoudhuri R Immunology,

Cells of the adaptive immune system, including CD4 and CD8 T cells, as well as B cells, possess the ability to undergo dynamic changes in population size, differentiation state, and function to counteract diverse and temporally stochastic threats from the external environment. To achieve this, lymphocytes must be able to rapidly control their gene-expression programs in a cell-type-specific manner and in response to extrinsic signals. Such capacity is provided by transcription factors (TFs), which bind to the available repertoire of regulatory DNA elements in distinct lymphocyte subsets to program cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we provide a set of protocols that utilize massively parallel sequencing-based approaches to map genome-wide TF-binding sites and accessible chromatin, with consideration of the unique aspects and technical issues facing their application to lymphocytes. We show how to computationally validate and analyze aligned data to map differentially enriched/accessible sites, identify enriched DNA sequence motifs, and detect the position of nucleosomes adjacent to accessible DNA elements. These techniques, when applied to immune cells, can enhance our understanding of how gene-expression programs are controlled within lymphocytes to coordinate immune function in homeostasis and disease. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

+view abstract Current protocols in immunology, PMID: 31483104 2019

Bruno L, Ramlall V, Studer RA, Sauer S, Bradley D, Dharmalingam G, Carroll T, Ghoneim M, Chopin M, Nutt SL, Elderkin S, Rueda DS, Fisher AG, Siggers T, Beltrao P, Merkenschlager M ,

In multicellular organisms, duplicated genes can diverge through tissue-specific gene expression patterns, as exemplified by highly regulated expression of RUNX transcription factor paralogs with apparent functional redundancy. Here we asked what cell-type-specific biologies might be supported by the selective expression of RUNX paralogs during Langerhans cell and inducible regulatory T cell differentiation. We uncovered functional nonequivalence between RUNX paralogs. Selective expression of native paralogs allowed integration of transcription factor activity with extrinsic signals, while non-native paralogs enforced differentiation even in the absence of exogenous inducers. DNA binding affinity was controlled by divergent amino acids within the otherwise highly conserved RUNT domain and evolutionary reconstruction suggested convergence of RUNT domain residues toward submaximal strength. Hence, the selective expression of gene duplicates in specialized cell types can synergize with the acquisition of functional differences to enable appropriate gene expression, lineage choice and differentiation in the mammalian immune system.

+view abstract Nature immunology, PMID: 31451789 2019

Fraser J, Simpson J, Fontana R, Kishi-Itakura C, Ktistakis NT, Gammoh N Signalling,

Despite recently uncovered connections between autophagy and the endocytic pathway, the role of autophagy in regulating endosomal function remains incompletely understood. Here, we find that the ablation of autophagy-essential players disrupts EGF-induced endocytic trafficking of EGFR. Cells lacking ATG7 or ATG16L1 exhibit increased levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P), a key determinant of early endosome maturation. Increased PI(3)P levels are associated with an accumulation of EEA1-positive endosomes where EGFR trafficking is stalled. Aberrant early endosomes are recognised by the autophagy machinery in a TBK1- and Gal8-dependent manner and are delivered to LAMP2-positive lysosomes. Preventing this homeostatic regulation of early endosomes by autophagy reduces EGFR recycling to the plasma membrane and compromises downstream signalling and cell survival. Our findings uncover a novel role for the autophagy machinery in maintaining early endosome function and growth factor sensing.

+view abstract EMBO reports, PMID: 31448519 2019

Horsefield S, Burdett H, Zhang X, Manik MK, Shi Y, Chen J, Qi T, Gilley J, Lai JS, Rank MX, Casey LW, Gu W, Ericsson DJ, Foley G, Hughes RO, Bosanac T, von Itzstein M, Rathjen JP, Nanson JD, Boden M, Dry IB, Williams SJ, Staskawicz BJ, Coleman MP, Ve T, Dodds PN, Kobe B ,

SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1) is responsible for depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized form (NAD) during Wallerian degeneration associated with neuropathies. Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors recognize pathogen effector proteins and trigger localized cell death to restrict pathogen infection. Both processes depend on closely related Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains in these proteins, which, as we show, feature self-association-dependent NAD cleavage activity associated with cell death signaling. We further show that SARM1 SAM (sterile alpha motif) domains form an octamer essential for axon degeneration that contributes to TIR domain enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of ribose and NADP (the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) complexes of SARM1 and plant NLR RUN1 TIR domains, respectively, reveal a conserved substrate binding site. NAD cleavage by TIR domains is therefore a conserved feature of animal and plant cell death signaling pathways.

+view abstract Science (New York, N.Y.), PMID: 31439792 2019

Harman JL, Dobnikar L, Chappell J, Stokell BG, Dalby A, Foote K, Finigan A, Freire-Pritchett P, Taylor AL, Worssam MD, Madsen RR, Loche E, Uryga A, Bennett MR, Jørgensen HF

Vascular inflammation underlies cardiovascular disease. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) upregulate selective genes, including MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and proinflammatory cytokines upon local inflammation, which directly contribute to vascular disease and adverse clinical outcome. Identification of factors controlling VSMC responses to inflammation is therefore of considerable therapeutic importance. Here, we determine the role of Histone H3 lysine 9 di-methylation (H3K9me2), a repressive epigenetic mark that is reduced in atherosclerotic lesions, in regulating the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results: We used VSMC-lineage tracing to reveal reduced H3K9me2 levels in VSMCs of arteries after injury and in atherosclerotic lesions compared with control vessels. Intriguingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed H3K9me2 enrichment at a subset of inflammation-responsive gene promoters, including MMP3, MMP9, MMP12, and IL6, in mouse and human VSMCs. Inhibition of G9A/GLP, the primary enzymes responsible for H3K9me2, significantly potentiated inflammation-induced gene induction in vitro and in vivo without altering NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell) and MAPK signaling. Rather, reduced G9A/GLP activity enhanced inflammation-induced binding of transcription factors NFκB-p65 and cJUN to H3K9me2 target gene promoters MMP3 and IL6. Taken together, these results suggest that promoter-associated H3K9me2 directly attenuates the induction of target genes in response to inflammation in human VSMCs.

+view abstract Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, PMID: 31434493 2019

McCormick B, Craig HE, Chu JY, Carlin LM, Canel M, Wollweber F, Toivakka M, Michael M, Astier AL, Norton L, Lilja J, Felton JM, Sasaki T, Ivaska J, Hers I, Dransfield I, Rossi AG, Vermeren S ,

Neutrophils are abundant circulating leukocytes that are rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation in an integrin-dependent fashion. Contrasting with the well-characterized regulation of integrin activation, mechanisms regulating integrin inactivation remain largely obscure. Using mouse neutrophils, we demonstrate in this study that the GTPase activating protein ARAP3 is a critical regulator of integrin inactivation; experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells indicate that this is not restricted to neutrophils. Specifically, ARAP3 acts in a negative feedback loop downstream of PI3K to regulate integrin inactivation. Integrin ligand binding drives the activation of PI3K and of its effectors, including ARAP3, by outside-in signaling. ARAP3, in turn, promotes localized integrin inactivation by negative inside-out signaling. This negative feedback loop reduces integrin-mediated PI3K activity, with ARAP3 effectively switching off its own activator, while promoting turnover of substrate adhesions. In vitro, ARAP3-deficient neutrophils display defective PIP3 polarization, adhesion turnover, and transendothelial migration. In vivo, ARAP3-deficient neutrophils are characterized by a neutrophil-autonomous recruitment defect to sites of inflammation.

+view abstract Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), PMID: 31427445 2019

Stuart HT, Stirparo GG, Lohoff T, Bates LE, Kinoshita M, Lim CY, Sousa EJ, Maskalenka K, Radzisheuskaya A, Malcolm AA, Alves MRP, Lloyd RL, Nestorowa S, Humphreys P, Mansfield W, Reik W, Bertone P, Nichols J, Göttgens B, Silva JCR Epigenetics,

Understanding how cell identity transitions occur and whether there are multiple paths between the same beginning and end states are questions of wide interest. Here we show that acquisition of naive pluripotency can follow transcriptionally and mechanistically distinct routes. Starting from post-implantation epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), one route advances through a mesodermal state prior to naive pluripotency induction, whereas another transiently resembles the early inner cell mass and correspondingly gains greater developmental potency. These routes utilize distinct signaling networks and transcription factors but subsequently converge on the same naive endpoint, showing surprising flexibility in mechanisms underlying identity transitions and suggesting that naive pluripotency is a multidimensional attractor state. These route differences are reconciled by precise expression of Oct4 as a unifying, essential, and sufficient feature. We propose that fine-tuned regulation of this "transition factor" underpins multidimensional access to naive pluripotency, offering a conceptual framework for understanding cell identity transitions.

+view abstract Cell stem cell, PMID: 31422912 2019

Debrand E, Chakalova L, Miles J, Dai YF, Goyenechea B, Dye S, Osborne CS, Horton A, Harju-Baker S, Pink RC, Caley D, Carter DRF, Peterson KR, Fraser P ,

Transcriptome analyses show a surprisingly large proportion of the mammalian genome is transcribed; much more than can be accounted for by genes and introns alone. Most of this transcription is non-coding in nature and arises from intergenic regions, often overlapping known protein-coding genes in sense or antisense orientation. The functional relevance of this widespread transcription is unknown. Here we characterize a promoter responsible for initiation of an intergenic transcript located approximately 3.3 kb and 10.7 kb upstream of the adult-specific human β-globin genes. Mutational analyses in β-YAC transgenic mice show that alteration of intergenic promoter activity results in ablation of H3K4 di- and tri-methylation and H3 hyperacetylation extending over a 30 kb region immediately downstream of the initiation site, containing the adult δ- and β-globin genes. This results in dramatically decreased expression of the adult genes through position effect variegation in which the vast majority of definitive erythroid cells harbor inactive adult globin genes. In contrast, expression of the neighboring ε- and γ-globin genes is completely normal in embryonic erythroid cells, indicating a developmentally specific variegation of the adult domain. Our results demonstrate a role for intergenic non-coding RNA transcription in the propagation of histone modifications over chromatin domains and epigenetic control of β-like globin gene transcription during development.

+view abstract PloS one, PMID: 31412036 2019

Martin-Herranz DE, Aref-Eshghi E, Bonder MJ, Stubbs TM, Choufani S, Weksberg R, Stegle O, Sadikovic B, Reik W, Thornton JM Epigenetics,

Epigenetic clocks are mathematical models that predict the biological age of an individual using DNA methylation data and have emerged in the last few years as the most accurate biomarkers of the aging process. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control the rate of such clocks. Here, we have examined the human epigenetic clock in patients with a variety of developmental disorders, harboring mutations in proteins of the epigenetic machinery.

+view abstract Genome biology, PMID: 31409373 2019

Evans PD ,

The GPCR, GPER, mediates many of the rapid, non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol in multiple tissues, including the nervous system. Controversially, it has also been suggested to be activated by aldosterone, and by the non-steroidal diphenylacrylamide compound, STX, in some preparations. Here, the ability of the GPER agonist, G-1, and aldosterone in the presence of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone, to potentiate forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in the hippocampal clonal cell line, mHippoE-18, are compared. Both stimulatory effects are blocked by the GPER antagonist G36, by PTX, (suggesting the involvement of Gi/o G proteins), by BAPTA-AM, (suggesting they are calcium sensitive), by wortmannin (suggesting an involvement of PI3Kinase) and by soluble amyloid-β peptides. STX also stimulates cyclic AMP levels in mHippoE-18 cells and these effects are blocked by G36 and PTX, as well as by amyloid-β peptides. This suggests that both aldosterone and STX may modulate GPER signalling in mHippoE-18 cells.

+view abstract Molecular and cellular endocrinology, PMID: 31404576 2019

Wilkinson MJ, Selman C, McLaughlin L, Horan L, Hamilton L, Gilbert C, Chadwick C, Flynn JN

Driven by the longer lifespans of humans, particularly in Westernised societies, and the need to know more about 'healthy ageing', ageing mice are being used increasingly in scientific research. Many departments and institutes involved with ageing research have developed their own systems to determine intervention points for potential refinements and to identify humane end points. Several good systems are in use, but variations between them could contribute to poor reproducibility of the science achieved. Working with scientific and regulatory communities in the UK, we have reviewed the clinical signs observed in ageing mice and developed recommendations for enhanced monitoring, behaviour assessment, husbandry and veterinary interventions. We advocate that the default time point for enhanced monitoring should be 15 months of age, unless prior information is available. Importantly, the enhanced monitoring should cause no additional harms to the animals. Where a mouse strain is well characterised, the onset of age-related enhanced monitoring may be modified based on knowledge of the onset of an expected age-related clinical sign. In progeroid models where ageing is accelerated, enhanced monitoring may need to be brought forward. Information on the background strain must be considered, as it influences the onset of age-related clinical signs. The range of ageing models currently used means that there will be no 'one-size fits all' solution. Increased awareness of the issues will lead to more refined and consistent husbandry of ageing mice, and application of humane end points will help to reduce the numbers of animals maintained for longer than is scientifically justified.

+view abstract Laboratory animals, PMID: 31403890 2019

Shi H, Strogantsev R, Takahashi N, Kazachenka A, Lorincz MC, Hemberger M, Ferguson-Smith AC ,

KRAB zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) represent one of the largest families of DNA-binding proteins in vertebrate genomes and appear to have evolved to silence transposable elements (TEs) including endogenous retroviruses through sequence-specific targeting of repressive chromatin states. ZFP57 is required to maintain the post-fertilization DNA methylation memory of parental origin at genomic imprints. Here we conduct RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses in normal and ZFP57 mutant mouse ES cells to understand the relative importance of ZFP57 at imprints, unique and repetitive regions of the genome.

+view abstract Epigenetics & chromatin, PMID: 31399135 2019

Saenz-de-Juano MD, Ivanova E, Romero S, Lolicato F, Sánchez F, Van Ranst H, Krueger F, Segonds-Pichon A, De Vos M, Andrews S, Smitz J, Kelsey G, Anckaert E Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

Does imprinted DNA methylation or imprinted gene expression differ between human blastocysts from conventional ovarian stimulation (COS) and an optimized two-step IVM method (CAPA-IVM) in age-matched polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients?

+view abstract Human reproduction (Oxford, England), PMID: 31398248 2019

Samant RS, Masto VB, Frydman J Signalling,

Gene dosage alterations caused by aneuploidy are a common feature of most cancers yet pose severe proteotoxic challenges. Therefore, cells have evolved various dosage compensation mechanisms to limit the damage caused by the ensuing protein level imbalances. For instance, for heteromeric protein complexes, excess nonstoichiometric subunits are rapidly recognized and degraded. In this issue of , Brennan et al. (pp. 1031-1047) reveal that sequestration of nonstoichiometric subunits into aggregates is an alternative mechanism for dosage compensation in aneuploid budding yeast and human cell lines. Using a combination of proteomic and genetic techniques, they found that excess proteins undergo either degradation or aggregation but not both. Which route is preferred depends on the half-life of the protein in question. Given the multitude of diseases linked to either aneuploidy or protein aggregation, this study could serve as a springboard for future studies with broad-spanning implications.

+view abstract Genes & development, PMID: 31371460 2019

Zachari M, Gudmundsson SR, Li Z, Manifava M, Shah R, Smith M, Stronge J, Karanasios E, Piunti C, Kishi-Itakura C, Vihinen H, Jokitalo E, Guan JL, Buss F, Smith AM, Walker SA, Eskelinen EL, Ktistakis NT Signalling, Imaging

The dynamics and coordination between autophagy machinery and selective receptors during mitophagy are unknown. Also unknown is whether mitophagy depends on pre-existing membranes or is triggered on the surface of damaged mitochondria. Using a ubiquitin-dependent mitophagy inducer, the lactone ivermectin, we have combined genetic and imaging experiments to address these questions. Ubiquitination of mitochondrial fragments is required the earliest, followed by auto-phosphorylation of TBK1. Next, early essential autophagy proteins FIP200 and ATG13 act at different steps, whereas ULK1 and ULK2 are dispensable. Receptors act temporally and mechanistically upstream of ATG13 but downstream of FIP200. The VPS34 complex functions at the omegasome step. ATG13 and optineurin target mitochondria in a discontinuous oscillatory way, suggesting multiple initiation events. Targeted ubiquitinated mitochondria are cradled by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) strands even without functional autophagy machinery and mitophagy adaptors. We propose that damaged mitochondria are ubiquitinated and dynamically encased in ER strands, providing platforms for formation of the mitophagosomes.

+view abstract Developmental cell, PMID: 31353311 2019

Denton AE, Carr EJ, Magiera LP, Watts AJB, Fearon DT Immunology,

The induction of adaptive immunity is dependent on the structural organization of LNs, which is in turn governed by the stromal cells that underpin LN architecture. Using a novel fate-mapping mouse model, we trace the developmental origin of mesenchymal LN stromal cells (mLNSCs) to a previously undescribed embryonic fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) progenitor. FAP cells of the LN anlagen express lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), but not intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), suggesting they are early mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer (mLTo) cells. Clonal labeling shows that FAP progenitors locally differentiate into mLNSCs. This process is also coopted in nonlymphoid tissues in response to infection to facilitate the development of tertiary lymphoid structures, thereby mimicking the process of LN ontogeny in response to infection.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 31324739 2019

Kazakevych J, Stoyanova E, Liebert A, Varga-Weisz P ,

The intestinal epithelium undergoes constant regeneration driven by intestinal stem cells. How old age affects the transcriptome in this highly dynamic tissue is an important, but poorly explored question. Using transcriptomics on sorted intestinal stem cells and adult enterocytes, we identified candidate genes, which change expression on aging. Further validation of these on intestinal epithelium of multiple middle-aged versus old-aged mice highlighted the consistent up-regulation of the expression of the gene encoding chemokine receptor Ccr2, a mediator of inflammation and several disease processes. We observed also increased expression of Strc, coding for stereocilin, and dramatically decreased expression of Rps4l, coding for a ribosome subunit. Ccr2 and Rps4l are located close to the telomeric regions of chromosome 9 and 6, respectively. As only few genes were differentially expressed and we did not observe significant protein level changes of identified ageing markers, our analysis highlights the overall robustness of murine intestinal epithelium gene expression to old age.

+view abstract Scientific reports, PMID: 31320724 2019

Imanikia S, Özbey NP, Krueger C, Casanueva O, Taylor RC Epigenetics, Bioinformatics

The unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR) is a crucial mediator of secretory pathway homeostasis. Expression of the spliced and active form of the UPR transcription factor XBP-1, XBP-1s, in the nervous system triggers activation of the UPR in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) through release of a secreted signal, leading to increased longevity. We find that expression of XBP-1s in the neurons or intestine of the worm strikingly improves proteostasis in multiple tissues, through increased clearance of toxic proteins. To identify the mechanisms behind this enhanced proteostasis, we conducted intestine-specific RNA-seq analysis to identify genes upregulated in the intestine when XBP-1s is expressed in neurons. This revealed that neuronal XBP-1s increases the expression of genes involved in lysosome function. Lysosomes in the intestine of animals expressing neuronal XBP-1s are more acidic, and lysosomal protease activity is higher. Moreover, intestinal lysosome function is necessary for enhanced lifespan and proteostasis. These findings suggest that activation of the UPR in the intestine through neuronal signaling can increase the activity of lysosomes, leading to extended longevity and improved proteostasis across tissues.

+view abstract Current biology : CB, PMID: 31303493 2019

Ciccone DN, Namiki Y, Chen C, Morshead KB, Wood AL, Johnston CM, Morris JW, Wang Y, Sadreyev R, Corcoran AE, Matthews AGW, Oettinger MA Immunology,

Antigen receptor assembly in lymphocytes involves stringently regulated coordination of specific DNA rearrangement events across several large chromosomal domains. Previous studies indicate that transcription factors such as paired box 5 (PAX5), Yin Yang 1 (YY1), and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) play a role in regulating the accessibility of the antigen receptor loci to the V(D)J recombinase, which is required for these rearrangements. To gain clues about the role of CTCF binding at the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus, we utilized a computational approach that identified 144 putative CTCF-binding sites within this locus. We found that these CTCF sites share a consensus motif distinct from other CTCF sites in the mouse genome. Additionally, we could divide these CTCF sites into three categories: intergenic sites remote from any coding element, upstream sites present within 8 kb of the VH-leader exon, and recombination signal sequence (RSS)-associated sites characteristically located at a fixed distance (~18 bp) downstream of the RSS. We noted that the intergenic and upstream sites are located in the distal portion of the VH locus, whereas the RSS-associated sites are located in the DH-proximal region. Computational analysis indicated that the prevalence of CTCF-binding sites at the IgH locus is evolutionarily conserved. In all species analyzed, these sites exhibit a striking strand-orientation bias, with > 98% of the murine sites being present in one orientation with respect to VH gene transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift and enhancer-blocking assays and ChIP-chip analysis confirmed CTCF binding to these sites both in vitro and in vivo.

+view abstract The Journal of biological chemistry, PMID: 31285261 2019

Morf J, Wingett SW, Farabella I, Cairns J, Furlan-Magaril M, Jiménez-García LF, Liu X, Craig FF, Walker S, Segonds-Pichon A, Andrews S, Marti-Renom MA, Fraser P , Bioinformatics

The global, three-dimensional organization of RNA molecules in the nucleus is difficult to determine using existing methods. Here we introduce Proximity RNA-seq, which identifies colocalization preferences for pairs or groups of nascent and fully transcribed RNAs in the nucleus. Proximity RNA-seq is based on massive-throughput RNA barcoding of subnuclear particles in water-in-oil emulsion droplets, followed by cDNA sequencing. Our results show RNAs of varying tissue-specificity of expression, speed of RNA polymerase elongation and extent of alternative splicing positioned at varying distances from nucleoli. The simultaneous detection of multiple RNAs in proximity to each other distinguishes RNA-dense from sparse compartments. Application of Proximity RNA-seq will facilitate study of the spatial organization of transcripts in the nucleus, including non-coding RNAs, and its functional relevance.

+view abstract Nature biotechnology, PMID: 31267103 2019

Miguel-Escalada I, Bonàs-Guarch S, Cebola I, Ponsa-Cobas J, Mendieta-Esteban J, Atla G, Javierre BM, Rolando DMY, Farabella I, Morgan CC, García-Hurtado J, Beucher A, Morán I, Pasquali L, Ramos-Rodríguez M, Appel EVR, Linneberg A, Gjesing AP, Witte DR, Pedersen O, Grarup N, Ravassard P, Torrents D, Mercader JM, Piemonti L, Berney T, de Koning EJP, Kerr-Conte J, Pattou F, Fedko IO, Groop L, Prokopenko I, Hansen T, Marti-Renom MA, Fraser P, Ferrer J ,

Genetic studies promise to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Variants associated with T2D are often located in tissue-specific enhancer clusters or super-enhancers. So far, such domains have been defined through clustering of enhancers in linear genome maps rather than in three-dimensional (3D) space. Furthermore, their target genes are often unknown. We have created promoter capture Hi-C maps in human pancreatic islets. This linked diabetes-associated enhancers to their target genes, often located hundreds of kilobases away. It also revealed >1,300 groups of islet enhancers, super-enhancers and active promoters that form 3D hubs, some of which show coordinated glucose-dependent activity. We demonstrate that genetic variation in hubs impacts insulin secretion heritability, and show that hub annotations can be used for polygenic scores that predict T2D risk driven by islet regulatory variants. Human islet 3D chromatin architecture, therefore, provides a framework for interpretation of T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals.

+view abstract Nature genetics, PMID: 31253982 2019

Kopinski PK, Janssen KA, Schaefer PM, Trefely S, Perry CE, Potluri P, Tintos-Hernandez JA, Singh LN, Karch KR, Campbell SL, Doan MT, Jiang H, Nissim I, Nakamaru-Ogiso E, Wellen KE, Snyder NW, Garcia BA, Wallace DC Epigenetics

Diseases associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are highly variable in phenotype, in large part because of differences in the percentage of normal and mutant mtDNAs (heteroplasmy) present within the cell. For example, increasing heteroplasmy levels of the mtDNA tRNA nucleotide (nt) 3243A > G mutation result successively in diabetes, neuromuscular degenerative disease, and perinatal lethality. These phenotypes are associated with differences in mitochondrial function and nuclear DNA (nDNA) gene expression, which are recapitulated in cybrid cell lines with different percentages of m.3243G mutant mtDNAs. Using metabolic tracing, histone mass spectrometry, and NADH fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in these cells, we now show that increasing levels of this single mtDNA mutation cause profound changes in the nuclear epigenome. At high heteroplasmy, mitochondrially derived acetyl-CoA levels decrease causing decreased histone H4 acetylation, with glutamine-derived acetyl-CoA compensating when glucose-derived acetyl-CoA is limiting. In contrast, α-ketoglutarate levels increase at midlevel heteroplasmy and are inversely correlated with histone H3 methylation. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis induces acetylation and methylation changes, and restoration of mitochondrial function reverses these effects. mtDNA heteroplasmy also affects mitochondrial NAD/NADH ratio, which correlates with nuclear histone acetylation, whereas nuclear NAD/NADH ratio correlates with changes in nDNA and mtDNA transcription. Thus, mutations in the mtDNA cause distinct metabolic and epigenomic changes at different heteroplasmy levels, potentially explaining transcriptional and phenotypic variability of mitochondrial disease.

+view abstract Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: 31253706 06 08 2019

Collins JE, White RJ, Staudt N, Sealy IM, Packham I, Wali N, Tudor C, Mazzeo C, Green A, Siragher E, Ryder E, White JK, Papatheodoru I, Tang A, Füllgrabe A, Billis K, Geyer SH, Weninger WJ, Galli A, Hemberger M, Stemple DL, Robertson E, Smith JC, Mohun T, Adams DJ, Busch-Nentwich EM ,

The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders programme has analysed the morphological and molecular phenotypes of embryonic and perinatal lethal mouse mutant lines in order to investigate the causes of embryonic lethality. Here we show that individual whole-embryo RNA-seq of 73 mouse mutant lines (>1000 transcriptomes) identifies transcriptional events underlying embryonic lethality and associates previously uncharacterised genes with specific pathways and tissues. For example, our data suggest that Hmgxb3 is involved in DNA-damage repair and cell-cycle regulation. Further, we separate embryonic delay signatures from mutant line-specific transcriptional changes by developing a baseline mRNA expression catalogue of wild-type mice during early embryogenesis (4-36 somites). Analysis of transcription outside coding sequence identifies deregulation of repetitive elements in Morc2a mutants and a gene involved in gene-specific splicing. Collectively, this work provides a large scale resource to further our understanding of early embryonic developmental disorders.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31243271 2019

López-Tello J, Pérez-García V, Khaira J, Kusinski LC, Cooper WN, Andreani A, Grant I, Fernández de Liger E, Lam BY, Hemberger M, Sandovici I, Constancia M, Sferruzzi-Perri AN ,

Studies suggest that placental nutrient supply adapts according to fetal demands. However, signaling events underlying placental adaptations remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110α in the fetus and the trophoblast interplay to regulate placental nutrient supply and fetal growth. Complete loss of fetal p110α caused embryonic death, whilst heterozygous loss resulted in fetal growth restriction and impaired placental formation and nutrient transport. Loss of trophoblast p110α resulted in viable fetuses, abnormal placental development and a failure of the placenta to transport sufficient nutrients to match fetal demands for growth. Using RNA-seq we identified genes downstream of p110α in the trophoblast that are important in adapting placental phenotype. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we showed loss of p110α differentially affects gene expression in trophoblast and embryonic stem cells. Our findings reveal important, but distinct roles for p110α in the different compartments of the conceptus, which control fetal resource acquisition and growth.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 31241463 2019

Deretic V, Prossnitz E, Burge M, Campen MJ, Cannon J, Liu KJ, Liu M, Hall P, Sklar LA, Allers L, Mariscal L, Garcia SA, Weaver J, Baehrecke EH, Behrends C, Cecconi F, Codogno P, Chen GC, Elazar Z, Eskelinen EL, Fourie B, Gozuacik D, Hong W, Jo EK, Johansen T, Juhász G, Kimchi A, Ktistakis N, Kroemer G, Mizushima N, Münz C, Reggiori F, Rubinsztein D, Ryan K, Schroder K, Shen HM, Simonsen A, Tooze SA, Vaccaro M, Yoshimori T, Yu L, Zhang H, Klionsky DJ Signalling,

The NIH-funded center for autophagy research named Autophagy, Inflammation, and Metabolism (AIM) Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, located at the University of New Mexico Health Science Center is now completing its second year as a working center with a mission to promote autophagy research locally, nationally, and internationally. The center has thus far supported a cadre of 6 junior faculty (mentored PIs; mPIs) at a near-R01 level of funding. Two mPIs have graduated by obtaining their independent R01 funding and 3 of the remaining 4 have won significant funding from NIH in the form of R21 and R56 awards. The first year and a half of setting up the center has been punctuated by completion of renovations and acquisition and upgrades for equipment supporting autophagy, inflammation and metabolism studies. The scientific cores usage, and the growth of new studies is promoted through pilot grants and several types of enablement initiatives. The intent to cultivate AIM as a scholarly hub for autophagy and related studies is manifested in its Vibrant Campus Initiative, and the Tuesday AIM Seminar series, as well as by hosting a major scientific event, the 2019 AIM symposium, with nearly one third of the faculty from the International Council of Affiliate Members being present and leading sessions, giving talks, and conducting workshop activities. These and other events are often videostreamed for a worldwide scientific audience, and information about events at AIM and elsewhere are disseminated on Twitter and can be followed on the AIM web site. AIM intends to invigorate research on overlapping areas between autophagy, inflammation and metabolism with a number of new initiatives to promote metabolomic research. With the turnover of mPIs as they obtain their independent funding, new junior faculty are recruited and appointed as mPIs. All these activities are in keeping with AIM's intention to enable the next generation of autophagy researchers and help anchor, disseminate, and convey the depth and excitement of the autophagy field.

+view abstract Autophagy, PMID: 31234750 2019

Lee CQE, Bailey A, Lopez-Tello J, Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Okkenhaug K, Moffett A, Rossant J, Hemberger M ,

Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population despite the presence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) as key growth factors in standard culture conditions. To understand what other signaling cascades control the stem cell state of mouse TSCs, we performed a kinase inhibitor screen and identified several novel pathways that cause TSC differentiation. Surprisingly, inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling increased the mRNA and protein expression of stem cell markers instead, and resulted in a tighter epithelial colony morphology and fewer differentiated cells. PI3K inhibition could not substitute for FGF or TGFB and did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and thus acts independently of these pathways. Upon removal of PI3K inhibition, TSC transcription factor levels reverted to normal TSC levels, indicating that murine TSCs can reversibly switch between these two states. In summary, PI3K inhibition reduces the heterogeneity and seemingly heightens the stem cell state of TSCs as indicated by the simultaneous upregulation of multiple key marker genes and cell morphology. Stem Cells 2019;37:1307-1318.

+view abstract Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio), PMID: 31233251 2019

Gallimore A, Quezada SA, Roychoudhuri R Immunology,

There have been substantial strides forward in our understanding of the contribution of regulatory T (Treg) cells to cancer immunosuppression. In this issue, we present a series of papers highlighting emerging themes on this topic relevant not only to our understanding of the fundamental biology of tumour immunosuppression but also to the design of new immunotherapeutic approaches. The substantially shared biology of CD4 conventional T (Tconv) and Treg cells necessitates a detailed understanding of the potentially opposing functional consequences that immunotherapies will have on Treg and Tconv cells, a prominent example being the potential for Treg-mediated hyperprogressive disease following anti-PD-1 therapy. Such understanding will aid patient stratification and the rational design of combination therapies. It is also becoming clear, however, that Treg cells within tumours exhibit distinct biological features to both Tconv cells and Treg cells in other tissues. These distinct features provide the opportunity for development of targeted immunotherapies with greater efficacy and reduced potential for inducing systemic toxicity.

+view abstract Immunology, PMID: 31225653 2019

Myers SM, Miller DC, Molyneux L, Arasta M, Bawn RH, Blackburn TJ, Cook SJ, Edwards N, Endicott JA, Golding BT, Griffin RJ, Hammonds T, Hardcastle IR, Harnor SJ, Heptinstall AB, Lochhead PA, Martin MP, Martin NC, Newell DR, Owen PJ, Pang LC, Reuillon T, Rigoreau LJM, Thomas HD, Tucker JA, Wang LZ, Wong AC, Noble MEM, Wedge SR, Cano C Signalling,

Extracellular regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) signalling has been implicated in driving a number of cellular phenotypes including endothelial cell angiogenesis and tumour cell motility. Novel ERK5 inhibitors were identified using high throughput screening, with a series of pyrrole-2-carboxamides substituted at the 4-position with an aroyl group being found to exhibit IC values in the micromolar range, but having no selectivity against p38α MAP kinase. Truncation of the N-substituent marginally enhanced potency (∼3-fold) against ERK5, but importantly attenuated inhibition of p38α. Systematic variation of the substituents on the aroyl group led to the selective inhibitor 4-(2-bromo-6-fluorobenzoyl)-N-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (IC 0.82 μM for ERK5; IC > 120 μM for p38α). The crystal structure (PDB 5O7I) of this compound in complex with ERK5 has been solved. This compound was orally bioavailable and inhibited bFGF-driven Matrigel plug angiogenesis and tumour xenograft growth. The selective ERK5 inhibitor described herein provides a lead for further development into a tool compound for more extensive studies seeking to examine the role of ERK5 signalling in cancer and other diseases.

+view abstract European journal of medicinal chemistry, PMID: 31212132 2019

Cairns J, Orchard WR, Malysheva V, Spivakov M ,

Capture Hi-C is a powerful approach for detecting chromosomal interactions involving, at least on one end, DNA regions of interest, such as gene promoters. We present Chicdiff, an R package for robust detection of differential interactions in Capture Hi-C data. Chicdiff enhances a state-of-the-art differential testing approach for count data with bespoke normalisation and multiple testing procedures that account for specific statistical properties of Capture Hi-C. We validate Chicdiff on published Promoter Capture Hi-C data in human Monocytes and CD4+ T cells, identifying multitudes of cell type-specific interactions, and confirming the overall positive association between promoter interactions and gene expression.

+view abstract Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), PMID: 31197313 2019

Ighilahriz M, Benfodda M, Sharpe H, Soufir N, Mourah S, Dumaz N, Battistella M, Savina A, Bouquet F, Nikolaev S, Basset-Seguin N Signalling,

Hedgehog pathway inhibitors (HPI) inactivating SMO , have become first line treatment for patients with locally advanced BCC (laBCC). HPI safety and efficacy have been shown in clinical trials . Nevertheless, common adverse events lead to treatment discontinuation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, PMID: 31187903 2019

Hill DL, Pierson W, Bolland DJ, Mkindi C, Carr EJ, Wang J, Houard S, Wingett SW, Audran R, Wallin EF, Jongo SA, Kamaka K, Zand M, Spertini F, Daubenberger C, Corcoran AE, Linterman MA Immunology, Sequencing

The generation of protective humoral immunity after vaccination relies on the productive interaction between antigen-specific B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Despite the central role of Tfh cells in vaccine responses, there is currently no validated way to enhance their differentiation in humans. From paired human lymph node and blood samples, we identify a population of circulating Tfh cells that are transcriptionally and clonally similar to germinal center Tfh cells. In a clinical trial of vaccine formulations, circulating Tfh cells were expanded in Tanzanian volunteers when an experimental malaria vaccine was adjuvanted in GLA-SE but not when formulated in Alum. The GLA-SE-formulated peptide was associated with an increase in the extrafollicular antibody response, long-lived antibody production, and the emergence of public TCRβ clonotypes in circulating Tfh cells. We demonstrate that altering vaccine adjuvants is a rational approach for enhancing Tfh cells in humans, thereby supporting the long-lived humoral immunity that is required for effective vaccines.

+view abstract The Journal of experimental medicine, PMID: 31175140 May 2019

Trulley P, Snieckute G, Bekker-Jensen D, Menon MB, Freund R, Kotlyarov A, Olsen JV, Diaz-Muñoz MD, Turner M, Bekker-Jensen S, Gaestel M, Tiedje C Immunology,

Alternative translation is an important mechanism of post-transcriptional gene regulation leading to the expression of different protein isoforms originating from the same mRNA. Here, we describe an abundant long isoform of the stress/p38-activated protein kinase MK2. This isoform is constitutively translated from an alternative CUG translation initiation start site located in the 5' UTR of its mRNA. The RNA helicase eIF4A1 is needed to ensure translation of the long and the known short isoforms of MK2, of which the molecular properties were determined. Only the short isoform phosphorylated Hsp27 in vivo, supported migration and stress-induced immediate early gene (IEG) expression. Interaction profiling revealed short-isoform-specific binding partners that were associated with migration. In contrast, the long isoform contains at least one additional phosphorylatable serine in its unique N terminus. In sum, our data reveal a longer isoform of MK2 with distinct physiological properties.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 31167133 2019

Stebegg M, Silva-Cayetano A, Innocentin S, Jenkins TP, Cantacessi C, Gilbert C, Linterman MA Immunology,

Ageing is a complex multifactorial process associated with a plethora of disorders, which contribute significantly to morbidity worldwide. One of the organs significantly affected by age is the gut. Age-dependent changes of the gut-associated microbiome have been linked to increased frailty and systemic inflammation. This change in microbial composition with age occurs in parallel with a decline in function of the gut immune system; however, it is not clear whether there is a causal link between the two. Here we report that the defective germinal centre reaction in Peyer's patches of aged mice can be rescued by faecal transfers from younger adults into aged mice and by immunisations with cholera toxin, without affecting germinal centre reactions in peripheral lymph nodes. This demonstrates that the poor germinal centre reaction in aged animals is not irreversible, and that it is possible to improve this response in older individuals by providing appropriate stimuli.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31164642 2019

Gao X, Nowak-Imialek M, Chen X, Chen D, Herrmann D, Ruan D, Chen ACH, Eckersley-Maslin MA, Ahmad S, Lee YL, Kobayashi T, Ryan D, Zhong J, Zhu J, Wu J, Lan G, Petkov S, Yang J, Antunes L, Campos LS, Fu B, Wang S, Yong Y, Wang X, Xue SG, Ge L, Liu Z, Huang Y, Nie T, Li P, Wu D, Pei D, Zhang Y, Lu L, Yang F, Kimber SJ, Reik W, Zou X, Shang Z, Lai L, Surani A, Tam PPL, Ahmed A, Yeung WSB, Teichmann SA, Niemann H, Liu P Epigenetics,

We recently derived mouse expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) from individual blastomeres by inhibiting the critical molecular pathways that predispose their differentiation. EPSCs had enriched molecular signatures of blastomeres and possessed developmental potency for all embryonic and extra-embryonic cell lineages. Here, we report the derivation of porcine EPSCs, which express key pluripotency genes, are genetically stable, permit genome editing, differentiate to derivatives of the three germ layers in chimeras and produce primordial germ cell-like cells in vitro. Under similar conditions, human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be converted, or somatic cells directly reprogrammed, to EPSCs that display the molecular and functional attributes reminiscent of porcine EPSCs. Importantly, trophoblast stem-cell-like cells can be generated from both human and porcine EPSCs. Our pathway-inhibition paradigm thus opens an avenue for generating mammalian pluripotent stem cells, and EPSCs present a unique cellular platform for translational research in biotechnology and regenerative medicine.

+view abstract Nature cell biology, PMID: 31160711 2019

Wang W, Ishibashi J, Trefely S, Shao M, Cowan AJ, Sakers A, Lim HW, O'Connor S, Doan MT, Cohen P, Baur JA, King MT, Veech RL, Won KJ, Rabinowitz JD, Snyder NW, Gupta RK, Seale P Epigenetics

The precursor cells for metabolically beneficial beige adipocytes can alternatively become fibrogenic and contribute to adipose fibrosis. We found that cold exposure or β3-adrenergic agonist treatment of mice decreased the fibrogenic profile of precursor cells and stimulated beige adipocyte differentiation. This fibrogenic-to-adipogenic transition was impaired in aged animals, correlating with reduced adipocyte expression of the transcription factor PRDM16. Genetic loss of Prdm16 mimicked the effect of aging in promoting fibrosis, whereas increasing PRDM16 in aged mice decreased fibrosis and restored beige adipose development. PRDM16-expressing adipose cells secreted the metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which blocked precursor fibrogenesis and facilitated beige adipogenesis. BHB catabolism in precursor cells, mediated by BDH1, was required for beige fat differentiation in vivo. Finally, dietary BHB supplementation in aged animals reduced adipose fibrosis and promoted beige fat formation. Together, our results demonstrate that adipocytes secrete a metabolite signal that controls beige fat remodeling.

+view abstract Cell metabolism, PMID: 31155495 02 07 2019

Habets RA, de Bock CE, Serneels L, Lodewijckx I, Verbeke D, Nittner D, Narlawar R, Demeyer S, Dooley J, Liston A, Taghon T, Cools J, de Strooper B Immunology,

Given the high frequency of activating mutations in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), inhibition of the γ-secretase complex remains an attractive target to prevent ligand-independent release of the cytoplasmic tail and oncogenic NOTCH1 signaling. However, four different γ-secretase complexes exist, and available inhibitors block all complexes equally. As a result, these cause severe "on-target" gastrointestinal tract, skin, and thymus toxicity, limiting their therapeutic application. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) subclass of γ-secretase complexes is highly effective in decreasing leukemia while avoiding dose-limiting toxicities. Clinically, T-ALL samples were found to selectively express only PSEN1-containing γ-secretase complexes. The conditional knockout of in developing T cells attenuated the development of a mutant NOTCH1-driven leukemia in mice in vivo but did not abrogate normal T cell development. Treatment of T-ALL cell lines with the selective PSEN1 inhibitor MRK-560 effectively decreased mutant NOTCH1 processing and led to cell cycle arrest. These observations were extended to T-ALL patient-derived xenografts in vivo, demonstrating that MRK-560 treatment decreases leukemia burden and increased overall survival without any associated gut toxicity. Therefore, PSEN1-selective compounds provide a potential therapeutic strategy for safe and effective targeting of T-ALL and possibly also for other diseases in which NOTCH signaling plays a role.

+view abstract Science translational medicine, PMID: 31142678 2019

Proudfoot D ,

Calcification is a regulated physiological process occurring in bones and teeth. However, calcification is commonly found in soft tissues in association with aging and in a variety of diseases. Over the last two decades, it has emerged that calcification occurring in diseased arteries is not simply an inevitable build-up of insoluble precipitates of calcium phosphate. In some cases, it is an active process in which transcription factors drive conversion of vascular cells to an osteoblast or chondrocyte-like phenotype, with the subsequent production of mineralizing "matrix vesicles." Early studies of bone and cartilage calcification suggested roles for cellular calcium signaling in several of the processes involved in the regulation of bone calcification. Similarly, calcium signaling has recently been highlighted as an important component in the mechanisms regulating pathological calcification. The emerging hypothesis is that ectopic/pathological calcification occurs in tissues in which there is an imbalance in the regulatory mechanisms that actively prevent calcification. This review highlights the various ways that calcium signaling regulates tissue calcification, with a particular focus on pathological vascular calcification.

+view abstract Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, PMID: 31138543 2019

Lukacs M, Gilley J, Zhu Y, Orsomando G, Angeletti C, Liu J, Yang X, Park J, Hopkin RJ, Coleman MP, Zhai RG, Stottmann RW Signalling,

The three nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) family members synthesize the electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and are essential for cellular metabolism. In mammalian axons, NMNAT activity appears to be required for axon survival and is predominantly provided by NMNAT2. NMNAT2 has recently been shown to also function as a chaperone to aid in the refolding of misfolded proteins. Nmnat2 deficiency in mice, or in its ortholog dNmnat in Drosophila, results in axon outgrowth and survival defects. Peripheral nerve axons in NMNAT2-deficient mice fail to extend and innervate targets, and skeletal muscle is severely underdeveloped. In addition, removing NMNAT2 from established axons initiates axon death by Wallerian degeneration. We report here on two stillborn siblings with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS), severely reduced skeletal muscle mass and hydrops fetalis. Clinical exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous NMNAT2 variant alleles in both cases. Both protein variants are incapable of supporting axon survival in mouse primary neuron cultures when overexpressed. In vitro assays demonstrate altered protein stability and/or defects in NAD synthesis and chaperone functions. Thus, both patient NMNAT2 alleles are null or severely hypo-morphic. These data indicate a previously unknown role for NMNAT2 in human neurological development and provide the first direct molecular evidence to support the involvement of Wallerian degeneration in a human axonal disorder. SIGNIFICANCE: Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) both synthesizes the electron carrier Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and acts a protein chaperone. NMNAT2 has emerged as a major neuron survival factor. Overexpression of NMNAT2 protects neurons from Wallerian degeneration after injury and declining levels of NMNAT2 have been implicated in neurodegeneration. While the role of NMNAT2 in neurodegeneration has been extensively studied, the role of NMNAT2 in human development remains unclear. In this work, we present the first human variants in NMNAT2 identified in two fetuses with severe skeletal muscle hypoplasia and fetal akinesia. Functional studies in vitro showed that the mutations impair both NMNAT2 NAD synthase and chaperone functions. This work identifies the critical role of NMNAT2 in human development.

+view abstract Experimental neurology, PMID: 31136762 2019

Huppke P, Wegener E, Gilley J, Angeletti C, Kurth I, Drenth JPH, Stadelmann C, Barrantes-Freer A, Brück W, Thiele H, Nürnberg P, Gärtner J, Orsomando G, Coleman MP Signalling,

We identified a homozygous missense mutation in the gene encoding NAD synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 in two siblings with childhood onset polyneuropathy with erythromelalgia. No additional homozygotes for this rare allele, which leads to amino acid substitution T94M, were present among the unaffected relatives tested or in the 60,000 exomes of the ExAC database. For axons to survive, axonal NMNAT2 activity has to be maintained above a threshold level but the T94M mutation confers a partial loss of function both in the ability of NMNAT2 to support axon survival and in its enzymatic properties. Electrophysiological tests and histological analysis of sural nerve biopsies in the patients were consistent with loss of distal sensory and motor axons. Thus, it is likely that NMNAT2 mutation causes this pain and axon loss phenotype making this the first disorder associated with mutation of a key regulator of Wallerian-like axon degeneration in humans. This supports indications from numerous animal studies that the Wallerian degeneration pathway is important in human disease and raises important questions about which other human phenotypes could be linked to this gene.

+view abstract Experimental neurology, PMID: 31132363 2019

Sheppard O, Coleman MP, Durrant CS ,

Systemic inflammation has been linked to synapse loss and cognitive decline in human patients and animal models. A role for microglial release of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been proposed based on in vivo and primary culture studies. However, mechanisms are hard to study in vivo as specific microglial ablation is challenging and the extracellular fluid cannot be sampled without invasive methods. Primary cultures have different limitations as the intricate multicellular architecture in the brain is not fully reproduced. It is essential to confirm proposed brain-specific mechanisms of inflammatory synapse loss directly in brain tissue. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) retain much of the in vivo neuronal architecture, synaptic connections and diversity of cell types whilst providing convenient access to manipulate and sample the culture medium and observe cellular reactions.

+view abstract Journal of neuroinflammation, PMID: 31103036 2019

Arbore G, Henley T, Biggins L, Andrews S, Vigorito E, Turner M, Leyland R Immunology, Bioinformatics

A fast antibody response can be critical to contain rapidly dividing pathogens. This can be achieved by the expansion of antigen-specific B cells in response to T-cell help followed by differentiation into plasmablasts. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is required for optimal T-cell-dependent extrafollicular responses via regulation of PU.1, although the cellular processes underlying this defect are largely unknown. Here, we show that miR-155 regulates the early expansion of B-blasts and later on the survival and proliferation of plasmablasts in a B-cell-intrinsic manner, by tracking antigen-specific B cells in vivo since the onset of antigen stimulation. In agreement, comparative analysis of the transcriptome of miR-155-sufficient and miR-155-deficient plasmablasts at the peak of the response showed that the main processes regulated by miR-155 were DNA metabolic process, DNA replication, and cell cycle. Thus, miR-155 controls the extent of the extrafollicular response by regulating the survival and proliferation of B-blasts, plasmablasts and, consequently, antibody production.

+view abstract Life science alliance, PMID: 31097471 2019

Schoenfelder S, Fraser P Epigenetics,

Spatiotemporal gene expression programmes are orchestrated by transcriptional enhancers, which are key regulatory DNA elements that engage in physical contacts with their target-gene promoters, often bridging considerable genomic distances. Recent progress in genomics, genome editing and microscopy methodologies have enabled the genome-wide mapping of enhancer-promoter contacts and their functional dissection. In this Review, we discuss novel concepts on how enhancer-promoter interactions are established and maintained, how the 3D architecture of mammalian genomes both facilitates and constrains enhancer-promoter contacts, and the role they play in gene expression control during normal development and disease.

+view abstract Nature reviews. Genetics, PMID: 31086298 2019

Ktistakis NT Signalling,

Expansion of the autophagosomal membrane requires a mechanism to supply lipids while excluding most membrane proteins. In this issue, Valverde et al. (2019. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201811139) identify ATG2, a member of the autophagy-related protein family, as a lipid transfer protein and provide important novel insights on how autophagosomes grow.

+view abstract The Journal of cell biology, PMID: 31076453 2019

Swan DJ, Aschenbrenner D, Lamb CA, Chakraborty K, Clark J, Pandey S, Engelhardt KR, Chen R, Cavounidis A, Ding Y, Krasnogor N, Carey CD, Acres M, Needham S, Cant AJ, Arkwright PD, Chandra A, Okkenhaug K, Uhlig HH, Hambleton S Immunology, Biological Chemistry

+view abstract Haematologica, PMID: 31073077 2019

Kornilov A, Kennedy PD, Aldrovandi M, Watson AJA, Hinz C, Harless B, Colombo J, Maxey KM, Tyrrell VJ, Simon M, Aggarwal VK, Boeglin WE, Brash AR, Murphy RC, O'Donnell VB Signalling

Eicosanoids are critical mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation generated by immune and tissue cells. We recently described a new bioactive eicosanoid generated by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) turnover during platelet activation that can stimulate human neutrophil integrin expression. On the basis of mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS), stable isotope labeling, and GC-MS analysis, we previously proposed a structure of 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (DXA). Here, we achieved enzymatic synthesis and H NMR characterization of this compound with results in conflict with the previously proposed structural assignment. Accordingly, by using LC-MS, we screened autoxidation reactions of 11-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (11-HpETE) and thereby identified a candidate sharing the precise reverse-phase chromatographic and MS characteristics of the platelet product. We optimized these methods to increase yield, allowing full structural analysis by H NMR. The revised assignment is presented here as 8,9-11,12-diepoxy-13-hydroxyeicosadienoic acid, abbreviated to 8,9-11,12-DiEp-13-HEDE or DiEpHEDE, substituted for the previous name DXA We found that in platelets, the lipid likely forms via dioxolane ring opening with rearrangement to the diepoxy moieties followed by oxygen insertion at C13. We present its enzymatic biosynthetic pathway and MS/MS fragmentation pattern and, using the synthetic compound, demonstrate that it has bioactivity. For the platelet lipid, we estimate 16 isomers based on our current knowledge (and four isomers for the synthetic lipid). Determining the exact isomeric structure of the platelet lipid remains to be undertaken.

+view abstract The Journal of biological chemistry, PMID: 31061099 07 06 2019

Huang C, Wagner-Valladolid S, Stephens AD, Jung R, Poudel C, Sinnige T, Lechler MC, Schlörit N, Lu M, Laine RF, Michel CH, Vendruscolo M, Kaminski CF, Kaminski Schierle GS, David DC Signalling

Reduced protein homeostasis leading to increased protein instability is a common molecular feature of aging, but it remains unclear whether this is a cause or consequence of the aging process. In neurodegenerative diseases and other amyloidoses, specific proteins self-assemble into amyloid fibrils and accumulate as pathological aggregates in different tissues. More recently, widespread protein aggregation has been described during normal aging. Until now, an extensive characterization of the nature of age-dependent protein aggregation has been lacking. Here, we show that age-dependent aggregates are rapidly formed by newly synthesized proteins and have an amyloid-like structure resembling that of protein aggregates observed in disease. We then demonstrate that age-dependent protein aggregation accelerates the functional decline of different tissues in . Together, these findings imply that amyloid-like aggregates contribute to the aging process and therefore could be important targets for strategies designed to maintain physiological functions in the late stages of life.

+view abstract eLife, PMID: 31050339 03 05 2019

Sale MJ, Balmanno K, Saxena J, Ozono E, Wojdyla K, McIntyre RE, Gilley R, Woroniuk A, Howarth KD, Hughes G, Dry JR, Arends MJ, Caro P, Oxley D, Ashton S, Adams DJ, Saez-Rodriguez J, Smith PD, Cook SJ Signalling, Mass Spectrometry

Acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors (MEKi) arises through amplification of BRAF or KRAS to reinstate ERK1/2 signalling. Here we show that BRAF amplification and MEKi resistance are reversible following drug withdrawal. Cells with BRAF amplification are addicted to MEKi to maintain a precise level of ERK1/2 signalling that is optimal for cell proliferation and survival, and tumour growth in vivo. Robust ERK1/2 activation following MEKi withdrawal drives a p57-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest and senescence or expression of NOXA and cell death, selecting against those cells with amplified BRAF. p57 expression is required for loss of BRAF amplification and reversal of MEKi resistance. Thus, BRAF amplification confers a selective disadvantage during drug withdrawal, validating intermittent dosing to forestall resistance. In contrast, resistance driven by KRAS amplification is not reversible; rather ERK1/2 hyperactivation drives ZEB1-dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance, arguing strongly against the use of drug holidays in cases of KRAS amplification.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31048689 2019

Espéli M, Bashford-Rogers R, Sowerby JM, Alouche N, Wong L, Denton AE, Linterman MA, Smith KGC Immunology

Several tolerance checkpoints exist throughout B cell development to control autoreactive B cells and prevent the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies. FcγRIIb is an Fc receptor that inhibits B cell activation and, if defective, is associated with autoimmune disease, yet its impact on specific B cell tolerance checkpoints is unknown. Here we show that reduced expression of FcγRIIb enhances the deletion and anergy of autoreactive immature B cells, but in contrast promotes autoreactive B cell expansion in the germinal center and serum autoantibody production, even in response to exogenous, non-self antigens. Our data thus show that FcγRIIb has opposing effects on pre-immune and post-immune tolerance checkpoints, and suggest that B cell tolerance requires the control of bystander germinal center B cells with low or no affinity for the immunizing antigen.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31036800 2019

Stockis J, Roychoudhuri R, Halim TYF Immunology,

The inflammatory response to transformed cells forms the cornerstone of natural or therapeutically-induced protective immunity to cancer. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are known for their critical role in suppressing inflammation, and therefore can antagonize effective anti-cancer immune responses. As such, Treg cells can play detrimental roles in tumour progression and in the response to both conventional and immune-based cancer therapy. Recent advances in our understanding of Treg cells reveal complex niche-specific regulatory programs and functions, which are likely to extrapolate to cancer. The regulation of Treg cells is reliant on upstream cues from haematopoietic and non-immune cells, which dictates their genetic, epigenetic, and downstream functional programmes. In this Review we will discuss how Treg cells are themselves regulated in normal and transformed tissues, and the implications of this crosstalk on tumour growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

+view abstract Immunology, PMID: 31032905 2019

Sendžikaitė G, Hanna CW, Stewart-Morgan KR, Ivanova E, Kelsey G Epigenetics,

DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) deposit DNA methylation, which regulates gene expression and is essential for mammalian development. Histone post-translational modifications modulate the recruitment and activity of DNMTs. The PWWP domains of DNMT3A and DNMT3B are posited to interact with histone 3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3); however, the functionality of this interaction for DNMT3A remains untested in vivo. Here we present a mouse model carrying a D329A point mutation in the DNMT3A PWWP domain. The mutation causes dominant postnatal growth retardation. At the molecular level, it results in progressive DNA hypermethylation across domains marked by H3K27me3 and bivalent chromatin, and de-repression of developmental regulatory genes in adult hypothalamus. Evaluation of non-CpG methylation, a marker of de novo methylation, further demonstrates the altered recruitment and activity of DNMT3A at bivalent domains. This work provides key molecular insights into the function of the DNMT3A-PWWP domain and role of DNMT3A in regulating postnatal growth.

+view abstract Nature communications, PMID: 31015495 2019

Fachi JL, Felipe JS, Pral LP, da Silva BK, Corrêa RO, de Andrade MCP, da Fonseca DM, Basso PJ, Câmara NOS, de Sales E Souza ÉL, Dos Santos Martins F, Guima SES, Thomas AM, Setubal JC, Magalhães YT, Forti FL, Candreva T, Rodrigues HG, de Jesus MB, Consonni SR, Farias ADS, Varga-Weisz P, Vinolo MAR ,

Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis is a key factor predisposing intestinal infection by Clostridium difficile. Here, we show that interventions that restore butyrate intestinal levels mitigate clinical and pathological features of C. difficile-induced colitis. Butyrate has no effect on C. difficile colonization or toxin production. However, it attenuates intestinal inflammation and improves intestinal barrier function in infected mice, as shown by reduced intestinal epithelial permeability and bacterial translocation, effects associated with the increased expression of components of intestinal epithelial cell tight junctions. Activation of the transcription factor HIF-1 in intestinal epithelial cells exerts a protective effect in C. difficile-induced colitis, and it is required for butyrate effects. We conclude that butyrate protects intestinal epithelial cells from damage caused by C. difficile toxins via the stabilization of HIF-1, mitigating local inflammatory response and systemic consequences of the infection.

+view abstract Cell reports, PMID: 30995474 2019

Montalbán-Loro R, Lozano-Ureña A, Ito M, Krueger C, Reik W, Ferguson-Smith AC, Ferrón SR Epigenetics,

Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins catalyze DNA hydroxylation, playing an important role in demethylation of DNA in mammals. Remarkably, although hydroxymethylation levels are high in the mouse brain, the potential role of TET proteins in adult neurogenesis is unknown. We show here that a non-catalytic action of TET3 is essentially required for the maintenance of the neural stem cell (NSC) pool in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) niche by preventing premature differentiation of NSCs into non-neurogenic astrocytes. This occurs through direct binding of TET3 to the paternal transcribed allele of the imprinted gene Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (Snrpn), contributing to transcriptional repression of the gene. The study also identifies BMP2 as an effector of the astrocytic terminal differentiation mediated by SNRPN. Our work describes a novel mechanism of control of an imprinted gene in the regulation of adult neurogenesis through an unconventional role of TET3.

+view abstract