Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications oliver-florey

Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

Analysis of flow-based adhesion in vitro.
O Florey, DO Haskard

To be able to visualize real time leukocyte - endothelial cell interactions in vitro opens up the possibility of exploring the complex cascade of events that culminate in leukocyte recruitment and diapedesis in a much more detailed and controlled way. Techniques have been developed whereby fluorescently labeled leukocytes are perfused over an endothelial substrate in a controlled manner. Interactions can then be visualized and, using motion tracking software, the movement of cells characterized. Dynamic flow based adhesion assay protocols build on previous static assays of leukocyte adhesion in better modeling the environment in which these interactions actually take place in vivo.

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Methods in molecular medicine, 135, , 323-31, 2007

PMID: 17951668

T lymphocyte rolling and recruitment into peripheral lymph nodes is regulated by a saturable density of L-selectin (CD62L).
E Galkina, O Florey, A Zarbock, BR Smith, G Preece, MB Lawrence, DO Haskard, A Ager

L-selectin mediates tethering and rolling of lymphocytes in high endothelial venules (HEV) of lymph nodes (LN) and of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. We used transgenic mice expressing varying levels of wild-type or a non-cleavable mutant form of L-selectin on T cells to determine the relationship between L-selectin density, tethering and rolling, and migration into LN. T cells expressing supraphysiological levels of either wild-type or non-cleavable L-selectin showed rolling parameters similar to C57BL/6 T cells in hydrodynamic flow assays and during rolling in Peyer's patch HEV. In contrast, PMA- or antigen-activated T cells and L-selectin(+/-) T cells expressing subphysiological levels of L-selectin showed reduced numbers of rolling cells with increased rolling velocity. Short-term homing studies showed that elevated expression of L-selectin above physiological levels had no effect on T cell migration to LN; however, low L-selectin expression resulted in reduced T cell homing to LN. Thus, T lymphocyte migration into LN is regulated by the density of cell surface L-selectin. In addition, there is a saturable density of L-selectin required for optimal homing to PLN in C57BL/6 mice, the L-selectin level on circulating naive T cells promotes optimal homing, and increased expression above saturating levels promotes no further increase in T cell recruitment.

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European journal of immunology, 37, 5, 1243-53, 2007

PMID: 17429841
DOI: 10.1002/eji.200636481

Antiendothelial cell antibodies mediate enhanced leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells through a novel mechanism requiring cooperation between Fc{gamma}RIIa and CXCR1/2.
OJ Florey, M Johns, OO Esho, JC Mason, DO Haskard

Antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) are commonly detectable in diseases associated with vascular injury, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, Takayasu arteritis, Wegener granulomatosis, Behçet syndrome, and transplant arteriosclerosis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that these antibodies might augment polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to endothelium in inflammation. Initially, we established that a mouse IgG mAb bound to endothelial cells (ECs) significantly increased PMN adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelium in an FcgammaRIIa-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibodies, and adenoviral transduction of resting ECs, demonstrated that the combination of E-selectin, CXCR1/2, and beta(2) integrins is both necessary and sufficient for this process. We observed an identical mechanism using AECA IgG isolated directly from patients with SLE. Assembled immune complexes also enhanced PMN adhesion to endothelium, but, in contrast to adhesion because of AECAs, this process did not require CXCR1/2, was not inhibited by pertussis toxin, and was FcgammaRIIIb rather than FcgammaRIIa dependent. These data are the first to demonstrate separate nonredundant FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb-mediated mechanisms by which EC-bound monomeric IgG and assembled immune complexes amplify leukocyte adhesion under dynamic conditions. Furthermore, the observation that FcgammaRIIa and CXCR1/2 cooperate to enhance PMN recruitment in the presence of AECAs suggests a mechanism whereby AECAs may augment tissue injury during inflammatory responses.

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Blood, 109, 9, 3881-9, 2007

PMID: 17244681
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2006-08-044669

Open Access

Both Fcgamma and complement receptors mediate transfer of immune complexes from erythrocytes to human macrophages under physiological flow conditions in vitro.
AL Hepburn, JC Mason, S Wang, CJ Shepherd, O Florey, DO Haskard, KA Davies

Abnormal clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system of immune complexes (IC) is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have developed an in vitro model to investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the transfer of soluble IC from erythrocytes to human macrophages under physiological flow conditions. In this assay, erythrocytes bearing fluorescently labelled IC are perfused over monolayers of human monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages in a parallel-plate flow chamber, and transfer quantified using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Using aggregated human IgG as a model IC, we have been able to demonstrate transfer of IC from erythrocytes to macrophages. Blocking studies with specific neutralizing antibodies have shown that both complement and Fcgamma receptors are required for IC transfer. Blockade of CR4 (alpha(x)beta(2) integrin), FcgammaRIIa or FcgammaRIII reduced transfer, while anti-CR3 (alpha(m)beta(2) integrin) had no effect. Blockade of CR3, FcgammaRIIa or FcgammaRIII also reduced the number of adhesive interactions between fluorescently labelled IC-bearing erythrocytes and macrophage monolayers. Taken together with the transfer data, this suggests differing roles for these receptors in the human IC transfer reaction that includes an adhesive function which facilitates IC processing by mononuclear phagocytes. Finally, a functional effect of the FcgammaRIIa R131/H131 polymorphism, important in susceptibility to SLE, has also been demonstrated using this model. Uptake of IgG(2) but not IgG(1)-containing soluble IC was reduced by macrophages from individuals homozygous for the R131 allelic variant of the receptor.

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Clinical and experimental immunology, 146, 1, 133-45, 2006

PMID: 16968408
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03174.x

Open Access

The class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K-C2beta regulates cell migration by a PtdIns3P dependent mechanism.
J Domin, L Harper, D Aubyn, M Wheeler, O Florey, D Haskard, M Yuan, D Zicha

The biological and pathophysiological significance of class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzyme expression currently remains unclear. Using an in vitro scrape wound assay and time-lapse video microscopy, we demonstrate that cell motility is increased in cultures expressing recombinant PI3K-C2beta enzyme. In addition, overexpression of PI3K-C2beta transiently decreased cell adhesion, stimulated the formation of cytoplasmic processes, and decreased the rate of cell proliferation. Consistent with these observations, expression of PI3K-C2beta also decreased expression of alpha4 beta1 integrin subunits. Using asynchronous cultures, we show that endogenous PI3K-C2beta is present in lamellipodia of motile cells. When cells expressing recombinant PI3K-C2beta were plated onto fibronectin, cortical actin staining increased markedly and actin rich lamellipodia and filopodia became evident. Overexpression of a 2xFYVE(Hrs) domain fusion protein abolished this response demonstrating that the effect of PI3K-C2beta on the reorganization of actin filaments is dependent upon PtdIns3P. Finally, overexpression of PI3K-C2beta increased GTP loading of Cdc42. Our data demonstrates for the first time, that PI3K-C2beta plays a regulatory role in cell motility and that the mechanism by which it reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton is dependent upon PtdIns3P production.

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Journal of cellular physiology, 205, 3, 452-62, 2005

PMID: 16113997
DOI: 10.1002/jcp.20478

Proinflammatory activation of macrophages by basic calcium phosphate crystals via protein kinase C and MAP kinase pathways: a vicious cycle of inflammation and arterial calcification?
I Nadra, JC Mason, P Philippidis, O Florey, CD Smythe, GM McCarthy, RC Landis, DO Haskard

Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition underlies the development of arterial calcification. Inflammatory macrophages colocalize with BCP deposits in developing atherosclerotic lesions and in vitro can promote calcification through the release of TNF alpha. Here we have investigated whether BCP crystals can elicit a proinflammatory response from monocyte-macrophages. BCP microcrystals were internalized into vacuoles of human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. This was associated with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8) capable of activating cultured endothelial cells and promoting capture of flowing leukocytes under shear flow. Critical roles for PKC, ERK1/2, JNK, but not p38 intracellular signaling pathways were identified in the secretion of TNF alpha, with activation of ERK1/2 but not JNK being dependent on upstream activation of PKC. Using confocal microscopy and adenoviral transfection approaches, we determined a specific role for the PKC-alpha isozyme. The response of macrophages to BCP crystals suggests that pathological calcification is not merely a passive consequence of chronic inflammatory disease but may lead to a positive feed-back loop of calcification and inflammation driving disease progression.

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Circulation research, 96, 12, 1248-56, 2005

PMID: 15905460
DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000171451.88616.c2

Open Access

The neutrophil: the unnoticed threat in xenotransplantation?
LA Cardozo, DB Rouw, LR Ambrose, M Midulla, O Florey, DO Haskard, AN Warrens

Xenotransplantation offers one way to circumvent the widening gap between the demand for and supply of human organs for transplantation, and the pig is widely regarded as the donor animal most likely to prove appropriate. Most attention has focused on the adaptive immune response to xenogeneic tissue. However, there is optimism that it may soon be possible to overcome that hurdle. In this paper, we consider the possibility of the direct recognition of xenogeneic tissue by neutrophils.

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Transplantation, 78, 12, 1721-8, 2004

PMID: 15614144

Macrophage release of transforming growth factor beta1 during resolution of monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced inflammation.
DR Yagnik, BJ Evans, O Florey, JC Mason, RC Landis, DO Haskard

It has previously been shown that as monocytes differentiate into macrophages, they lose the ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MSU crystals induce macrophages to secrete antiinflammatory factor instead.

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Arthritis and rheumatism, 50, 7, 2273-80, 2004

PMID: 15248227
DOI: 10.1002/art.20317

Open Access

Mutagenesis of the ezrin-radixin-moesin binding domain of L-selectin tail affects shedding, microvillar positioning, and leukocyte tethering.
A Ivetic, O Florey, J Deka, DO Haskard, A Ager, AJ Ridley

L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that mediates the initial capture (tethering) and subsequent rolling of leukocytes along ligands expressed on endothelial cells. We have previously identified ezrin and moesin as novel binding partners of the 17-amino acid L-selectin tail, but the biological role of this interaction is not known. Here we identify two basic amino acid residues within the L-selectin tail that are required for binding to ezrin-radixinmoesin (ERM) proteins: arginine 357 and lysine 362. L-selectin mutants defective for ERM binding show reduced localization to microvilli and decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced shedding of the L-selectin ectodomain. Cells expressing these L-selectin mutants have reduced tethering to the L-selectin ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, but rolling velocity on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 is not affected. These results suggest that ERM proteins are required for microvillar positioning of L-selectin and that this is important both for leukocyte tethering and L-selectin shedding.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 32, 33263-72, 2004

PMID: 15178693
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M312212200

Open Access

Safe disposal of inflammatory monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by differentiated macrophages.
RC Landis, DR Yagnik, O Florey, P Philippidis, V Emons, JC Mason, DO Haskard

Although monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals have been recognized since the 18th century as the etiologic agent of gout, it is still unknown why certain hyperuricemic individuals remain asymptomatic, and how an acute attack of gout spontaneously resolves. We hypothesized that mononuclear phagocytes hold the key to these questions, and that the state of monocyte/macrophage differentiation is critical.

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Arthritis and rheumatism, 46, 11, 3026-33, 2002

PMID: 12428246
DOI: 10.1002/art.10614

Open Access